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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.80 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.79 2005/02/03 19:16:31 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.80 <version>2.14</version>
44     <date>2005-02-19</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.77 <li>
103     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104     </li>
105 swift 1.36 </ul>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Package Management</title>
111     <body>
112 swift 1.54
113 swift 1.36 <ul>
114 swift 1.54 <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 swift 1.54 </li>
117     <li>
118 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
120     </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 swift 1.54 </li>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 swift 1.54 </li>
136     <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
140 swift 1.54 </li>
141     <li>
142 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144     </li>
145 swift 1.36 </ul>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 </body>
148     </section>
149     <section>
150     <title>Usage</title>
151     <body>
152 swift 1.54
153 swift 1.36 <ul>
154 swift 1.54 <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157     </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 swift 1.54 </li>
161     <li>
162 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
177     </li>
178 swift 1.76 <li>
179     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180     su'ing</uri>
181     </li>
182 swift 1.36 </ul>
183 swift 1.54
184 swift 1.36 </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Maintenance</title>
188     <body>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 <ul>
191 swift 1.54 <li>
192 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195     <li>
196 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 swift 1.54 </li>
198 swift 1.36 </ul>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>Development</title>
204     <body>
205 swift 1.54
206 swift 1.36 <ul>
207 swift 1.54 <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221 swift 1.36 </ul>
222 swift 1.54
223 swift 1.36 </body>
224     </section>
225     <section>
226     <title>Resources</title>
227     <body>
228 swift 1.54
229 swift 1.36 <ul>
230 swift 1.54 <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
241     </li>
242     <li>
243 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
245 swift 1.54 </li>
246 swift 1.36 </ul>
247 swift 1.54
248 swift 1.36 </body>
249     </section>
250     </chapter>
251    
252 swift 1.54 <chapter>
253     <title>Getting Started</title>
254    
255 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
256 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 neysx 1.78 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
262 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
264 swift 1.54 </p>
265    
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
269 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 swift 1.54 </p>
284 drobbins 1.1
285 swift 1.54 <p>
286 swift 1.55 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
287     choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
288     aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
289     Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
290     <e>meta-distribution</e>.
291 swift 1.54 </p>
292    
293     <p>
294 swift 1.55 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
295     package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
296     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
297     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
298     added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
299 swift 1.54 </p>
300    
301     </body>
302     </section>
303 swift 1.55 </chapter>
304    
305     <chapter>
306     <title>Installation</title>
307 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
308 swift 1.54 <title>
309     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
310     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
311     </title>
312     <body>
313    
314     <p>
315 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
316 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
317     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
318 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
319 swift 1.54 </p>
320    
321     <p>
322 swift 1.55 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
323 swift 1.54 bug.
324     </p>
325    
326     </body>
327     </section>
328 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
329 swift 1.55 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
330 swift 1.54 <body>
331    
332     <p>
333     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
334     into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
335     completed the install.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
341 swift 1.54 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
346     is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
347     </p>
348    
349     <p>
350     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
351     </p>
352    
353     <pre caption="Using useradd">
354     # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
355     </pre>
356    
357     <p>
358 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
359     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
360 swift 1.59 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
361 swift 1.54 </p>
362    
363     <p>
364     You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
365     then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
366     the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
367     </p>
368    
369     </body>
370     </section>
371 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
372 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
373     <body>
374    
375     <p>
376     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
377 cam 1.58 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
378 swift 1.54 the following command as root:
379     </p>
380    
381     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
382 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
383 swift 1.54 </pre>
384    
385     </body>
386     </section>
387 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
388 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
389 swift 1.54 <body>
390    
391     <p>
392 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
393     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
394     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
395     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
396     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
397     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
398 swift 1.54 </p>
399    
400     </body>
401     </section>
402 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
403 swift 1.54 <title>
404 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
405 swift 1.54 </title>
406     <body>
407    
408     <p>
409 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
410     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
411 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
412 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
413     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
414 swift 1.54 </p>
415    
416 swift 1.62 <p>
417     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
418     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
419     </p>
420    
421 swift 1.54 </body>
422     </section>
423 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
424 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
425     <body>
426    
427     <p>
428     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
429     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
430     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
431     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
432     </p>
433    
434     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
435 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
436     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
437     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
438     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
439     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
440     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
441     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
442     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
443     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
444     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
445     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
446     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
447     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
448     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
449     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
450     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
451     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
452     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
453     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
454     # <i>exit</i>
455     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
456     # <i>reboot</i>
457 swift 1.54 </pre>
458    
459     <p>
460     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
461     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
462     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
463     </p>
464    
465     </body>
466     </section>
467 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
468 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
473     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
474     </p>
475    
476 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
477 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
478     </pre>
479 swift 1.54
480     <p>
481     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
482     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
483     </p>
484    
485 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
486 swift 1.79 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
487     -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
488     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
489     -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
490 swift 1.38 </pre>
491 swift 1.54
492     <p>
493 swift 1.80 To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
494     so:
495 swift 1.54 </p>
496    
497 swift 1.80 <pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
498     RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
499     </pre>
500    
501 swift 1.54 </body>
502     </section>
503 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
504     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
505     <body>
506    
507     <p>
508     You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
509     should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
510     entire CD.
