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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.94 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.93 2005/07/14 09:34:23 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 neysx 1.93 <version>3.0.6</version>
48     <date>2005-07-14</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64    
65 swift 1.36 <ul>
66 swift 1.54 <li>
67 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
68 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
69 swift 1.54 </li>
70     <li>
71 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
72 swift 1.54 </li>
73 swift 1.36 </ul>
74 swift 1.54
75 swift 1.36 </body>
76     </section>
77     <section>
78     <title>Installation</title>
79     <body>
80 swift 1.54
81 swift 1.36 <ul>
82 swift 1.54 <li>
83 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
84     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
85 swift 1.54 </li>
86     <li>
87 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
88 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
89 swift 1.54 </li>
90     <li>
91 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
92 swift 1.54 </li>
93     <li>
94 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
95 swift 1.54 </li>
96     <li>
97 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
98 swift 1.54 </li>
99     <li>
100 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
101 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
102 swift 1.54 </li>
103     <li>
104 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
105 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
106 swift 1.54 </li>
107     <li>
108 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
109 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
110     </li>
111 swift 1.65 <li>
112     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
113     </li>
114 swift 1.77 <li>
115     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
116     </li>
117 swift 1.36 </ul>
118 swift 1.54
119 swift 1.36 </body>
120     </section>
121     <section>
122     <title>Package Management</title>
123     <body>
124 swift 1.54
125 swift 1.36 <ul>
126 swift 1.54 <li>
127 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
128 swift 1.54 </li>
129     <li>
130 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
131 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
132     </li>
133     <li>
134 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
135     firewall?</uri>
136 swift 1.54 </li>
137     <li>
138 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
139 swift 1.54 </li>
140     <li>
141 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
142 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
143 swift 1.54 </li>
144     <li>
145 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
146 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
147 swift 1.54 </li>
148     <li>
149 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
150 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
151     </li>
152 swift 1.36 </ul>
153 swift 1.54
154 swift 1.36 </body>
155     </section>
156     <section>
157     <title>Usage</title>
158     <body>
159 swift 1.54
160 swift 1.36 <ul>
161 swift 1.54 <li>
162 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
164     </li>
165     <li>
166 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 swift 1.54 </li>
168     <li>
169 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 swift 1.54 </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
177     </li>
178 swift 1.76 <li>
179     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180     su'ing</uri>
181     </li>
182 swift 1.36 </ul>
183 swift 1.54
184 swift 1.36 </body>
185     </section>
186     <section>
187     <title>Maintenance</title>
188     <body>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 <ul>
191 swift 1.54 <li>
192 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
194 swift 1.54 </li>
195 swift 1.36 </ul>
196 swift 1.54
197 swift 1.36 </body>
198     </section>
199     <section>
200     <title>Development</title>
201     <body>
202 swift 1.54
203 swift 1.36 <ul>
204 swift 1.54 <li>
205 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
206 swift 1.54 </li>
207     <li>
208 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
209 swift 1.54 </li>
210     <li>
211 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
212     beeps?</uri>
213 swift 1.54 </li>
214 swift 1.36 </ul>
215 swift 1.54
216 swift 1.36 </body>
217     </section>
218     <section>
219     <title>Resources</title>
220     <body>
221 swift 1.54
222 swift 1.36 <ul>
223 swift 1.54 <li>
224 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
225 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
226 swift 1.54 </li>
227     <li>
228 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
229 swift 1.54 </li>
230     <li>
231 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
232 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
233 swift 1.54 </li>
234 swift 1.36 </ul>
235 swift 1.54
236 swift 1.36 </body>
237     </section>
238     </chapter>
239    
240 swift 1.54 <chapter>
241     <title>Getting Started</title>
242    
243 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
244 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
245     <body>
246    
247     <p>
248 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
249 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
250 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
251 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
252 swift 1.54 </p>
253    
254     </body>
255     </section>
256 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
257 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
258     <body>
259 drobbins 1.1
260 swift 1.54 <p>
261 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
262     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
263     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
264     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
265 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
266 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
267     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
268 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
269 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
270 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
271 swift 1.54 </p>
272 drobbins 1.1
273 swift 1.54 <p>
274 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
275     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
276 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
277     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 swift 1.54 </p>
279    
280     <p>
281 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
282     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
283 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
284 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
285 swift 1.54 </p>
286    
287     </body>
288     </section>
289 swift 1.55 </chapter>
290    
291     <chapter>
292     <title>Installation</title>
293 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
294 swift 1.54 <title>
295 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
296     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
297 swift 1.54 </title>
298     <body>
299    
300     <p>
301 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
302 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
303     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
304 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
305 swift 1.54 </p>
306    
307     <p>
308 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
309 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
310 swift 1.54 </p>
311    
312     </body>
313     </section>
314 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
315 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
316 swift 1.54 <body>
317    
318     <p>
319     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
320 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
321     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
322 swift 1.54 </p>
323    
324     </body>
325     </section>
326 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
327 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
328 swift 1.54 <body>
329    
330     <p>
331 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
332     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
333     him, so the following command is preferred:
334 swift 1.54 </p>
335    
336     <pre caption="Using useradd">
