/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.83 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Sat Jun 4 17:05:39 2005 UTC (9 years, 3 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.82: +38 -41 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
#94972 No content change, better English

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.83 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.82 2005/04/16 21:20:42 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 swift 1.71 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 swift 1.54
35 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
36 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37     mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38     please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
40 drobbins 1.1
41 swift 1.42 <license/>
42    
43 swift 1.82 <version>2.15</version>
44     <date>2005-04-16</date>
45 swift 1.36
46     <chapter>
47     <title>Featured Questions</title>
48     <section>
49     <title>Getting Started</title>
50     <body>
51 swift 1.54
52 swift 1.36 <ul>
53 swift 1.54 <li>
54 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
56 swift 1.54 </li>
57     <li>
58 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 swift 1.54 </li>
60 swift 1.36 </ul>
61 swift 1.54
62 swift 1.36 </body>
63     </section>
64     <section>
65     <title>Installation</title>
66     <body>
67 swift 1.54
68 swift 1.36 <ul>
69 swift 1.54 <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 swift 1.55 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 swift 1.54 gives?</uri>
73     </li>
74     <li>
75 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
77 swift 1.54 </li>
78     <li>
79 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 swift 1.54 </li>
81     <li>
82 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 swift 1.54 </li>
84     <li>
85 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 swift 1.54 </li>
87     <li>
88 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 swift 1.54 </li>
91     <li>
92 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
98     </li>
99 swift 1.65 <li>
100     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101     </li>
102 swift 1.77 <li>
103     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104     </li>
105 swift 1.36 </ul>
106 swift 1.54
107 swift 1.36 </body>
108     </section>
109     <section>
110     <title>Package Management</title>
111     <body>
112 swift 1.54
113 swift 1.36 <ul>
114 swift 1.54 <li>
115 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 swift 1.54 </li>
117     <li>
118 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
120     </li>
121     <li>
122 swift 1.61 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 swift 1.54 </li>
124     <li>
125 swift 1.61 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 swift 1.54 firewall?</uri>
127     </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 swift 1.54 system?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 swift 1.54 </li>
136     <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 neysx 1.56 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 swift 1.55 delete there files?</uri>
140 swift 1.54 </li>
141     <li>
142 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144     </li>
145 swift 1.36 </ul>
146 swift 1.54
147 swift 1.36 </body>
148     </section>
149     <section>
150     <title>Usage</title>
151     <body>
152 swift 1.54
153 swift 1.36 <ul>
154 swift 1.54 <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 swift 1.54 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157     </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 swift 1.54 </li>
161     <li>
162 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
177     </li>
178 swift 1.76 <li>
179     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180     su'ing</uri>
181     </li>
182 swift 1.36 </ul>
183 swift 1.54
184 swift 1.36 </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Maintenance</title>
188     <body>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 <ul>
191 swift 1.54 <li>
192 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 swift 1.55 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195     <li>
196 swift 1.61 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 swift 1.54 </li>
198 swift 1.36 </ul>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>Development</title>
204     <body>
205 swift 1.54
206 swift 1.36 <ul>
207 swift 1.54 <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.61 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 swift 1.55 FAQ?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 swift 1.55 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 swift 1.54 </li>
221 swift 1.36 </ul>
222 swift 1.54
223 swift 1.36 </body>
224     </section>
225     <section>
226     <title>Resources</title>
227     <body>
228 swift 1.54
229 swift 1.36 <ul>
230 swift 1.54 <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234     <li>
235 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 swift 1.55 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 swift 1.54 entire list?</uri>
241     </li>
242     <li>
243 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
245 swift 1.54 </li>
246 swift 1.36 </ul>
247 swift 1.54
248 swift 1.36 </body>
249     </section>
250     </chapter>
251    
252 swift 1.54 <chapter>
253     <title>Getting Started</title>
254    
255 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
256 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257     <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
262 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
264 swift 1.54 </p>
265    
266     </body>
267     </section>
268 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
269 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270     <body>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 swift 1.55 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279     sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 swift 1.54 </p>
284 drobbins 1.1
285 swift 1.54 <p>
286 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
287     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
288     installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install Gentoo
289     to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
290 swift 1.54 </p>
291    
292     <p>
293 neysx 1.83 Gentoo is actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
294 swift 1.55 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
295     development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
296     mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
297 neysx 1.83 added frequently, and releases succeed each other quickly.
