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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.96 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.95 2005/07/14 10:30:20 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 neysx 1.96 <version>3.0.7</version>
48     <date>2005-07-26</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64 swift 1.36 <ul>
65 swift 1.54 <li>
66 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
68 swift 1.54 </li>
69     <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 swift 1.54 </li>
72 swift 1.36 </ul>
73 swift 1.54
74 swift 1.36 </body>
75     </section>
76     <section>
77     <title>Installation</title>
78     <body>
79 swift 1.54
80 swift 1.36 <ul>
81 swift 1.54 <li>
82 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 swift 1.54 </li>
85     <li>
86 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
88 swift 1.54 </li>
89     <li>
90 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 swift 1.54 </li>
98     <li>
99 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 swift 1.54 </li>
102     <li>
103 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
105 swift 1.54 </li>
106     <li>
107 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
109     </li>
110 swift 1.65 <li>
111     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112     </li>
113 swift 1.77 <li>
114     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115     </li>
116 swift 1.36 </ul>
117 swift 1.54
118 swift 1.36 </body>
119     </section>
120     <section>
121     <title>Package Management</title>
122     <body>
123 swift 1.54
124 swift 1.36 <ul>
125 swift 1.54 <li>
126 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
127 swift 1.54 </li>
128     <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
130 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
131     </li>
132     <li>
133 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
134     firewall?</uri>
135 swift 1.54 </li>
136     <li>
137 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
138 swift 1.54 </li>
139     <li>
140 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
141 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
142 swift 1.54 </li>
143     <li>
144 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
145 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
146 swift 1.54 </li>
147     <li>
148 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
149 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
150     </li>
151 swift 1.36 </ul>
152 swift 1.54
153 swift 1.36 </body>
154     </section>
155     <section>
156     <title>Usage</title>
157     <body>
158 swift 1.54
159 swift 1.36 <ul>
160 swift 1.54 <li>
161 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
162 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
163     </li>
164     <li>
165 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
166 swift 1.54 </li>
167     <li>
168 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
169 swift 1.54 </li>
170     <li>
171 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
172 swift 1.54 </li>
173     <li>
174 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
175 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
176     </li>
177 swift 1.76 <li>
178     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
179     su'ing</uri>
180     </li>
181 swift 1.36 </ul>
182 swift 1.54
183 swift 1.36 </body>
184     </section>
185     <section>
186     <title>Maintenance</title>
187     <body>
188 swift 1.54
189 swift 1.36 <ul>
190 swift 1.54 <li>
191 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
192 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
193 swift 1.54 </li>
194 swift 1.36 </ul>
195 swift 1.54
196 swift 1.36 </body>
197     </section>
198     <section>
199     <title>Development</title>
200     <body>
201 swift 1.54
202 swift 1.36 <ul>
203 swift 1.54 <li>
204 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
205 swift 1.54 </li>
206     <li>
207 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
208 swift 1.54 </li>
209     <li>
210 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
211     beeps?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213 swift 1.36 </ul>
214 swift 1.54
215 swift 1.36 </body>
216     </section>
217     <section>
218     <title>Resources</title>
219     <body>
220 swift 1.54
221 swift 1.36 <ul>
222 swift 1.54 <li>
223 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
224 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
225 swift 1.54 </li>
226     <li>
227 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
228 swift 1.54 </li>
229     <li>
230 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
232 swift 1.54 </li>
233 swift 1.36 </ul>
234 swift 1.54
235 swift 1.36 </body>
236     </section>
237     </chapter>
238    
239 swift 1.54 <chapter>
240     <title>Getting Started</title>
241    
242 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
243 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244     <body>
245    
246     <p>
247 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
249 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
251 swift 1.54 </p>
252    
253     </body>
254     </section>
255 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
256 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257     <body>
258 drobbins 1.1
259 swift 1.54 <p>
260 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
265 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
266     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
268 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
270 swift 1.54 </p>
271 drobbins 1.1
272 swift 1.54 <p>
273 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
274     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
275 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
276     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
277 swift 1.54 </p>
278    
279     <p>
280 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
281     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
282 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
283 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
284 swift 1.54 </p>
285    
286     </body>
287     </section>
288 swift 1.55 </chapter>
289    
290     <chapter>
291     <title>Installation</title>
292 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
293 swift 1.54 <title>
294 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
295     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
296 swift 1.54 </title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
301 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
302     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
303 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
304 swift 1.54 </p>
305    
306     <p>
307 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
308 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
309 swift 1.54 </p>
310    
311     </body>
312     </section>
313 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
314 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
315 swift 1.54 <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
319 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
320     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
321 swift 1.54 </p>
322    
323     </body>
324     </section>
325 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
326 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
327 swift 1.54 <body>
328    
329     <p>
330 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
331     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
332     him, so the following command is preferred:
333 swift 1.54 </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Using useradd">
336 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
337 swift 1.54 </pre>
338    
339     <p>
340 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
341 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
342 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
343     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
344     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
345 swift 1.54 </p>
346    
347     </body>
348     </section>
349 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
350 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
351     <body>
352    
353     <p>
354     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
355 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
356     as root:
357 swift 1.54 </p>
358    
359     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
360 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
361 swift 1.54 </pre>
362    
363     </body>
364     </section>
365 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
366 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
367 swift 1.54 <body>
368    
369     <p>
370 neysx 1.85 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
371     function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
372     archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
373     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
374     udev.
