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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.78 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.77 2004/12/22 22:03:15 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.77 <version>2.12</version>
44     <date>2004-12-22</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.77 <li>
103     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104     </li>
105 swift 1.36 </ul>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Package Management</title>
111     <body>
112 swift 1.54
113 swift 1.36 <ul>
114 swift 1.54 <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 swift 1.54 </li>
117     <li>
118 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
120     </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 swift 1.54 </li>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 swift 1.54 </li>
136     <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
140 swift 1.54 </li>
141     <li>
142 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144     </li>
145 swift 1.36 </ul>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 </body>
148     </section>
149     <section>
150     <title>Usage</title>
151     <body>
152 swift 1.54
153 swift 1.36 <ul>
154 swift 1.54 <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157     </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 swift 1.54 </li>
161     <li>
162 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
177     </li>
178 swift 1.76 <li>
179     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180     su'ing</uri>
181     </li>
182 swift 1.36 </ul>
183 swift 1.54
184 swift 1.36 </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Maintenance</title>
188     <body>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 <ul>
191 swift 1.54 <li>
192 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195     <li>
196 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 swift 1.54 </li>
198 swift 1.36 </ul>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>Development</title>
204     <body>
205 swift 1.54
206 swift 1.36 <ul>
207 swift 1.54 <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221 swift 1.36 </ul>
222 swift 1.54
223 swift 1.36 </body>
224     </section>
225     <section>
226     <title>Resources</title>
227     <body>
228 swift 1.54
229 swift 1.36 <ul>
230 swift 1.54 <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
241     </li>
242     <li>
243 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
245 swift 1.54 </li>
246 swift 1.36 </ul>
247 swift 1.54
248 swift 1.36 </body>
249     </section>
250     </chapter>
251    
252 swift 1.54 <chapter>
253     <title>Getting Started</title>
254    
255 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
256 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 neysx 1.78 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
262 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
264 swift 1.54 </p>
265    
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
269 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 swift 1.54 </p>
284 drobbins 1.1
285 swift 1.54 <p>
286 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
287     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
288     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
289     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
290     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
291 swift 1.54 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
295     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
296     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
297     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
298     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
299 swift 1.54 </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </section>
303 swift 1.55 </chapter>
304    
305     <chapter>
306     <title>Installation</title>
307 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
308 swift 1.54 <title>
309     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
310     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
311     </title>
312     <body>
313    
314     <p>
315 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
316 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
317     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
318 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
319 swift 1.54 </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
323 swift 1.54 bug.
324     </p>
325    
326     </body>
327     </section>
328 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
329 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
330 swift 1.54 <body>
331    
332     <p>
333     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
334     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
335     completed the install.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
341 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
346     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Using useradd">
354     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
355     </pre>
356    
357     <p>
358 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
359     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
360 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
361 swift 1.54 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
365     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
366     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
372 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>
376     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
377 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
378 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
382 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
383 swift 1.54 </pre>
384    
385     </body>
386     </section>
387 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
388 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
389 swift 1.54 <body>
390    
391     <p>
392 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
393     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
394     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
395     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
396     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
397     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
398 swift 1.54 </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </section>
402 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
403 swift 1.54 <title>
404 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
405 swift 1.54 </title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
410     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
411 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
412 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
413     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
414 swift 1.54 </p>
415    
416 swift 1.62 <p>
417     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
418     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
419     </p>
420    
421 swift 1.54 </body>
422     </section>
423 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
424 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
425     <body>
426    
427     <p>
428     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
429     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
430     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
431     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
435 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
436     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
437     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
438     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
439     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
440     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
441     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
442     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
443     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
444     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
445     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
446     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
447     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
448     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
449     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
450     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
451     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
452     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
453     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
454     # <i>exit</i>
455     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
456     # <i>reboot</i>
457 swift 1.54 </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
461     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
462     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
463     </p>
464    
465     </body>
466     </section>
467 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
468 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
473     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
474     </p>
475    
476 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
477 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
478     </pre>
479 swift 1.54
480     <p>
481     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
482     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
483     </p>
484    
485 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
486     FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
487     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
488     </pre>
489 swift 1.54
490     <p>
491     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
492 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
493 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
494     handle this situation.
