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Adding FAQ on missing dhcpcd (or kernel modules) for networking stuff. Identified by #dhcp

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.97 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.96 2005/07/26 14:22:01 neysx Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 swift 1.97 <version>3.0.8</version>
48     <date>2005-08-06</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64 swift 1.36 <ul>
65 swift 1.54 <li>
66 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
68 swift 1.54 </li>
69     <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 swift 1.54 </li>
72 swift 1.36 </ul>
73 swift 1.54
74 swift 1.36 </body>
75     </section>
76     <section>
77     <title>Installation</title>
78     <body>
79 swift 1.54
80 swift 1.36 <ul>
81 swift 1.54 <li>
82 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 swift 1.54 </li>
85     <li>
86 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
88 swift 1.54 </li>
89     <li>
90 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 swift 1.54 </li>
98     <li>
99 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 swift 1.54 </li>
102     <li>
103 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
105 swift 1.54 </li>
106     <li>
107 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
109     </li>
110 swift 1.65 <li>
111     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112     </li>
113 swift 1.77 <li>
114     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115     </li>
116 swift 1.97 <li>
117     <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118     </li>
119 swift 1.36 </ul>
120 swift 1.54
121 swift 1.36 </body>
122     </section>
123     <section>
124     <title>Package Management</title>
125     <body>
126 swift 1.54
127 swift 1.36 <ul>
128 swift 1.54 <li>
129 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
130 swift 1.54 </li>
131     <li>
132 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
133 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
134     </li>
135     <li>
136 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
137     firewall?</uri>
138 swift 1.54 </li>
139     <li>
140 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
141 swift 1.54 </li>
142     <li>
143 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
144 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
145 swift 1.54 </li>
146     <li>
147 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
148 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
149 swift 1.54 </li>
150     <li>
151 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
152 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
153     </li>
154 swift 1.36 </ul>
155 swift 1.54
156 swift 1.36 </body>
157     </section>
158     <section>
159     <title>Usage</title>
160     <body>
161 swift 1.54
162 swift 1.36 <ul>
163 swift 1.54 <li>
164 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
165 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
166     </li>
167     <li>
168 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
169 swift 1.54 </li>
170     <li>
171 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
172 swift 1.54 </li>
173     <li>
174 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
175 swift 1.54 </li>
176     <li>
177 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
178 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
179     </li>
180 swift 1.76 <li>
181     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
182     su'ing</uri>
183     </li>
184 swift 1.36 </ul>
185 swift 1.54
186 swift 1.36 </body>
187     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>Maintenance</title>
190     <body>
191 swift 1.54
192 swift 1.36 <ul>
193 swift 1.54 <li>
194 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
195 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
196 swift 1.54 </li>
197 swift 1.36 </ul>
198 swift 1.54
199 swift 1.36 </body>
200     </section>
201     <section>
202     <title>Development</title>
203     <body>
204 swift 1.54
205 swift 1.36 <ul>
206 swift 1.54 <li>
207 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
208 swift 1.54 </li>
209     <li>
210 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
211 swift 1.54 </li>
212     <li>
213 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
214     beeps?</uri>
215 swift 1.54 </li>
216 swift 1.36 </ul>
217 swift 1.54
218 swift 1.36 </body>
219     </section>
220     <section>
221     <title>Resources</title>
222     <body>
223 swift 1.54
224 swift 1.36 <ul>
225 swift 1.54 <li>
226 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
227 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
228 swift 1.54 </li>
229     <li>
230 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
231 swift 1.54 </li>
232     <li>
233 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
235 swift 1.54 </li>
236 swift 1.36 </ul>
237 swift 1.54
238 swift 1.36 </body>
239     </section>
240     </chapter>
241    
242 swift 1.54 <chapter>
243     <title>Getting Started</title>
244    
245 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
246 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247     <body>
248    
249     <p>
250 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254 swift 1.54 </p>
255    
256     </body>
257     </section>
258 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
259 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260     <body>
261 drobbins 1.1
262 swift 1.54 <p>
263 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
269     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273 swift 1.54 </p>
274 drobbins 1.1
275 swift 1.54 <p>
276 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280 swift 1.54 </p>
281    
282     <p>
283 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
284     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
285 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
286 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
287 swift 1.54 </p>
288    
289     </body>
290     </section>
291 swift 1.55 </chapter>
292    
293     <chapter>
294     <title>Installation</title>
295 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
296 swift 1.54 <title>
297 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
298     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
299 swift 1.54 </title>
300     <body>
301    
302     <p>
303 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
304 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
305     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
306 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
307 swift 1.54 </p>
308    
309     <p>
310 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
311 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
312 swift 1.54 </p>
313    
314     </body>
315     </section>
316 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
317 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
318 swift 1.54 <body>
319    
320     <p>
321     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
322 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
323     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
324 swift 1.54 </p>
325    
326     </body>
327     </section>
328 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
329 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
330 swift 1.54 <body>
331    
332     <p>
333 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
334     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
335     him, so the following command is preferred:
336 swift 1.54 </p>
337    
338     <pre caption="Using useradd">
339 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
340 swift 1.54 </pre>
341    
342     <p>
343 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
344 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
345 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
346     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
347     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
348 swift 1.54 </p>
349    
350     </body>
351     </section>
352 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
353 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
354     <body>
355    
356     <p>
357     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
358 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
359     as root:
360 swift 1.54 </p>
361    
362     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
363 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
364 swift 1.54 </pre>
365    
366     </body>
367     </section>
368 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
369 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
370 swift 1.54 <body>
371    
372     <p>
373 neysx 1.85 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
374     function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
375     archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
376     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
377     udev.