375 swift 1.54 </p>
376    
377     </body>
378     </section>
379 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
380 swift 1.54 <title>
381 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
382 swift 1.54 </title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
387     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
388     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
389     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
390     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
391     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
392     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
393 swift 1.62 </p>
394    
395 swift 1.54 </body>
396     </section>
397 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
398 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
399 swift 1.54 <body>
400    
401     <p>
402 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
403     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
404 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
405     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
406     </p>
407    
408     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
409 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
410 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
411     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
412     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
413     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
414     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
415     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
416     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
417     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
418     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
419     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
420     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
421     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
422 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
423 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
424     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
425     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
426     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
427     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
428     # <i>exit</i>
429     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
430     # <i>reboot</i>
431 swift 1.54 </pre>
432    
433     <p>
434 neysx 1.85 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
435     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
436 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
437     </p>
438    
439     </body>
440     </section>
441 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
442 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
443     <body>
444    
445     <p>
446     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
447     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
448     </p>
449    
450 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
451 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
452     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
453     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
454 swift 1.80 </pre>
455    
456 swift 1.54 </body>
457     </section>
458 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
459     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
460     <body>
461    
462     <p>
463 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
464     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
465 swift 1.65 </p>
466    
467     <p>
468     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
469 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
470 swift 1.65 </p>
471    
472     <ul>
473     <li>
474     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
475     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
476     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
477     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
478     </li>
479     <li>
480     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
481 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
482 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
483     your brand new CD being burnt.
484     </li>
485     <li>
486     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
487     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
488     by the path to the ISO file :)
489     </li>
490     <li>
491 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
492     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
493     click <c>Start</c>.
494 swift 1.65 </li>
495 swift 1.66 <li>
496     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
497     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
498     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
499     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
500     </li>
501     <li>
502     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
503     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
504     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
505     </li>
506 swift 1.65 </ul>
507    
508    
509     </body>
510     </section>
511 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
512     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
513     <body>
514    
515     <p>
516     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
517 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
518 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
519 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
520     </p>
521    
522     <p>
523 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
524     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
525     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
526 swift 1.77 </p>
527    
528     <p>
529 neysx 1.85 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
530     than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
531     link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
532     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
533 swift 1.77 </p>
534    
535     </body>
536     </section>
537 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
538    
539     <chapter>
540 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
541 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
542 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
543 swift 1.54 <body>
544    
545 swift 1.45 <p>
546 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
547     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
548     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
549     releases and snapshots. The <uri
550 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
551 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
552 swift 1.45 </p>
553    
554 swift 1.54 <p>
555 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
556     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
557     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
558     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
559 swift 1.54 </p>
560    
561     <p>
562 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
563 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
564 neysx 1.85 install packages.
565 swift 1.54 </p>
566    
567 neysx 1.85 </body>
568     </section>
569     <section id="configure">
570     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
571     <body>
572 swift 1.54
573     <p>
574 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
575 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
576 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
577 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
578 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
579     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
580     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
581 swift 1.54 </p>
582    
583     </body>
584     </section>
585 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
586     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
587 swift 1.54 <body>
588    
589     <p>
590 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
591 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
592 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
593 swift 1.54 </p>
594    
595     </body>
596     </section>
597 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
598     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
599 swift 1.54 <body>
600    
601     <p>
602 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
603     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
604     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
605 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
606 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
607 swift 1.54 </p>
608    
609     </body>
610     </section>
611 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
612 swift 1.54 <title>
613     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
614     else and add them to my system?