337 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
338 swift 1.54 </pre>
339    
340     <p>
341 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
342 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
343 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
344     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
345     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
346 swift 1.54 </p>
347    
348     </body>
349     </section>
350 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
351 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
352     <body>
353    
354     <p>
355     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
356 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
357     as root:
358 swift 1.54 </p>
359    
360     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
361 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
362 swift 1.54 </pre>
363    
364     </body>
365     </section>
366 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
367 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
368 swift 1.54 <body>
369    
370     <p>
371 neysx 1.85 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
372     function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
373     archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
374     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
375     udev.
376 swift 1.54 </p>
377    
378     </body>
379     </section>
380 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
381 swift 1.54 <title>
382 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
383 swift 1.54 </title>
384     <body>
385    
386     <p>
387 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
388     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
389     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
390     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
391     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
392     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
393     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
394 swift 1.62 </p>
395    
396 swift 1.54 </body>
397     </section>
398 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
399 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
400 swift 1.54 <body>
401    
402     <p>
403 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
404     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
405 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
406     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
407     </p>
408    
409     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
410 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
411 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
412     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
413     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
414     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
415     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
416     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
417     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
418     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
419     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
420     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
421     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
422     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
423 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
424 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
425     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
426     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
427     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
428     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
429     # <i>exit</i>
430     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
431     # <i>reboot</i>
432 swift 1.54 </pre>
433    
434     <p>
435 neysx 1.85 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
436     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
437 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
443 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
444     <body>
445    
446     <p>
447     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
448     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
449     </p>
450    
451 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
452 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
453     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
454     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
455 swift 1.80 </pre>
456    
457 swift 1.54 </body>
458     </section>
459 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
460     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
461     <body>
462    
463     <p>
464 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
465     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
466 swift 1.65 </p>
467    
468     <p>
469     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
470 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
471 swift 1.65 </p>
472    
473     <ul>
474     <li>
475     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
476     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
477     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
478     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
479     </li>
480     <li>
481     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
482 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
483 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
484     your brand new CD being burnt.
485     </li>
486     <li>
487     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
488     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
489     by the path to the ISO file :)
490     </li>
491     <li>
492 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
493     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
494     click <c>Start</c>.
495 swift 1.65 </li>
496 swift 1.66 <li>
497     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
498     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
499     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
500     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
501     </li>
502     <li>
503     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
504     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
505     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
506     </li>
507 swift 1.65 </ul>
508    
509    
510     </body>
511     </section>
512 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
513     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
514     <body>
515    
516     <p>
517     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
518 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
519     need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
520 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
521     </p>
522    
523     <p>
524 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
525     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
526     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
527 swift 1.77 </p>
528    
529     <p>
530 neysx 1.85 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
531     than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
532     link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
533     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
534 swift 1.77 </p>
535    
536     </body>
537     </section>
538 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
539    
540     <chapter>
541 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
542 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
543 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
544 swift 1.54 <body>
545    
546 swift 1.45 <p>
547 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
548     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
549     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
550     releases and snapshots. The <uri
551 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
552 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
553 swift 1.45 </p>
554    
555 swift 1.54 <p>
556 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
557     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
558     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
559     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
560 swift 1.54 </p>
561    
562     <p>
563 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
564 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
565 neysx 1.85 install packages.