511     </p>
512    
513     <p>
514     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
515     Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
516     </p>
517    
518     <ul>
519     <li>
520     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
521     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
522     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
523     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
524     </li>
525     <li>
526     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
527 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
528 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
529     your brand new CD being burnt.
530     </li>
531     <li>
532     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
533     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
534     by the path to the ISO file :)
535     </li>
536     <li>
537     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
538     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
539     <c>Start</c>.
540     </li>
541 swift 1.66 <li>
542     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
543     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
544     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
545     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
546     </li>
547     <li>
548     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
549     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
550     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
551     </li>
552 swift 1.65 </ul>
553    
554    
555     </body>
556     </section>
557 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
558     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
559     <body>
560    
561     <p>
562     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
563     need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You need to
564     consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
565     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
566     </p>
567    
568     <p>
569     For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
570     meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
571     systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
572     </p>
573    
574     <p>
575     If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
576     generic.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </section>
581 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
582    
583     <chapter>
584 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
585 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
586 swift 1.54 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
587     <body>
588    
589 swift 1.45 <p>
590 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
591 swift 1.54 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
592     (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
593     apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
594 swift 1.74 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
595     Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
596 swift 1.54 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
597     create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
598     (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
599     file).
600 swift 1.45 </p>
601    
602 swift 1.54 </body>
603     </section>
604 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
605 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
606 swift 1.54 <body>
607    
608     <p>
609     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
610     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
611     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
612     </p>
613    
614     <p>
615     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
616     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
617     </p>
618    
619     <p>
620     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
621     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
622     perform to configure and compile the package.
623     </p>
624    
625     <p>
626     When finished, execute <c>touch
627     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
628     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
629     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
630     merge</c>.
631     </p>
632    
633     </body>
634     </section>
635 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
636 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
637     <body>
638    
639     <p>
640     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
641     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
642     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
643     proxy is fully supported.
644     </p>
645    
646     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
647     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
648     </pre>
649    
650     </body>
651     </section>
652 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
653 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
654     <body>
655    
656     <p>
657     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
658     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
659     appropriately.
660     </p>
661    
662     </body>
663     </section>
664 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
665 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
666     <body>
667    
668     <p>
669     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
670     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
671     </p>
672    
673     </body>
674     </section>
675 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
676 swift 1.54 <title>
677     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
678     else and add them to my system?
679     </title>
680     <body>
681    
682     <p>
683     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
684     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
685     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
686     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
687     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
688     picking up the sources you just brought in!
689     </p>
690    
691     </body>
692     </section>
693 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
694 swift 1.54 <title>
695     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
696     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
697     files?
698     </title>
699     <body>
700    
701     <p>
702     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
703     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
704     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
705     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
706     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
707     again.
708     </p>
709    
710     </body>
711     </section>
712 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
713 swift 1.54 <title>
714 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
715     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
716 swift 1.54 </title>
717     <body>
718    
719     <p>
720     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
721     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
722     directory.
723     </p>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727     </chapter>
728    
729     <chapter>
730     <title>Usage</title>
731 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
732 swift 1.54 <title>
733     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
734     user account doesn't work.
