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#105013 - Fooling Windows :), thanks to rane for the patch.

1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 fox2mike 1.98 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.97 2005/08/06 11:43:49 swift Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 fox2mike 1.98 <version>3.0.9</version>
48     <date>2005-09-09</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64 swift 1.36 <ul>
65 swift 1.54 <li>
66 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
68 swift 1.54 </li>
69     <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 swift 1.54 </li>
72 swift 1.36 </ul>
73 swift 1.54
74 swift 1.36 </body>
75     </section>
76     <section>
77     <title>Installation</title>
78     <body>
79 swift 1.54
80 swift 1.36 <ul>
81 swift 1.54 <li>
82 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 swift 1.54 </li>
85     <li>
86 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
88 swift 1.54 </li>
89     <li>
90 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 swift 1.54 </li>
98     <li>
99 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 swift 1.54 </li>
102     <li>
103 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
105 swift 1.54 </li>
106     <li>
107 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
109     </li>
110 swift 1.65 <li>
111     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112     </li>
113 swift 1.77 <li>
114     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115     </li>
116 swift 1.97 <li>
117     <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118     </li>
119 fox2mike 1.98 <li>
120     <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121     only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122     </li>
123 swift 1.36 </ul>
124 swift 1.54
125 swift 1.36 </body>
126     </section>
127     <section>
128     <title>Package Management</title>
129     <body>
130 swift 1.54
131 swift 1.36 <ul>
132 swift 1.54 <li>
133 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
134 swift 1.54 </li>
135     <li>
136 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
137 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
138     </li>
139     <li>
140 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
141     firewall?</uri>
142 swift 1.54 </li>
143     <li>
144 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
145 swift 1.54 </li>
146     <li>
147 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
148 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
149 swift 1.54 </li>
150     <li>
151 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
152 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
153 swift 1.54 </li>
154     <li>
155 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
156 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
157     </li>
158 swift 1.36 </ul>
159 swift 1.54
160 swift 1.36 </body>
161     </section>
162     <section>
163     <title>Usage</title>
164     <body>
165 swift 1.54
166 swift 1.36 <ul>
167 swift 1.54 <li>
168 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
169 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
170     </li>
171     <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
173 swift 1.54 </li>
174     <li>
175 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
176 swift 1.54 </li>
177     <li>
178 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
179 swift 1.54 </li>
180     <li>
181 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
182 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
183     </li>
184 swift 1.76 <li>
185     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
186     su'ing</uri>
187     </li>
188 swift 1.36 </ul>
189 swift 1.54
190 swift 1.36 </body>
191     </section>
192     <section>
193     <title>Maintenance</title>
194     <body>
195 swift 1.54
196 swift 1.36 <ul>
197 swift 1.54 <li>
198 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
199 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
200 swift 1.54 </li>
201 swift 1.36 </ul>
202 swift 1.54
203 swift 1.36 </body>
204     </section>
205     <section>
206     <title>Development</title>
207     <body>
208 swift 1.54
209 swift 1.36 <ul>
210 swift 1.54 <li>
211 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
212 swift 1.54 </li>
213     <li>
214 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
215 swift 1.54 </li>
216     <li>
217 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
218     beeps?</uri>
219 swift 1.54 </li>
220 swift 1.36 </ul>
221 swift 1.54
222 swift 1.36 </body>
223     </section>
224     <section>
225     <title>Resources</title>
226     <body>
227 swift 1.54
228 swift 1.36 <ul>
229 swift 1.54 <li>
230 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
231 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
232 swift 1.54 </li>
233     <li>
234 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
235 swift 1.54 </li>
236     <li>
237 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
238 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
239 swift 1.54 </li>
240 swift 1.36 </ul>
241 swift 1.54
242 swift 1.36 </body>
243     </section>
244     </chapter>
245    
246 swift 1.54 <chapter>
247     <title>Getting Started</title>
248    
249 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
250 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
251     <body>
252    
253     <p>
254 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
255 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
256 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
257 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
258 swift 1.54 </p>
259    
260     </body>
261     </section>
262 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
263 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
264     <body>
265 drobbins 1.1
266 swift 1.54 <p>
267 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
268     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
269     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
270     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
271 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
272 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
273     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
274 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
275 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
276 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
277 swift 1.54 </p>
278 drobbins 1.1
279 swift 1.54 <p>
280 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
281     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
282 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
283     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
284 swift 1.54 </p>
285    
286     <p>
287 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
288     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
289 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
290 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
291 swift 1.54 </p>
292    
293     </body>
294     </section>
295 swift 1.55 </chapter>
296    
297     <chapter>
298     <title>Installation</title>
299 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
300 swift 1.54 <title>
301 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
302     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
303 swift 1.54 </title>
304     <body>
305    
306     <p>
307 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
308 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
309     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
310 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
311 swift 1.54 </p>
312    
313     <p>
314 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
315 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
316 swift 1.54 </p>
317    
318     </body>
319     </section>
320 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
321 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
322 swift 1.54 <body>
323    
324     <p>
325     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
326 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
327     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
328 swift 1.54 </p>
329    
330     </body>
331     </section>
332 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
333 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
334 swift 1.54 <body>
335    
336     <p>
337 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
338     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
339     him, so the following command is preferred:
340 swift 1.54 </p>
341    
342     <pre caption="Using useradd">
343 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
344 swift 1.54 </pre>
345    
346     <p>
347 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
348 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
349 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
350     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
351     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
352 swift 1.54 </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
357 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
358     <body>
359    
360     <p>
361     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
362 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
363     as root:
364 swift 1.54 </p>
365    
366     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
367 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
368 swift 1.54 </pre>
369    
370     </body>
371     </section>
372 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
373 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
374 swift 1.54 <body>
375    
376     <p>
377 neysx 1.85 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
378     function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
379     archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
380     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
381     udev.