298 swift 1.54 </p>
299    
300     </body>
301     </section>
302 swift 1.55 </chapter>
303    
304     <chapter>
305     <title>Installation</title>
306 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
307 swift 1.54 <title>
308     I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
309     -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
310     </title>
311     <body>
312    
313     <p>
314 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
315 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
316     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
317 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
318 swift 1.54 </p>
319    
320     <p>
321 neysx 1.83 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> before
322     reporting a bug.
323 swift 1.54 </p>
324    
325     </body>
326     </section>
327 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
328 neysx 1.83 <title>How can I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
329 swift 1.54 <body>
330    
331     <p>
332     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
333 neysx 1.83 into. For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c> once you've
334 swift 1.54 completed the install.
335     </p>
336    
337     </body>
338     </section>
339 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
340 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
341 swift 1.54 <body>
342    
343     <p>
344 neysx 1.83 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called "gentoo". The next
345     step is to give this user a password using <c>passwd gentoo</c>.
346 swift 1.54 </p>
347    
348     <p>
349     Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
350     </p>
351    
352     <pre caption="Using useradd">
353 swift 1.82 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i>
354 swift 1.54 </pre>
355    
356     <p>
357 vapier 1.70 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
358     devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
359 neysx 1.83 root (using <c>su</c>), and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
360 swift 1.54 </p>
361    
362     <p>
363 neysx 1.83 You can install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
364 swift 1.54 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
365 neysx 1.83 the instructions which are then given.
366 swift 1.54 </p>
367    
368     </body>
369     </section>
370 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
371 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
372     <body>
373    
374     <p>
375     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
376 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
377     as root:
378 swift 1.54 </p>
379    
380     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
381 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
382 swift 1.54 </pre>
383    
384     </body>
385     </section>
386 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
387 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
388 swift 1.54 <body>
389    
390     <p>
391 swift 1.55 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
392     can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
393     other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
394     kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
395     to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
396     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
397 swift 1.54 </p>
398    
399     </body>
400     </section>
401 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
402 swift 1.54 <title>
403 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
404 swift 1.54 </title>
405     <body>
406    
407     <p>
408 swift 1.55 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
409     <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
410 cam 1.72 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
411 swift 1.55 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
412     The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
413 swift 1.54 </p>
414    
415 swift 1.62 <p>
416     More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
417     Upgrading Guide</uri>.
418     </p>
419    
420 swift 1.54 </body>
421     </section>
422 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
423 swift 1.54 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427     You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
428     kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
429     on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
430     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
431     </p>
432    
433     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
434 swift 1.37 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
435     <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
436     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
437     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
438     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
439     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
440     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
441     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
442     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
443     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
444     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
445     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
446     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
447     # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
448     <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
449     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
450     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
451     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
452     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
453     # <i>exit</i>
454     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
455     # <i>reboot</i>
456 swift 1.54 </pre>
457    
458     <p>
459     If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
460     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
461     should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
462     </p>
463    
464     </body>
465     </section>
466 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
467 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
468     <body>
469    
470     <p>
471     When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
472     following syntax to authenticate yourself:
473     </p>
474    
475 bennyc 1.40 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
476 swift 1.38 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
477     </pre>
478 swift 1.54
479     <p>
480     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
481     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
482     </p>
483    
484 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
485 swift 1.79 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
486     -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
487     RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
488     -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
489 swift 1.38 </pre>
490 swift 1.54
491     <p>
492 swift 1.80 To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
493     so:
494 swift 1.54 </p>
495    
496 swift 1.80 <pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
497     RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
498     </pre>
499    
500 swift 1.54 </body>
501     </section>
502 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
503     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
504     <body>
505    
506     <p>
507 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
508     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
509 swift 1.65 </p>
510    
511     <p>
512     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
513 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
514 swift 1.65 </p>
515    
516     <ul>
517     <li>
518     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
519     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
520     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
521     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
522     </li>
523     <li>
524     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
525 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
526 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
527     your brand new CD being burnt.
528     </li>
529     <li>
530     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
531     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
532     by the path to the ISO file :)
533     </li>
534     <li>
535     With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
536     you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
537     <c>Start</c>.
