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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.76 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.75 2004/11/18 01:12:58 bennyc Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.76 <version>2.11</version>
44     <date>2004-11-28</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.36 </ul>
103 swift 1.54
104 swift 1.36 </body>
105     </section>
106     <section>
107     <title>Package Management</title>
108     <body>
109 swift 1.54
110 swift 1.36 <ul>
111 swift 1.54 <li>
112 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
113 swift 1.54 </li>
114     <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
116 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
117     </li>
118     <li>
119 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
120 swift 1.54 </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
123 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
124     </li>
125     <li>
126 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
127 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
128     </li>
129     <li>
130 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
131 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
132 swift 1.54 </li>
133     <li>
134 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
135 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
136 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
137 swift 1.54 </li>
138     <li>
139 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
140 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
141     </li>
142 swift 1.36 </ul>
143 swift 1.54
144 swift 1.36 </body>
145     </section>
146     <section>
147     <title>Usage</title>
148     <body>
149 swift 1.54
150 swift 1.36 <ul>
151 swift 1.54 <li>
152 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
153 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
154     </li>
155     <li>
156 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
157 swift 1.54 </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
160 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
161     </li>
162     <li>
163 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
164 swift 1.54 </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
173 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
174     </li>
175 swift 1.76 <li>
176     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
177     su'ing</uri>
178     </li>
179 swift 1.36 </ul>
180 swift 1.54
181 swift 1.36 </body>
182     </section>
183     <section>
184     <title>Maintenance</title>
185     <body>
186 swift 1.54
187 swift 1.36 <ul>
188 swift 1.54 <li>
189 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
190 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
191 swift 1.54 </li>
192     <li>
193 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195 swift 1.36 </ul>
196 swift 1.54
197 swift 1.36 </body>
198     </section>
199     <section>
200     <title>Development</title>
201     <body>
202 swift 1.54
203 swift 1.36 <ul>
204 swift 1.54 <li>
205 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
206 swift 1.54 </li>
207     <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
212 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
213 swift 1.54 </li>
214     <li>
215 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
216 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
217 swift 1.54 </li>
218 swift 1.36 </ul>
219 swift 1.54
220 swift 1.36 </body>
221     </section>
222     <section>
223     <title>Resources</title>
224     <body>
225 swift 1.54
226 swift 1.36 <ul>
227 swift 1.54 <li>
228 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
229 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
230 swift 1.54 </li>
231     <li>
232 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
236 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
237 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
238     </li>
239     <li>
240 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
241 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
242 swift 1.54 </li>
243 swift 1.36 </ul>
244 swift 1.54
245 swift 1.36 </body>
246     </section>
247     </chapter>
248    
249 swift 1.54 <chapter>
250     <title>Getting Started</title>
251    
252 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
253 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
258     "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
259     penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
260     penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
261 swift 1.54 </p>
262    
263     </body>
264     </section>
265 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
266 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
267     <body>
268 drobbins 1.1
269 swift 1.54 <p>
270 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
271     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
272     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
273     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
274 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
275 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
276     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
277 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
278 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
279 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
280 swift 1.54 </p>
281 drobbins 1.1
282 swift 1.54 <p>
283 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
284     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
285     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
286     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
287     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 swift 1.54 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
292     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
293     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
294     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
295     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
296 swift 1.54 </p>
297    
298     </body>
299     </section>
300 swift 1.55 </chapter>
301    
302     <chapter>
303     <title>Installation</title>
304 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
305 swift 1.54 <title>
306     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
307     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
308     </title>
309     <body>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
313 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
314     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
315 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
316 swift 1.54 </p>
317    
318     <p>
319 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
320 swift 1.54 bug.
321     </p>
322    
323     </body>
324     </section>
325 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
326 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
327 swift 1.54 <body>
328    
329     <p>
330     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
331     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
332     completed the install.
