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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.79 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.78 2005/01/20 11:09:00 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.79 <version>2.13</version>
44     <date>2005-02-03</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.77 <li>
103     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104     </li>
105 swift 1.36 </ul>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Package Management</title>
111     <body>
112 swift 1.54
113 swift 1.36 <ul>
114 swift 1.54 <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 swift 1.54 </li>
117     <li>
118 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
120     </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 swift 1.54 </li>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 swift 1.54 </li>
136     <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
140 swift 1.54 </li>
141     <li>
142 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144     </li>
145 swift 1.36 </ul>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 </body>
148     </section>
149     <section>
150     <title>Usage</title>
151     <body>
152 swift 1.54
153 swift 1.36 <ul>
154 swift 1.54 <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157     </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 swift 1.54 </li>
161     <li>
162 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
177     </li>
178 swift 1.76 <li>
179     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180     su'ing</uri>
181     </li>
182 swift 1.36 </ul>
183 swift 1.54
184 swift 1.36 </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Maintenance</title>
188     <body>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 <ul>
191 swift 1.54 <li>
192 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195     <li>
196 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 swift 1.54 </li>
198 swift 1.36 </ul>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>Development</title>
204     <body>
205 swift 1.54
206 swift 1.36 <ul>
207 swift 1.54 <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221 swift 1.36 </ul>
222 swift 1.54
223 swift 1.36 </body>
224     </section>
225     <section>
226     <title>Resources</title>
227     <body>
228 swift 1.54
229 swift 1.36 <ul>
230 swift 1.54 <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
241     </li>
242     <li>
243 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
245 swift 1.54 </li>
246 swift 1.36 </ul>
247 swift 1.54
248 swift 1.36 </body>
249     </section>
250     </chapter>
251    
252 swift 1.54 <chapter>
253     <title>Getting Started</title>
254    
255 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
256 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 neysx 1.78 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
262 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
264 swift 1.54 </p>
265    
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
269 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 swift 1.54 </p>
284 drobbins 1.1
285 swift 1.54 <p>
286 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
287     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
288     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
289     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
290     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
291 swift 1.54 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
295     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
296     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
297     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
298     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
299 swift 1.54 </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </section>
303 swift 1.55 </chapter>
304    
305     <chapter>
306     <title>Installation</title>
307 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
308 swift 1.54 <title>
309     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
310     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
311     </title>
312     <body>
313    
314     <p>
315 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
316 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
317     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
318 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
319 swift 1.54 </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
323 swift 1.54 bug.
324     </p>
325    
326     </body>
327     </section>
328 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
329 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
330 swift 1.54 <body>
331    
332     <p>
333     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
334     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
335     completed the install.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
341 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
346     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Using useradd">
354     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
355     </pre>
356    
357     <p>
358 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
359     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
360 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
361 swift 1.54 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
365     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
366     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
372 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>
376     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
377 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
378 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
382 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
383 swift 1.54 </pre>
384    
385     </body>
386     </section>
387 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
388 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
389 swift 1.54 <body>
390    
391     <p>
392 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
393     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
394     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
395     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
396     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
397     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
398 swift 1.54 </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </section>
402 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
403 swift 1.54 <title>
404 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
405 swift 1.54 </title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
410     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
411 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
412 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
413     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
414 swift 1.54 </p>
415    
416 swift 1.62 <p>
417     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
418     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
419     </p>
420    
421 swift 1.54 </body>
422     </section>
423 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
424 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
425     <body>
426    
427     <p>
428     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
429     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
430     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
431     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
435 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
436     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
437     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
438     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
439     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
440     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
441     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
442     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
443     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
444     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
445     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
446     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
447     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
448     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
449     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
450     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
451     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
452     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
453     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
454     # <i>exit</i>
455     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
456     # <i>reboot</i>
457 swift 1.54 </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
461     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
462     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
463     </p>
464    
465     </body>
466     </section>
467 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
468 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
473     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
474     </p>
475    
476 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
477 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
478     </pre>
479 swift 1.54
480     <p>
481     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
482     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
483     </p>
484    
485 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
486 swift 1.79 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
487     -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
488     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
489     -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
490 swift 1.38 </pre>
491 swift 1.54
492     <p>
493     Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
494 neysx 1.56 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
495 swift 1.54 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
496     handle this situation.