378 swift 1.54 </p>
379    
380     </body>
381     </section>
382 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
383 swift 1.54 <title>
384 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
385 swift 1.54 </title>
386     <body>
387    
388     <p>
389 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
390     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
391     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
392     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
393     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
394     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
395     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
396 swift 1.62 </p>
397    
398 swift 1.54 </body>
399     </section>
400 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
401 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
402 swift 1.54 <body>
403    
404     <p>
405 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
406     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
407 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
408     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
409     </p>
410    
411     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
412 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
413 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
414     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
415     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
416     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
417     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
418     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
419     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
420     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
421     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
422     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
423     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
424     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
425 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
426 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
427     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
428     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
429     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
430     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
431     # <i>exit</i>
432     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
433     # <i>reboot</i>
434 swift 1.54 </pre>
435    
436     <p>
437 neysx 1.85 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
438     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
439 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
440     </p>
441    
442     </body>
443     </section>
444 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
445 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
446     <body>
447    
448     <p>
449     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
450     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
451     </p>
452    
453 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
454 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
455     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
456     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
457 swift 1.80 </pre>
458    
459 swift 1.54 </body>
460     </section>
461 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
462     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
463     <body>
464    
465     <p>
466 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
467     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
468 swift 1.65 </p>
469    
470     <p>
471     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
472 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
473 swift 1.65 </p>
474    
475     <ul>
476     <li>
477     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
478     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
479     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
480     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
481     </li>
482     <li>
483     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
484 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
485 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
486     your brand new CD being burnt.
487     </li>
488     <li>
489     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
490     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
491     by the path to the ISO file :)
492     </li>
493     <li>
494 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
495     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
496     click <c>Start</c>.
497 swift 1.65 </li>
498 swift 1.66 <li>
499     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
500     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
501     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
502     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
503     </li>
504     <li>
505     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
506     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
507     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
508     </li>
509 swift 1.65 </ul>
510    
511    
512     </body>
513     </section>
514 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
515     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
516     <body>
517    
518     <p>
519     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
520 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
521 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
522 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
523     </p>
524    
525     <p>
526 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
527     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
528     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
529 swift 1.77 </p>
530    
531     <p>
532 neysx 1.85 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
533     than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
534     link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
535     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
536 swift 1.77 </p>
537    
538     </body>
539     </section>
540 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
541     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
542     <body>
543    
544     <p>
545     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
546     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
547     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
548     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
549     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
550     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
551     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
552     </p>
553    
554     <p>
555     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
556     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
557     </p>
558    
559     <p>
560     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
561     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
562     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
563     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
564     </p>
565    
566     <p>
567     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
568     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
569     </p>
570    
571     </body>
572     </section>
573 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
574    
575     <chapter>
576 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
577 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
578 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
579 swift 1.54 <body>
580    
581 swift 1.45 <p>
582 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
583     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
584     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
585     releases and snapshots. The <uri
586 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
587 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
588 swift 1.45 </p>
589    
590 swift 1.54 <p>
591 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
592     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
593     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
594     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
595 swift 1.54 </p>
596    
597     <p>
598 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
599 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
600 neysx 1.85 install packages.