615     </title>
616     <body>
617    
618     <p>
619     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
620     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
621     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
622     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
623 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
624     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
625 swift 1.54 </p>
626    
627     </body>
628     </section>
629 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
630 swift 1.54 <title>
631 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
632 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
633 swift 1.54 </title>
634     <body>
635    
636     <p>
637 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
638     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
639     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
640     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
641     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
642     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
643     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
644     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
645     at your own risk.
646 swift 1.54 </p>
647    
648     </body>
649     </section>
650 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
651 swift 1.54 <title>
652 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
653     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
654 swift 1.54 </title>
655     <body>
656    
657     <p>
658     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
659 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
660     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
661     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
662     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
663 swift 1.54 </p>
664    
665     </body>
666     </section>
667 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
668    
669     <chapter>
670     <title>Usage</title>
671 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
672 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
673     <body>
674    
675     <p>
676 neysx 1.93 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
677     either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
678 swift 1.54 </p>
679    
680 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
681     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
682     </pre>
683    
684 swift 1.54 </body>
685     </section>
686 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
687 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
688 swift 1.54 <body>
689    
690     <p>
691     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
692     follows:
693     </p>
694    
695     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
696     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
697     </pre>
698    
699     </body>
700     </section>
701 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
702 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
703     <body>
704    
705     <p>
706     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
707     </p>
708    
709     </body>
710     </section>
711 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
712 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
713     <body>
714    
715     <p>
716 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
717     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
718 swift 1.54 </p>
719    
720     <p>
721 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
722     section or online manuals for assistance.
723 swift 1.54 </p>
724    
725     </body>
726     </section>
727 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
728 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
729     <body>
730    
731     <p>
732     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
733     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
734     </p>
735    
736     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
737     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
738     </pre>
739    
740     <p>
741     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
742     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
743     </p>
744    
745     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
746     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
747     </body>
748    
749     </section>
750 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
751     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
752     <body>
753    
754     <p>
755     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
756     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
757     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
758     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
759     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
760     </p>
761    
762     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
763     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
764     </pre>
765    
766     </body>
767     </section>
768    
769 swift 1.54 </chapter>
770    
771     <chapter>
772     <title>Maintenance</title>
773 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
774 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
775 swift 1.54 <body>
776    
777     <p>
778 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
779     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
780     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
781     directories due to the corruption.
782 swift 1.54 </p>
783    
784     </body>
785     </section>
786 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
787 yoswink 1.92
788 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
789 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
790 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
791 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
792     <body>
793    
794     <p>
795 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
796     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
797 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
798     </p>
799    
800     </body>
801     </section>
802 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
803 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
804     <body>
805    
806     <p>
807 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
808     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
809     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
810     releases are announced on the <uri
811     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
812     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
813 swift 1.54 </p>
814    
815     </body>
816     </section>
817 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
818 swift 1.54 <title>
819 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
820 swift 1.54 </title>
821     <body>
822    
823     <p>
824     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
825     </p>
826    
827     <pre caption="Using setterm">
828     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
829     </pre>
830    
831     <p>
832 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
833     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
834     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
835     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
836 swift 1.54
837     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
838     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
839     </pre>
840    
841     <p>
842     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
843     console beeps for.
844     </p>
845    
846     </body>
847     </section>
848 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
849    
850     <chapter>
851     <title>Resources</title>
852 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
853 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
854     <body>
855    
856     <p>
857 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
858 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
859 swift 1.54 </p>
860    
861     </body>
862     </section>
863 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
864 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
865     <body>
866    
867 swift 1.54 <p>
868 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
869 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
870     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
871     please consider buying from our store if possible.
872 erwin 1.52 </p>
873    
874     <p>
875 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
876     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
877 erwin 1.52 </p>
878    
879     </body>
880     </section>
881 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
882 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
883     <body>
884    
885     <p>
886 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
887     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
888     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
889     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
890     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
891     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
892 swift 1.54 </p>
893    
894     </body>
895     </section>
896 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
897 swift 1.54
898 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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