497     </p>
498    
499     </body>
500     </section>
501 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
502     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
503     <body>
504    
505     <p>
506     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
507     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
508     entire CD.
509     </p>
510    
511     <p>
512     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
513     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
514     </p>
515    
516     <ul>
517     <li>
518     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
519     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
520     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
521     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
522     </li>
523     <li>
524     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
525 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
526 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
527     your brand new CD being burnt.
528     </li>
529     <li>
530     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
531     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
532     by the path to the ISO file :)
533     </li>
534     <li>
535     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
536     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
537     <c>Start</c>.
538     </li>
539 swift 1.66 <li>
540     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
541     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
542     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
543     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
544     </li>
545     <li>
546     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
547     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
548     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
549     </li>
550 swift 1.65 </ul>
551    
552    
553     </body>
554     </section>
555 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
556     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
557     <body>
558    
559     <p>
560     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
561     need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You need to
562     consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
563     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
564     </p>
565    
566     <p>
567     For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
568     meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
569     systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
570     </p>
571    
572     <p>
573     If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
574     generic.
575     </p>
576    
577     </body>
578     </section>
579 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
580    
581     <chapter>
582 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
583 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
584 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
585     <body>
586    
587 swift 1.45 <p>
588 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
589 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
590     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
591     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
592 swift 1.74 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
593     Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
594 swift 1.54 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
595     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
596     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
597     file).
598 swift 1.45 </p>
599    
600 swift 1.54 </body>
601     </section>
602 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
603 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
604 swift 1.54 <body>
605    
606     <p>
607     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
608     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
609     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
610     </p>
611    
612     <p>
613     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
614     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
615     </p>
616    
617     <p>
618     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
619     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
620     perform to configure and compile the package.
621     </p>
622    
623     <p>
624     When finished, execute <c>touch
625     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
626     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
627     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
628     merge</c>.
629     </p>
630    
631     </body>
632     </section>
633 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
634 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
635     <body>
636    
637     <p>
638     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
639     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
640     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
641     proxy is fully supported.
642     </p>
643    
644     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
645     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
646     </pre>
647    
648     </body>
649     </section>
650 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
651 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
652     <body>
653    
654     <p>
655     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
656     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
657     appropriately.
658     </p>
659    
660     </body>
661     </section>
662 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
663 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
664     <body>
665    
666     <p>
667     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
668     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
669     </p>
670    
671     </body>
672     </section>
673 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
674 swift 1.54 <title>
675     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
676     else and add them to my system?
677     </title>
678     <body>
679    
680     <p>
681     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
682     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
683     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
684     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
685     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
686     picking up the sources you just brought in!
687     </p>
688    
689     </body>
690     </section>
691 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
692 swift 1.54 <title>
693     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
694     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
695     files?
696     </title>
697     <body>
698    
699     <p>
700     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
701     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
702     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
703     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
704     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
705     again.
706     </p>
707    
708     </body>
709     </section>
710 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
711 swift 1.54 <title>
712 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
713     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
714 swift 1.54 </title>
715     <body>
716    
717     <p>
718     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
719     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
720     directory.
721     </p>
722    
723     </body>
724     </section>
725     </chapter>
726    
727     <chapter>
728     <title>Usage</title>
729 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
730 swift 1.54 <title>
731     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
732     user account doesn't work.
733     </title>
734     <body>
735    
736     <p>
737     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
738     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
739     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
740     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
741     </p>
742    
743     <pre caption="Using usermod">
744     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
745     </pre>
746    
747     </body>
748     </section>
749 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
750 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
751     <body>
752    
753     <p>
754     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
755     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
756     </p>
757    
758     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
759     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
760     </pre>
761    
762     </body>
763     </section>
764 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
765 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
766     <body>
767    
768     <p>
769     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
770     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
771     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
772     </p>
773    
774     </body>
775     </section>
776 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
777 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
778     <body>
779    
780     <p>
781     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
782     follows:
783     </p>
784    
785     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
786     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
787     </pre>
788    
789     </body>
790     </section>
791 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
792 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
793     <body>
794    
795     <p>
796     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
797     </p>
798    
799     </body>
800     </section>
801 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
802 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
803     <body>
804    
805     <p>
806     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
807     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
808     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
809     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
810     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
811     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
812     </p>
813    
814     <p>
815 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
816     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
817 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
818 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
819     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
820     </p>
821    
822     <p>
823 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
824     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
825     reboot.