601 swift 1.54 </p>
602    
603 neysx 1.85 </body>
604     </section>
605     <section id="configure">
606     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
607     <body>
608 swift 1.54
609     <p>
610 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
611 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
612 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
613 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
614 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
615     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
616     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
617 swift 1.54 </p>
618    
619     </body>
620     </section>
621 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
622     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
623 swift 1.54 <body>
624    
625     <p>
626 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
627 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
628 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
629 swift 1.54 </p>
630    
631     </body>
632     </section>
633 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
634     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
635 swift 1.54 <body>
636    
637     <p>
638 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
639     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
640     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
641 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
642 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
643 swift 1.54 </p>
644    
645     </body>
646     </section>
647 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
648 swift 1.54 <title>
649     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
650     else and add them to my system?
651     </title>
652     <body>
653    
654     <p>
655     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
656     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
657     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
658     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
659 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
660     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
661 swift 1.54 </p>
662    
663     </body>
664     </section>
665 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
666 swift 1.54 <title>
667 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
668 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
669 swift 1.54 </title>
670     <body>
671    
672     <p>
673 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
674     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
675     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
676     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
677     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
678     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
679     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
680     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
681     at your own risk.
682 swift 1.54 </p>
683    
684     </body>
685     </section>
686 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
687 swift 1.54 <title>
688 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
689     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
690 swift 1.54 </title>
691     <body>
692    
693     <p>
694     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
695 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
696     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
697     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
698     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
699 swift 1.54 </p>
700    
701     </body>
702     </section>
703 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
704    
705     <chapter>
706     <title>Usage</title>
707 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
708 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
709     <body>
710    
711     <p>
712 neysx 1.93 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
713     either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
714 swift 1.54 </p>
715    
716 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
717     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
718     </pre>
719    
720 swift 1.54 </body>
721     </section>
722 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
723 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
724 swift 1.54 <body>
725    
726     <p>
727     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
728     follows:
729     </p>
730    
731     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
732     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
733     </pre>
734    
735     </body>
736     </section>
737 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
738 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
739     <body>
740    
741     <p>
742     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
743     </p>
744    
745     </body>
746     </section>
747 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
748 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
749     <body>
750    
751     <p>
752 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
753     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
754 swift 1.54 </p>
755    
756     <p>
757 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
758     section or online manuals for assistance.
759 swift 1.54 </p>
760    
761     </body>
762     </section>
763 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
764 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
765     <body>
766    
767     <p>
768     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
769     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
770     </p>
771    
772     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
773     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
774     </pre>
775    
776     <p>
777     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
778     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
779     </p>
780    
781     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
782     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
783     </body>
784    
785     </section>
786 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
787     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
788     <body>
789    
790     <p>
791     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
792     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
793     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
794     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
795     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
796     </p>
797    
798     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
799     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
800     </pre>
801    
802     </body>
803     </section>
804    
805 swift 1.54 </chapter>
806    
807     <chapter>
808     <title>Maintenance</title>
809 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
810 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
811 swift 1.54 <body>
812    
813     <p>
814 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
815     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
816     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
817     directories due to the corruption.
818 swift 1.54 </p>
819    
820     </body>
821     </section>
822 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
823 yoswink 1.92
824 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
825 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
826 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
827 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
828     <body>
829    
830     <p>
831 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
832     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
833 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
834     </p>
835    
836     </body>
837     </section>
838 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
839 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
840     <body>
841    
842     <p>
843 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
844     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
845     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
846     releases are announced on the <uri
847     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
848     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
849 swift 1.54 </p>
850    
851     </body>
852     </section>
853 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
854 swift 1.54 <title>
855 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
856 swift 1.54 </title>
857     <body>
858    
859     <p>
860     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
861     </p>
862    
863     <pre caption="Using setterm">
864     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
865     </pre>
866    
867     <p>
868 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
869     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
870     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
871     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
872 swift 1.54
873     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
874     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
875     </pre>
876    
877     <p>
878     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
879     console beeps for.
880     </p>
881    
882     </body>
883     </section>
884 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
885    
886     <chapter>
887     <title>Resources</title>
888 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
889 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
890     <body>
891    
892     <p>
893 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
894 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
895 swift 1.54 </p>
896    
897     </body>
898     </section>
899 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
900 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
901     <body>
902    
903 swift 1.54 <p>
904 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
905 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
906     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
907     please consider buying from our store if possible.
908 erwin 1.52 </p>
909    
910     <p>
911 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
912     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
913 erwin 1.52 </p>
914    
915     </body>
916     </section>
917 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
918 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
919     <body>
920    
921     <p>
922 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
923     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
924     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
925     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
926     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
927     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
928 swift 1.54 </p>
929    
930     </body>
931     </section>
932 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
933 swift 1.54
934 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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