735     </title>
736     <body>
737    
738     <p>
739     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
740     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
741     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
742     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
743     </p>
744    
745     <pre caption="Using usermod">
746     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
747     </pre>
748    
749     </body>
750     </section>
751 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
752 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
753     <body>
754    
755     <p>
756     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
757     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
758     </p>
759    
760     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
761     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
762     </pre>
763    
764     </body>
765     </section>
766 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
767 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
768     <body>
769    
770     <p>
771     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
772     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
773     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
774     </p>
775    
776     </body>
777     </section>
778 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
779 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
780     <body>
781    
782     <p>
783     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
784     follows:
785     </p>
786    
787     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
788     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
789     </pre>
790    
791     </body>
792     </section>
793 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
794 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
795     <body>
796    
797     <p>
798     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
799     </p>
800    
801     </body>
802     </section>
803 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
804 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
805     <body>
806    
807     <p>
808     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
809     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
810     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
811     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
812     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
813     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
814     </p>
815    
816     <p>
817 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
818     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
819 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
820 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
821     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
822     </p>
823    
824     <p>
825 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
826     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
827     reboot.
828     </p>
829    
830     </body>
831     </section>
832 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
833 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
834     <body>
835    
836     <p>
837     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
838     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
839     </p>
840    
841     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
842     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
843     </pre>
844    
845     <p>
846     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
847     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
848     </p>
849    
850     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
851     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
852     </body>
853    
854     </section>
855 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
856     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
857     <body>
858    
859     <p>
860     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
861     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
862     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
863     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
864     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
865     </p>
866    
867     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
868     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
869     </pre>
870    
871     </body>
872     </section>
873    
874 swift 1.54 </chapter>
875    
876     <chapter>
877     <title>Maintenance</title>
878 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
879 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
880     <body>
881    
882     <p>
883     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
884     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
885     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
886     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
887     to the corruption.
888     </p>
889    
890     </body>
891     </section>
892 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
893 swift 1.54 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
894     <body>
895    
896 swift 1.41 <p>
897     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
898     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
899     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
900     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
901     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
902     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
903     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
904     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
905     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
906     </p>
907    
908     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
909     <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
910     # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
911     <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
912     # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
913     </pre>
914    
915 swift 1.54 </body>
916     </section>
917 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
918    
919     <chapter>
920 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
921 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
922 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
923     <body>
924    
925     <p>
926     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
927     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
928     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
929     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
930     </p>
931    
932     </body>
933     </section>
934 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
935 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
936     <body>
937    
938     <p>
939     New releases are announced on the <uri
940     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
941     mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
942 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
943     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
944 swift 1.54 </p>
945    
946     </body>
947     </section>
948 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
949 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
950     <body>
951    
952     <p>
953     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
954     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
955     </p>
956    
957     </body>
958     </section>
959 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
960 swift 1.54 <title>
961     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
962     beeps?
963     </title>
964     <body>
965    
966     <p>
967     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
968     </p>
969    
970     <pre caption="Using setterm">
971     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
972     </pre>
973    
974     <p>
975     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
976     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
977     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
978     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
979     target terminal, like this:
980     </p>
981    
982     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
983     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
984     </pre>
985    
986     <p>
987     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
988     console beeps for.
989     </p>
990    
991     </body>
992     </section>
993 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
994    
995     <chapter>
996     <title>Resources</title>
997 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
998 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
999     <body>
1000    
1001     <p>
1002     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1003     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1004     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1005     </p>
1006    
1007     </body>
1008     </section>
1009 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
1010 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1011     <body>
1012    
1013 swift 1.54 <p>
1014     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1015 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1016     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1017     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1018     </p>
1019    
1020     <p>
1021     You can also find fresh CDs from
1022 swift 1.63 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1023 erwin 1.52 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1024     portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1025     </p>
1026    
1027     </body>
1028     </section>
1029 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
1030 swift 1.54 <title>
1031     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1032     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1033     </title>
1034     <body>
1035 drobbins 1.1
1036 swift 1.54 <p>
1037     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1038     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1039     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1040     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1041     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1042     </p>
1043    
1044     <p>
1045     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1046     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1047     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1048     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1049     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1050     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1051     </p>
1052    
1053     <p>
1054     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1055     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1056     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1057     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1058     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1059     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1060     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1061     reasons, many of these covered
1062     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1063     </p>
1064    
1065     <p>
1066     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1067     administrators have seen them).
1068     </p>
1069    
1070     </body>
1071     </section>
1072 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1073 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1074     <body>
1075    
1076     <p>
1077     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1078     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1079     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1080     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1081     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1082     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1083     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1084     </p>
1085    
1086     </body>
1087     </section>
1088 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1089 swift 1.54
1090 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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