333     </p>
334    
335     </body>
336     </section>
337 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
338 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
339     <body>
340    
341     <p>
342     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
343     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
344     </p>
345    
346     <p>
347     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
348     </p>
349    
350     <pre caption="Using useradd">
351     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
352     </pre>
353    
354     <p>
355 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
356     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
357 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
358 swift 1.54 </p>
359    
360     <p>
361     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
362     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
363     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
364     </p>
365    
366     </body>
367     </section>
368 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
369 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
370     <body>
371    
372     <p>
373     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
374 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
375 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
376     </p>
377    
378     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
379 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
380 swift 1.54 </pre>
381    
382     </body>
383     </section>
384 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
385 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
386 swift 1.54 <body>
387    
388     <p>
389 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
390     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
391     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
392     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
393     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
394     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
395 swift 1.54 </p>
396    
397     </body>
398     </section>
399 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
400 swift 1.54 <title>
401 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
402 swift 1.54 </title>
403     <body>
404    
405     <p>
406 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
407     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
408 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
409 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
410     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
411 swift 1.54 </p>
412    
413 swift 1.62 <p>
414     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
415     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
416     </p>
417    
418 swift 1.54 </body>
419     </section>
420 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
421 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
422     <body>
423    
424     <p>
425     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
426     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
427     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
428     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
429     </p>
430    
431     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
432 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
433     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
434     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
435     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
436     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
437     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
438     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
439     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
440     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
441     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
442     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
443     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
444     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
445     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
446     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
447     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
448     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
449     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
450     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
451     # <i>exit</i>
452     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
453     # <i>reboot</i>
454 swift 1.54 </pre>
455    
456     <p>
457     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
458     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
459     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
460     </p>
461    
462     </body>
463     </section>
464 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
465 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
466     <body>
467    
468     <p>
469     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
470     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
471     </p>
472    
473 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
474 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
475     </pre>
476 swift 1.54
477     <p>
478     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
479     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
480     </p>
481    
482 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
483     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
484     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
485     </pre>
486 swift 1.54
487     <p>
488     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
489 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
490 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
491     handle this situation.
492     </p>
493    
494     </body>
495     </section>
496 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
497     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
498     <body>
499    
500     <p>
501     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
502     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
503     entire CD.
504     </p>
505    
506     <p>
507     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
508     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
509     </p>
510    
511     <ul>
512     <li>
513     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
514     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
515     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
516     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
517     </li>
518     <li>
519     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
520 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
521 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
522     your brand new CD being burnt.
523     </li>
524     <li>
525     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
526     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
527     by the path to the ISO file :)
528     </li>
529     <li>
530     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
531     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
532     <c>Start</c>.
533     </li>
534 swift 1.66 <li>
535     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
536     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
537     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
538     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
539     </li>
540     <li>
541     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
542     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
543     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
544     </li>
545 swift 1.65 </ul>
546    
547    
548     </body>
549     </section>
550 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
551    
552     <chapter>
553 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
554 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
555 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
556     <body>
557    
558 swift 1.45 <p>
559 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
560 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
561     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
562     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
563 swift 1.74 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
564     Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
565 swift 1.54 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
566     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
567     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
568     file).
569 swift 1.45 </p>
570    
571 swift 1.54 </body>
572     </section>
573 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
574 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
575 swift 1.54 <body>
576    
577     <p>
578     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
579     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
580     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
581     </p>
582    
583     <p>
584     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
585     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
586     </p>
587    
588     <p>
589     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
590     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
591     perform to configure and compile the package.
592     </p>
593    
594     <p>
595     When finished, execute <c>touch
596     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
597     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
598     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
599     merge</c>.
600     </p>
601    
602     </body>
603     </section>
604 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
605 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
606     <body>
607    
608     <p>
609     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
610     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
611     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
612     proxy is fully supported.
613     </p>
614    
615     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
616     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
617     </pre>
618    
619     </body>
620     </section>
621 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
622 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
623     <body>
624    
625     <p>
626     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
627     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
628     appropriately.
629     </p>
630    
631     </body>
632     </section>
633 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
634 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
635     <body>
636    
637     <p>
638     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
639     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
640     </p>
641    
642     </body>
643     </section>
644 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
645 swift 1.54 <title>
646     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
647     else and add them to my system?
648     </title>
649     <body>
650    
651     <p>
652     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
653     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
654     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
655     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
656     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
657     picking up the sources you just brought in!
658     </p>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
663 swift 1.54 <title>
664     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
665     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
666     files?
667     </title>
668     <body>
669    
670     <p>
671     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
672     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
673     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
674     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
675     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
676     again.
677     </p>
678    
679     </body>
680     </section>
681 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
682 swift 1.54 <title>
683 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
684     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
685 swift 1.54 </title>
686     <body>
687    
688     <p>
689     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
690     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
691     directory.
692     </p>
693    
694     </body>
695     </section>
696     </chapter>
697    
698     <chapter>
699     <title>Usage</title>
700 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
701 swift 1.54 <title>
702     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
703     user account doesn't work.