382 swift 1.54 </p>
383    
384     </body>
385     </section>
386 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
387 swift 1.54 <title>
388 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
389 swift 1.54 </title>
390     <body>
391    
392     <p>
393 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
394     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
395     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
396     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
397     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
398     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
399     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
400 swift 1.62 </p>
401    
402 swift 1.54 </body>
403     </section>
404 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
405 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
406 swift 1.54 <body>
407    
408     <p>
409 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
410     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
411 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
412     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
413     </p>
414    
415     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
416 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
417 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
418     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
419     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
420     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
421     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
422     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
423     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
424     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
425     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
426     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
427     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
428     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
429 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
430 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
431     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
432     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
433     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
434     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
435     # <i>exit</i>
436     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
437     # <i>reboot</i>
438 swift 1.54 </pre>
439    
440     <p>
441 neysx 1.85 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
442     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
443 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
444     </p>
445    
446     </body>
447     </section>
448 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
449 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
450     <body>
451    
452     <p>
453     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
454     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
455     </p>
456    
457 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
458 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
459     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
460     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
461 swift 1.80 </pre>
462    
463 swift 1.54 </body>
464     </section>
465 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
466     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
467     <body>
468    
469     <p>
470 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
471     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
472 swift 1.65 </p>
473    
474     <p>
475     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
476 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
477 swift 1.65 </p>
478    
479     <ul>
480     <li>
481     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
482     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
483     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
484     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
485     </li>
486     <li>
487     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
488 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
489 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
490     your brand new CD being burnt.
491     </li>
492     <li>
493     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
494     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
495     by the path to the ISO file :)
496     </li>
497     <li>
498 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
499     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
500     click <c>Start</c>.
501 swift 1.65 </li>
502 swift 1.66 <li>
503     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
504     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
505     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
506     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
507     </li>
508     <li>
509     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
510     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
511     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
512     </li>
513 swift 1.65 </ul>
514    
515    
516     </body>
517     </section>
518 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
519     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
520     <body>
521    
522     <p>
523     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
524 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
525 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
526 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
527     </p>
528    
529     <p>
530 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
531     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
532     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
533 swift 1.77 </p>
534    
535     <p>
536 neysx 1.85 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
537     than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
538     link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
539     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
540 swift 1.77 </p>
541    
542     </body>
543     </section>
544 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
545     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
546     <body>
547    
548     <p>
549     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
550     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
551     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
552     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
553     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
554     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
555     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
556     </p>
557    
558     <p>
559     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
560     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
561     </p>
562    
563     <p>
564     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
565     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
566     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
567     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
568     </p>
569    
570     <p>
571     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
572     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
573     </p>
574    
575     </body>
576     </section>
577 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
578     <title>
579     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
580     should I do?
581     </title>
582     <body>
583    
584     <p>
585     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
586     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
587     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
588     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
589     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
590     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
591     </p>
592    
593     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
594     title Windows XP
595     map (hd1) (hd0)
596     map (hd0) (hd1)
597     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
598     chainloader +1
599     </pre>
600    
601     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
602     other=/dev/hdb1
603     label=WindowsXP
604     table=/dev/hdb
605     map-drive = 0x80
606     to = 0x81
607     map-drive = 0x81
608     to = 0x80
609     </pre>
610    
611     <p>
612     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
613     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
614     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
615     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
616     you're using.
617     </p>
618    
619     </body>
620     </section>
621 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
622    
623     <chapter>
624 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
625 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
626 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
627 swift 1.54 <body>
628    
629 swift 1.45 <p>
630 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
631     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
632     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
633     releases and snapshots. The <uri
634 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
635 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
636 swift 1.45 </p>
637    
638 swift 1.54 <p>
639 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
640     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
641     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
642     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
643 swift 1.54 </p>
644    
645     <p>
646 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
647 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
648 neysx 1.85 install packages.