495     </p>
496    
497     </body>
498     </section>
499 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
500     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
501     <body>
502    
503     <p>
504     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
505     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
506     entire CD.
507     </p>
508    
509     <p>
510     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
511     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
512     </p>
513    
514     <ul>
515     <li>
516     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
517     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
518     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
519     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
520     </li>
521     <li>
522     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
523 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
524 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
525     your brand new CD being burnt.
526     </li>
527     <li>
528     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
529     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
530     by the path to the ISO file :)
531     </li>
532     <li>
533     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
534     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
535     <c>Start</c>.
536     </li>
537 swift 1.66 <li>
538     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
539     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
540     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
541     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
542     </li>
543     <li>
544     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
545     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
546     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
547     </li>
548 swift 1.65 </ul>
549    
550    
551     </body>
552     </section>
553 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
554     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
555     <body>
556    
557     <p>
558     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
559     need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You need to
560     consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
561     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
562     </p>
563    
564     <p>
565     For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
566     meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
567     systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
568     </p>
569    
570     <p>
571     If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
572     generic.
573     </p>
574    
575     </body>
576     </section>
577 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
578    
579     <chapter>
580 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
581 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
582 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
583     <body>
584    
585 swift 1.45 <p>
586 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
587 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
588     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
589     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
590 swift 1.74 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
591     Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
592 swift 1.54 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
593     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
594     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
595     file).
596 swift 1.45 </p>
597    
598 swift 1.54 </body>
599     </section>
600 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
601 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
602 swift 1.54 <body>
603    
604     <p>
605     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
606     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
607     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
608     </p>
609    
610     <p>
611     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
612     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
613     </p>
614    
615     <p>
616     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
617     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
618     perform to configure and compile the package.
619     </p>
620    
621     <p>
622     When finished, execute <c>touch
623     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
624     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
625     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
626     merge</c>.
627     </p>
628    
629     </body>
630     </section>
631 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
632 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
633     <body>
634    
635     <p>
636     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
637     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
638     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
639     proxy is fully supported.
640     </p>
641    
642     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
643     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
644     </pre>
645    
646     </body>
647     </section>
648 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
649 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
650     <body>
651    
652     <p>
653     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
654     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
655     appropriately.
656     </p>
657    
658     </body>
659     </section>
660 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
661 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
662     <body>
663    
664     <p>
665     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
666     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
667     </p>
668    
669     </body>
670     </section>
671 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
672 swift 1.54 <title>
673     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
674     else and add them to my system?
675     </title>
676     <body>
677    
678     <p>
679     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
680     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
681     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
682     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
683     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
684     picking up the sources you just brought in!
685     </p>
686    
687     </body>
688     </section>
689 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
690 swift 1.54 <title>
691     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
692     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
693     files?
694     </title>
695     <body>
696    
697     <p>
698     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
699     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
700     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
701     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
702     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
703     again.
704     </p>
705    
706     </body>
707     </section>
708 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
709 swift 1.54 <title>
710 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
711     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
712 swift 1.54 </title>
713     <body>
714    
715     <p>
716     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
717     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
718     directory.
719     </p>
720    
721     </body>
722     </section>
723     </chapter>
724    
725     <chapter>
726     <title>Usage</title>
727 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
728 swift 1.54 <title>
729     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
730     user account doesn't work.
731     </title>
732     <body>
733    
734     <p>
735     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
736     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
737     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
738     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
739     </p>
740    
741     <pre caption="Using usermod">
742     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
743     </pre>
744    
745     </body>
746     </section>
747 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
748 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
749     <body>
750    
751     <p>
752     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
753     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
754     </p>
755    
756     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
757     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
758     </pre>
759    
760     </body>
761     </section>
762 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
763 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
764     <body>
765    
766     <p>
767     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
768     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
769     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
770     </p>
771    
772     </body>
773     </section>
774 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
775 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
776     <body>
777    
778     <p>
779     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
780     follows:
781     </p>
782    
783     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
784     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
785     </pre>
786    
787     </body>
788     </section>
789 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
790 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
791     <body>
792    
793     <p>
794     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
795     </p>
796    
797     </body>
798     </section>
799 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
800 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
801     <body>
802    
803     <p>
804     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
805     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
806     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
807     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
808     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
809     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
810     </p>
811    
812     <p>
813 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
814     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
815 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
816 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
817     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
818     </p>
819    
820     <p>
821 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
822     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
823     reboot.