538     </li>
539 swift 1.66 <li>
540     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
541     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
542     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
543     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
544     </li>
545     <li>
546     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
547     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
548     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
549     </li>
550 swift 1.65 </ul>
551    
552    
553     </body>
554     </section>
555 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
556     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
557     <body>
558    
559     <p>
560     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
561 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
562     need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
563 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
564     </p>
565    
566     <p>
567     For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
568     meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
569     systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
570     </p>
571    
572     <p>
573     If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
574     generic.
575     </p>
576    
577     </body>
578     </section>
579 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
580    
581     <chapter>
582 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
583 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
584 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
585 swift 1.54 <body>
586    
587 swift 1.45 <p>
588 swift 1.55 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
589 neysx 1.83 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c>
590     files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources.
591     We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri
592     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
593     HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary
594     ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
595     <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached
596     to the end of the file).
597 swift 1.45 </p>
598    
599 swift 1.54 </body>
600     </section>
601 swift 1.61 <section id="configure">
602 cam 1.58 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
603 swift 1.54 <body>
604    
605     <p>
606     Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
607     ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
608     Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
609     </p>
610    
611     <p>
612     Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
613     /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
614     </p>
615    
616     <p>
617     Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
618     Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
619     perform to configure and compile the package.
620     </p>
621    
622     <p>
623     When finished, execute <c>touch
624     /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
625     into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
626     <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
627     merge</c>.
628     </p>
629    
630     </body>
631     </section>
632 swift 1.64 <section id="norsync">
633 swift 1.54 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
634     <body>
635    
636     <p>
637     If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
638     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
639     through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
640     proxy is fully supported.
641     </p>
642    
643     <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
644     # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
645     </pre>
646    
647     </body>
648     </section>
649 swift 1.61 <section id="firewall">
650 swift 1.54 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
651     <body>
652    
653     <p>
654     Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
655     edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
656     appropriately.
657     </p>
658    
659     </body>
660     </section>
661 swift 1.61 <section id="unison">
662 swift 1.54 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
663     <body>
664    
665     <p>
666     There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
667     from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
668     </p>
669    
670     </body>
671     </section>
672 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
673 swift 1.54 <title>
674     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
675     else and add them to my system?
676     </title>
677     <body>
678    
679     <p>
680     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
681     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
682     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
683     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
684     <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
685     picking up the sources you just brought in!
686     </p>
687    
688     </body>
689     </section>
690 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
691 swift 1.54 <title>
692     .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
693     /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
694     files?
695     </title>
696     <body>
697    
698     <p>
699     Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
700     connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
701     possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
702     a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
703     upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
704     again.
705     </p>
706    
707     </body>
708     </section>
709 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
710 swift 1.54 <title>
711 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
712     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
713 swift 1.54 </title>
714     <body>
715    
716     <p>
717     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
718     <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
719     directory.
720     </p>
721    
722     </body>
723     </section>
724     </chapter>
725    
726     <chapter>
727     <title>Usage</title>
728 swift 1.61 <section id="rootssh">
729 swift 1.54 <title>
730     I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
731     user account doesn't work.
732     </title>
733     <body>
734    
735     <p>
736     This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
737     specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
738     ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
739     the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
740     </p>
741    
742     <pre caption="Using usermod">
743     # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
744     </pre>
745    
746     </body>
747     </section>
748 swift 1.61 <section id="rootX">
749 swift 1.54 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
750     <body>
751    
752     <p>
753     Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
754     sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
755     </p>
756    
757     <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
758     # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
759     </pre>
760    
761     </body>
762     </section>
763 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
764 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
765     <body>
766    
767     <p>
768     Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
769     Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
770     <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
771     </p>
772    
773     </body>
774     </section>
775 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
776 swift 1.54 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
777     <body>
778    
779     <p>
780     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
781     follows:
782     </p>
783    
784     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
785     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
786     </pre>
787    
788     </body>
789     </section>
790 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
791 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
792     <body>
793    
794     <p>
795     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
796     </p>
797    
798     </body>
799     </section>
800 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
801 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
802     <body>
803    
804     <p>
805     If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
806     you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
807     add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
808     <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
809     <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
810     as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
811     </p>
812    
813     <p>
814 swift 1.67 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
815     need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
816 neysx 1.68 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
817 swift 1.67 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
818     <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
819     </p>
820    
821     <p>
822 swift 1.54 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
823     numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
824     reboot.