704     </title>
705     <body>
706    
707     <p>
708     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
709     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
710     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
711     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
712     </p>
713    
714     <pre caption="Using usermod">
715     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
716     </pre>
717    
718     </body>
719     </section>
720 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
721 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
722     <body>
723    
724     <p>
725     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
726     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
727     </p>
728    
729     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
730     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
731     </pre>
732    
733     </body>
734     </section>
735 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
736 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
737     <body>
738    
739     <p>
740     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
741     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
742     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
743     </p>
744    
745     </body>
746     </section>
747 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
748 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
749     <body>
750    
751     <p>
752     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
753     follows:
754     </p>
755    
756     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
757     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
758     </pre>
759    
760     </body>
761     </section>
762 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
763 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
764     <body>
765    
766     <p>
767     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
768     </p>
769    
770     </body>
771     </section>
772 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
773 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
774     <body>
775    
776     <p>
777     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
778     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
779     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
780     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
781     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
782     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
783     </p>
784    
785     <p>
786 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
787     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
788 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
789 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
790     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
791     </p>
792    
793     <p>
794 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
795     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
796     reboot.
797     </p>
798    
799     </body>
800     </section>
801 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
802 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
803     <body>
804    
805     <p>
806     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
807     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
808     </p>
809    
810     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
811     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
812     </pre>
813    
814     <p>
815     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
816     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
817     </p>
818    
819     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
820     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
821     </body>
822    
823     </section>
824 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
825     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
826     <body>
827    
828     <p>
829     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
830     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
831     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
832     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
833     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
834     </p>
835    
836     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
837     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
838     </pre>
839    
840     </body>
841     </section>
842    
843 swift 1.54 </chapter>
844    
845     <chapter>
846     <title>Maintenance</title>
847 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
848 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
849     <body>
850    
851     <p>
852     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
853     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
854     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
855     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
856     to the corruption.
857     </p>
858    
859     </body>
860     </section>
861 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
862 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
863     <body>
864    
865 swift 1.41 <p>
866     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
867     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
868     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
869     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
870     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
871     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
872     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
873     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
874     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
875     </p>
876    
877     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
878     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
879     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
880     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
881     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
882     </pre>
883    
884 swift 1.54 </body>
885     </section>
886 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
887    
888     <chapter>
889 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
890 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
891 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
892     <body>
893    
894     <p>
895     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
896     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
897     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
898     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
899     </p>
900    
901     </body>
902     </section>
903 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
904 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
905     <body>
906    
907     <p>
908     New releases are announced on the <uri
909     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
910     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
911 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
912     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
913 swift 1.54 </p>
914    
915     </body>
916     </section>
917 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
918 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
919     <body>
920    
921     <p>
922     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
923     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
924     </p>
925    
926     </body>
927     </section>
928 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
929 swift 1.54 <title>
930     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
931     beeps?
932     </title>
933     <body>
934    
935     <p>
936     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
937     </p>
938    
939     <pre caption="Using setterm">
940     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
941     </pre>
942    
943     <p>
944     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
945     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
946     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
947     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
948     target terminal, like this:
949     </p>
950    
951     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
952     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
953     </pre>
954    
955     <p>
956     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
957     console beeps for.
958     </p>
959    
960     </body>
961     </section>
962 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
963    
964     <chapter>
965     <title>Resources</title>
966 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
967 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
968     <body>
969    
970     <p>
971     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
972     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
973     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
974     </p>
975    
976     </body>
977     </section>
978 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
979 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
980     <body>
981    
982 swift 1.54 <p>
983     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
984 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
985     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
986     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
987     </p>
988    
989     <p>
990     You can also find fresh CDs from
991 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
992 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
993     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
994     </p>
995    
996     </body>
997     </section>
998 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
999 swift 1.54 <title>
1000     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1001     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1002     </title>
1003     <body>
1004 drobbins 1.1
1005 swift 1.54 <p>
1006     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1007     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1008     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1009     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1010     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1011     </p>
1012    
1013     <p>
1014     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1015     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1016     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1017     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1018     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1019     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1020     </p>
1021    
1022     <p>
1023     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1024     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1025     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1026     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1027     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1028     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1029     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1030     reasons, many of these covered
1031     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1032     </p>
1033    
1034     <p>
1035     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1036     administrators have seen them).
1037     </p>
1038    
1039     </body>
1040     </section>
1041 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1042 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1043     <body>
1044    
1045     <p>
1046     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1047     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1048     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1049     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1050     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1051     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1052     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1053     </p>
1054    
1055     </body>
1056     </section>
1057 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1058 swift 1.54
1059 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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