824     </p>
825    
826     </body>
827     </section>
828 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
829 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
830     <body>
831    
832     <p>
833     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
834     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
835     </p>
836    
837     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
838     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
839     </pre>
840    
841     <p>
842     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
843     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
844     </p>
845    
846     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
847     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
848     </body>
849    
850     </section>
851 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
852     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
853     <body>
854    
855     <p>
856     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
857     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
858     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
859     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
860     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
861     </p>
862    
863     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
864     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
865     </pre>
866    
867     </body>
868     </section>
869    
870 swift 1.54 </chapter>
871    
872     <chapter>
873     <title>Maintenance</title>
874 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
875 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
876     <body>
877    
878     <p>
879     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
880     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
881     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
882     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
883     to the corruption.
884     </p>
885    
886     </body>
887     </section>
888 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
889 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
890     <body>
891    
892 swift 1.41 <p>
893     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
894     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
895     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
896     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
897     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
898     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
899     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
900     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
901     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
902     </p>
903    
904     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
905     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
906     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
907     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
908     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
909     </pre>
910    
911 swift 1.54 </body>
912     </section>
913 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
914    
915     <chapter>
916 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
917 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
918 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
919     <body>
920    
921     <p>
922     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
923     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
924     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
925     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
926     </p>
927    
928     </body>
929     </section>
930 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
931 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
932     <body>
933    
934     <p>
935     New releases are announced on the <uri
936     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
937     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
938 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
939     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
940 swift 1.54 </p>
941    
942     </body>
943     </section>
944 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
945 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
946     <body>
947    
948     <p>
949     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
950     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
951     </p>
952    
953     </body>
954     </section>
955 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
956 swift 1.54 <title>
957     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
958     beeps?
959     </title>
960     <body>
961    
962     <p>
963     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
964     </p>
965    
966     <pre caption="Using setterm">
967     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
968     </pre>
969    
970     <p>
971     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
972     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
973     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
974     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
975     target terminal, like this:
976     </p>
977    
978     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
979     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
980     </pre>
981    
982     <p>
983     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
984     console beeps for.
985     </p>
986    
987     </body>
988     </section>
989 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
990    
991     <chapter>
992     <title>Resources</title>
993 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
994 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
995     <body>
996    
997     <p>
998     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
999     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1000     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1001     </p>
1002    
1003     </body>
1004     </section>
1005 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
1006 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1007     <body>
1008    
1009 swift 1.54 <p>
1010     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1011 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1012     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1013     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1014     </p>
1015    
1016     <p>
1017     You can also find fresh CDs from
1018 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1019 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1020     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1021     </p>
1022    
1023     </body>
1024     </section>
1025 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
1026 swift 1.54 <title>
1027     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1028     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1029     </title>
1030     <body>
1031 drobbins 1.1
1032 swift 1.54 <p>
1033     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1034     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1035     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1036     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1037     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1038     </p>
1039    
1040     <p>
1041     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1042     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1043     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1044     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1045     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1046     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1047     </p>
1048    
1049     <p>
1050     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1051     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1052     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1053     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1054     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1055     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1056     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1057     reasons, many of these covered
1058     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1059     </p>
1060    
1061     <p>
1062     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1063     administrators have seen them).
1064     </p>
1065    
1066     </body>
1067     </section>
1068 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1069 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1070     <body>
1071    
1072     <p>
1073     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1074     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1075     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1076     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1077     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1078     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1079     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1080     </p>
1081    
1082     </body>
1083     </section>
1084 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1085 swift 1.54
1086 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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