825     </p>
826    
827     </body>
828     </section>
829 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
830 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
831     <body>
832    
833     <p>
834     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
835     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
836     </p>
837    
838     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
839     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
840     </pre>
841    
842     <p>
843     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
844     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
845     </p>
846    
847     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
848     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
849     </body>
850    
851     </section>
852 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
853     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
854     <body>
855    
856     <p>
857     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
858     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
859     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
860     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
861     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
862     </p>
863    
864     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
865     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
866     </pre>
867    
868     </body>
869     </section>
870    
871 swift 1.54 </chapter>
872    
873     <chapter>
874     <title>Maintenance</title>
875 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
876 swift 1.54 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
877     <body>
878    
879     <p>
880     If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
881     Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
882     the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
883     again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
884     to the corruption.
885     </p>
886    
887     </body>
888     </section>
889 swift 1.61 <section id="metalogd">
890 neysx 1.83 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time</title>
891 swift 1.54 <body>
892    
893 swift 1.41 <p>
894     Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
895     recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
896     performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
897     system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
898     turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
899     <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
900     expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
901     disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
902     METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
903     </p>
904    
905     <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
906 neysx 1.83 <comment>(To turn the buffering off)</comment>
907 swift 1.41 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
908 neysx 1.83 <comment>(To turn the buffering back on)</comment>
909 swift 1.41 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
910     </pre>
911    
912 swift 1.54 </body>
913     </section>
914 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
915    
916     <chapter>
917 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
918 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
919 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
920     <body>
921    
922     <p>
923     For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
924     use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
925     also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
926     link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
927     </p>
928    
929     </body>
930     </section>
931 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
932 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
933     <body>
934    
935     <p>
936     New releases are announced on the <uri
937     link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
938 neysx 1.83 mailing list. The packages themselves are usually updated shortly after the
939 swift 1.55 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
940     <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
941 swift 1.54 </p>
942    
943     </body>
944     </section>
945 swift 1.61 <section id="addfaq">
946 swift 1.54 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
947     <body>
948    
949     <p>
950     Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
951     "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
952     </p>
953    
954     </body>
955     </section>
956 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
957 swift 1.54 <title>
958     My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
959     beeps?
960     </title>
961     <body>
962    
963     <p>
964     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
965     </p>
966    
967     <pre caption="Using setterm">
968     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
969     </pre>
970    
971     <p>
972     If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
973     you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
974     this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
975     beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
976     target terminal, like this:
977     </p>
978    
979     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
980     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
981     </pre>
982    
983     <p>
984     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
985     console beeps for.
986     </p>
987    
988     </body>
989     </section>
990 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
991    
992     <chapter>
993     <title>Resources</title>
994 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
995 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
996     <body>
997    
998     <p>
999     The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1000     <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1001     <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1002     </p>
1003    
1004     </body>
1005     </section>
1006 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
1007 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1008     <body>
1009    
1010 swift 1.54 <p>
1011     Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1012 erwin 1.52 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1013     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1014     So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1015     </p>
1016    
1017     <p>
1018 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1019     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1020 erwin 1.52 </p>
1021    
1022     </body>
1023     </section>
1024 swift 1.61 <section id="mailinglist">
1025 swift 1.54 <title>
1026     Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1027     only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1028     </title>
1029     <body>
1030 drobbins 1.1
1031 swift 1.54 <p>
1032     The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1033     (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1034     altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1035     reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1036     entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1037     </p>
1038    
1039     <p>
1040     Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1041     your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1042     users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1043     don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1044     the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1045     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1046     </p>
1047    
1048     <p>
1049     Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1050     discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1051     Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1052     it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1053     times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1054     administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1055     felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1056     reasons, many of these covered
1057     <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1058     </p>
1059    
1060     <p>
1061     (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1062     administrators have seen them).
1063     </p>
1064    
1065     </body>
1066     </section>
1067 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1068 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1069     <body>
1070    
1071     <p>
1072     A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1073     link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1074     the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1075     link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1076     mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1077     else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1078     <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1079     </p>
1080    
1081     </body>
1082     </section>
1083 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1084 swift 1.54
1085 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20