826     </p>
827    
828     </body>
829     </section>
830 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
831 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
832     <body>
833    
834     <p>
835     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
836     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
837     </p>
838    
839     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
840     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
841     </pre>
842    
843     <p>
844     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
845     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
846     </p>
847    
848     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
849     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
850     </body>
851    
852     </section>
853 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
854     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
855     <body>
856    
857     <p>
858     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
859     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
860     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
861     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
862     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
863     </p>
864    
865     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
866     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
867     </pre>
868    
869     </body>
870     </section>
871    
872 swift 1.54 </chapter>
873    
874     <chapter>
875     <title>Maintenance</title>
876 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
877 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
878     <body>
879    
880     <p>
881     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
882     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
883     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
884     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
885     to the corruption.
886     </p>
887    
888     </body>
889     </section>
890 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
891 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
892     <body>
893    
894 swift 1.41 <p>
895     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
896     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
897     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
898     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
899     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
900     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
901     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
902     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
903     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
904     </p>
905    
906     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
907     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
908     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
909     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
910     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
911     </pre>
912    
913 swift 1.54 </body>
914     </section>
915 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
916    
917     <chapter>
918 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
919 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
920 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
921     <body>
922    
923     <p>
924     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
925     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
926     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
927     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
928     </p>
929    
930     </body>
931     </section>
932 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
933 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
934     <body>
935    
936     <p>
937     New releases are announced on the <uri
938     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
939     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
940 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
941     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
942 swift 1.54 </p>
943    
944     </body>
945     </section>
946 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
947 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
948     <body>
949    
950     <p>
951     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
952     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
953     </p>
954    
955     </body>
956     </section>
957 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
958 swift 1.54 <title>
959     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
960     beeps?
961     </title>
962     <body>
963    
964     <p>
965     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
966     </p>
967    
968     <pre caption="Using setterm">
969     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
970     </pre>
971    
972     <p>
973     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
974     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
975     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
976     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
977     target terminal, like this:
978     </p>
979    
980     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
981     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
982     </pre>
983    
984     <p>
985     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
986     console beeps for.
987     </p>
988    
989     </body>
990     </section>
991 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
992    
993     <chapter>
994     <title>Resources</title>
995 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
996 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
997     <body>
998    
999     <p>
1000     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1001     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1002     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1003     </p>
1004    
1005     </body>
1006     </section>
1007 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
1008 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1009     <body>
1010    
1011 swift 1.54 <p>
1012     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1013 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1014     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1015     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1016     </p>
1017    
1018     <p>
1019     You can also find fresh CDs from
1020 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1021 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1022     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1023     </p>
1024    
1025     </body>
1026     </section>
1027 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
1028 swift 1.54 <title>
1029     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1030     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1031     </title>
1032     <body>
1033 drobbins 1.1
1034 swift 1.54 <p>
1035     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1036     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1037     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1038     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1039     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1040     </p>
1041    
1042     <p>
1043     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1044     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1045     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1046     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1047     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1048     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1049     </p>
1050    
1051     <p>
1052     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1053     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1054     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1055     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1056     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1057     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1058     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1059     reasons, many of these covered
1060     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1061     </p>
1062    
1063     <p>
1064     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1065     administrators have seen them).
1066     </p>
1067    
1068     </body>
1069     </section>
1070 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1071 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1072     <body>
1073    
1074     <p>
1075     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1076     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1077     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1078     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1079     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1080     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1081     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1082     </p>
1083    
1084     </body>
1085     </section>
1086 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1087 swift 1.54
1088 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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