649 swift 1.54 </p>
650    
651 neysx 1.85 </body>
652     </section>
653     <section id="configure">
654     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
655     <body>
656 swift 1.54
657     <p>
658 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
659 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
660 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
661 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
662 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
663     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
664     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
665 swift 1.54 </p>
666    
667     </body>
668     </section>
669 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
670     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
671 swift 1.54 <body>
672    
673     <p>
674 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
675 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
676 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
677 swift 1.54 </p>
678    
679     </body>
680     </section>
681 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
682     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
683 swift 1.54 <body>
684    
685     <p>
686 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
687     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
688     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
689 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
690 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
691 swift 1.54 </p>
692    
693     </body>
694     </section>
695 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
696 swift 1.54 <title>
697     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
698     else and add them to my system?
699     </title>
700     <body>
701    
702     <p>
703     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
704     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
705     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
706     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
707 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
708     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
709 swift 1.54 </p>
710    
711     </body>
712     </section>
713 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
714 swift 1.54 <title>
715 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
716 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
717 swift 1.54 </title>
718     <body>
719    
720     <p>
721 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
722     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
723     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
724     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
725     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
726     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
727     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
728     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
729     at your own risk.
730 swift 1.54 </p>
731    
732     </body>
733     </section>
734 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
735 swift 1.54 <title>
736 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
737     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
738 swift 1.54 </title>
739     <body>
740    
741     <p>
742     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
743 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
744     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
745     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
746     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
747 swift 1.54 </p>
748    
749     </body>
750     </section>
751 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
752    
753     <chapter>
754     <title>Usage</title>
755 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
756 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
757     <body>
758    
759     <p>
760 neysx 1.93 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
761     either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
762 swift 1.54 </p>
763    
764 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
765     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
766     </pre>
767    
768 swift 1.54 </body>
769     </section>
770 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
771 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
772 swift 1.54 <body>
773    
774     <p>
775     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
776     follows:
777     </p>
778    
779     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
780     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
781     </pre>
782    
783     </body>
784     </section>
785 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
786 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
787     <body>
788    
789     <p>
790     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
791     </p>
792    
793     </body>
794     </section>
795 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
796 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
797     <body>
798    
799     <p>
800 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
801     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
802 swift 1.54 </p>
803    
804     <p>
805 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
806     section or online manuals for assistance.
807 swift 1.54 </p>
808    
809     </body>
810     </section>
811 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
812 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
813     <body>
814    
815     <p>
816     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
817     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
818     </p>
819    
820     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
821     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
822     </pre>
823    
824     <p>
825     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
826     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
827     </p>
828    
829     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
830     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
831     </body>
832    
833     </section>
834 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
835     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
836     <body>
837    
838     <p>
839     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
840     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
841     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
842     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
843     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
844     </p>
845    
846     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
847     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
848     </pre>
849    
850     </body>
851     </section>
852 swift 1.54 </chapter>
853    
854     <chapter>
855     <title>Maintenance</title>
856 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
857 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
858 swift 1.54 <body>
859    
860     <p>
861 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
862     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
863     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
864     directories due to the corruption.
865 swift 1.54 </p>
866    
867     </body>
868     </section>
869 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
870 yoswink 1.92
871 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
872 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
873 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
874 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
875     <body>
876    
877     <p>
878 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
879     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
880 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
881     </p>
882    
883     </body>
884     </section>
885 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
886 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
887     <body>
888    
889     <p>
890 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
891     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
892     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
893     releases are announced on the <uri
894     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
895     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
896 swift 1.54 </p>
897    
898     </body>
899     </section>
900 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
901 swift 1.54 <title>
902 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
903 swift 1.54 </title>
904     <body>
905    
906     <p>
907     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
908     </p>
909    
910     <pre caption="Using setterm">
911     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
912     </pre>
913    
914     <p>
915 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
916     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
917     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
918     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
919 swift 1.54
920     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
921     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
922     </pre>
923    
924     <p>
925     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
926     console beeps for.
927     </p>
928    
929     </body>
930     </section>
931 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
932    
933     <chapter>
934     <title>Resources</title>
935 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
936 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
937     <body>
938    
939     <p>
940 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
941 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
942 swift 1.54 </p>
943    
944     </body>
945     </section>
946 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
947 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
948     <body>
949    
950 swift 1.54 <p>
951 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
952 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
953     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
954     please consider buying from our store if possible.
955 erwin 1.52 </p>
956    
957     <p>
958 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
959     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
960 erwin 1.52 </p>
961    
962     </body>
963     </section>
964 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
965 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
966     <body>
967    
968     <p>
969 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
970     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
971     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
972     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
973     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
974     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
975 swift 1.54 </p>
976    
977     </body>
978     </section>
979 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
980 swift 1.54
981 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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