566 swift 1.54 </p>
567    
568 neysx 1.85 </body>
569     </section>
570     <section id="configure">
571     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
572     <body>
573 swift 1.54
574     <p>
575 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
576 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
577 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
578 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
579 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
580     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
581     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
582 swift 1.54 </p>
583    
584     </body>
585     </section>
586 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
587     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
588 swift 1.54 <body>
589    
590     <p>
591 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
592 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
593 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
594 swift 1.54 </p>
595    
596     </body>
597     </section>
598 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
599     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
600 swift 1.54 <body>
601    
602     <p>
603 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
604     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
605     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
606 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
607 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
608 swift 1.54 </p>
609    
610     </body>
611     </section>
612 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
613 swift 1.54 <title>
614     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
615     else and add them to my system?
616     </title>
617     <body>
618    
619     <p>
620     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
621     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
622     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
623     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
624 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
625     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
626 swift 1.54 </p>
627    
628     </body>
629     </section>
630 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
631 swift 1.54 <title>
632 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
633 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
634 swift 1.54 </title>
635     <body>
636    
637     <p>
638 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
639     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
640     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
641     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
642     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
643     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
644     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
645     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
646     at your own risk.
647 swift 1.54 </p>
648    
649     </body>
650     </section>
651 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
652 swift 1.54 <title>
653 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
654     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
655 swift 1.54 </title>
656     <body>
657    
658     <p>
659     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
660 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
661     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
662     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
663     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
664 swift 1.54 </p>
665    
666     </body>
667     </section>
668 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
669    
670     <chapter>
671     <title>Usage</title>
672 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
673 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
674     <body>
675    
676     <p>
677 neysx 1.93 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
678     either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
679 swift 1.54 </p>
680    
681 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
682     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
683     </pre>
684    
685 swift 1.54 </body>
686     </section>
687 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
688 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
689 swift 1.54 <body>
690    
691     <p>
692     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
693     follows:
694     </p>
695    
696     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
697     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
698     </pre>
699    
700     </body>
701     </section>
702 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
703 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
704     <body>
705    
706     <p>
707     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
708     </p>
709    
710     </body>
711     </section>
712 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
713 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
714     <body>
715    
716     <p>
717 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
718     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
719 swift 1.54 </p>
720    
721     <p>
722 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
723     section or online manuals for assistance.
724 swift 1.54 </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
729 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
730     <body>
731    
732     <p>
733     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
734     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
735     </p>
736    
737     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
738     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
739     </pre>
740    
741     <p>
742     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
743     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
744     </p>
745    
746     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
747     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
748     </body>
749    
750     </section>
751 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
752     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
753     <body>
754    
755     <p>
756     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
757     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
758     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
759     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
760     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
761     </p>
762    
763     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
764     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
765     </pre>
766    
767     </body>
768     </section>
769    
770 swift 1.54 </chapter>
771    
772     <chapter>
773     <title>Maintenance</title>
774 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
775 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
776 swift 1.54 <body>
777    
778     <p>
779 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
780     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
781     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
782     directories due to the corruption.
783 swift 1.54 </p>
784    
785     </body>
786     </section>
787 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
788 yoswink 1.92
789 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
790 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
791 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
792 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
793     <body>
794    
795     <p>
796 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
797     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
798 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
799     </p>
800    
801     </body>
802     </section>
803 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
804 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
805     <body>
806    
807     <p>
808 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
809     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
810     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
811     releases are announced on the <uri
812     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
813     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
814 swift 1.54 </p>
815    
816     </body>
817     </section>
818 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
819 swift 1.54 <title>
820 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
821 swift 1.54 </title>
822     <body>
823    
824     <p>
825     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
826     </p>
827    
828     <pre caption="Using setterm">
829     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
830     </pre>
831    
832     <p>
833 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
834     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
835     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
836     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
837 swift 1.54
838     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
839     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
840     </pre>
841    
842     <p>
843     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
844     console beeps for.
845     </p>
846    
847     </body>
848     </section>
849 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
850    
851     <chapter>
852     <title>Resources</title>
853 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
854 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
855     <body>
856    
857     <p>
858 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
859     <uri>http://docs.gentoo.org</uri>.
860 swift 1.54 </p>
861    
862     </body>
863     </section>
864 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
865 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
866     <body>
867    
868 swift 1.54 <p>
869 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
870 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
871     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
872     please consider buying from our store if possible.
873 erwin 1.52 </p>
874    
875     <p>
876 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
877     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
878 erwin 1.52 </p>
879    
880     </body>
881     </section>
882 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
883 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
884     <body>
885    
886     <p>
887 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
888     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
889     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
890     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
891     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
892     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
893 swift 1.54 </p>
894    
895     </body>
896     </section>
897 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
898 swift 1.54
899 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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