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1 zhen 1.3 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.99 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.98 2005/09/09 08:29:49 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3 drobbins 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5 zhen 1.2 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 drobbins 1.1 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 neysx 1.85 <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.54 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Reviewer">
11     Colin Morey
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14     John P. Davis
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21     </author>
22     <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24     </author>
25     <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27     </author>
28     <author title="Editor">
29     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30     </author>
31 bennyc 1.75 <author title="Editor">
32     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33     </author>
34 neysx 1.85 <author title="Editor">
35 swift 1.88 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 neysx 1.85 </author>
37 swift 1.54
38 vapier 1.49 <abstract>
39 swift 1.54 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 neysx 1.85 mailing list and from IRC.
41 vapier 1.49 </abstract>
42 drobbins 1.1
43 neysx 1.85 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 swift 1.97 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 swift 1.42 <license/>
46    
47 swift 1.99 <version>3.1</version>
48     <date>2005-11-11</date>
49 swift 1.36
50     <chapter>
51 neysx 1.85 <title>Questions:</title>
52 swift 1.36 <section>
53     <title>Getting Started</title>
54     <body>
55 swift 1.54
56 neysx 1.85 <p>
57     Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 neysx 1.94 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 neysx 1.85 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60     Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61     answered here.
62     </p>
63    
64 swift 1.36 <ul>
65 swift 1.54 <li>
66 swift 1.61 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 swift 1.55 mean?</uri>
68 swift 1.54 </li>
69     <li>
70 swift 1.61 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 swift 1.54 </li>
72 swift 1.36 </ul>
73 swift 1.54
74 swift 1.36 </body>
75     </section>
76     <section>
77     <title>Installation</title>
78     <body>
79 swift 1.54
80 swift 1.36 <ul>
81 swift 1.54 <li>
82 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83     -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 swift 1.54 </li>
85     <li>
86 swift 1.61 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 swift 1.55 password?</uri>
88 swift 1.54 </li>
89     <li>
90 swift 1.61 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 swift 1.54 </li>
92     <li>
93 swift 1.61 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 swift 1.54 </li>
95     <li>
96 swift 1.61 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 swift 1.54 </li>
98     <li>
99 swift 1.61 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 swift 1.55 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 swift 1.54 </li>
102     <li>
103 swift 1.61 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 swift 1.55 I do now?</uri>
105 swift 1.54 </li>
106     <li>
107 swift 1.61 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 swift 1.54 have to do?</uri>
109     </li>
110 swift 1.65 <li>
111     <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112     </li>
113 swift 1.77 <li>
114     <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115     </li>
116 swift 1.97 <li>
117     <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118     </li>
119 fox2mike 1.98 <li>
120     <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121     only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122     </li>
123 swift 1.99 <li>
124     <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125     Tarball?</uri>
126     </li>
127 swift 1.36 </ul>
128 swift 1.54
129 swift 1.36 </body>
130     </section>
131     <section>
132     <title>Package Management</title>
133     <body>
134 swift 1.54
135 swift 1.36 <ul>
136 swift 1.54 <li>
137 swift 1.61 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
138 swift 1.54 </li>
139     <li>
140 swift 1.61 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
141 swift 1.54 Can I?</uri>
142     </li>
143     <li>
144 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
145     firewall?</uri>
146 swift 1.54 </li>
147     <li>
148 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
149 swift 1.54 </li>
150     <li>
151 swift 1.61 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
152 swift 1.55 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
153 swift 1.54 </li>
154     <li>
155 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
156 smithj 1.90 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
157 swift 1.54 </li>
158     <li>
159 swift 1.61 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
160 swift 1.54 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
161     </li>
162 swift 1.36 </ul>
163 swift 1.54
164 swift 1.36 </body>
165     </section>
166     <section>
167     <title>Usage</title>
168     <body>
169 swift 1.54
170 swift 1.36 <ul>
171 swift 1.54 <li>
172 swift 1.61 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
173 swift 1.54 Layout?</uri>
174     </li>
175     <li>
176 swift 1.61 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
177 swift 1.54 </li>
178     <li>
179 swift 1.61 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
180 swift 1.54 </li>
181     <li>
182 swift 1.61 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
183 swift 1.54 </li>
184     <li>
185 swift 1.61 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
186 swift 1.54 out?</uri>
187     </li>
188 swift 1.76 <li>
189     <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190     su'ing</uri>
191     </li>
192 swift 1.36 </ul>
193 swift 1.54
194 swift 1.36 </body>
195     </section>
196     <section>
197     <title>Maintenance</title>
198     <body>
199 swift 1.54
200 swift 1.36 <ul>
201 swift 1.54 <li>
202 swift 1.61 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
203 neysx 1.94 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
204 swift 1.54 </li>
205 swift 1.36 </ul>
206 swift 1.54
207 swift 1.36 </body>
208     </section>
209     <section>
210     <title>Development</title>
211     <body>
212 swift 1.54
213 swift 1.36 <ul>
214 swift 1.54 <li>
215 swift 1.61 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
216 swift 1.54 </li>
217     <li>
218 swift 1.61 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
219 swift 1.54 </li>
220     <li>
221 neysx 1.85 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
222     beeps?</uri>
223 swift 1.54 </li>
224 swift 1.36 </ul>
225 swift 1.54
226 swift 1.36 </body>
227     </section>
228     <section>
229     <title>Resources</title>
230     <body>
231 swift 1.54
232 swift 1.36 <ul>
233 swift 1.54 <li>
234 swift 1.61 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
235 swift 1.55 Linux?</uri>
236 swift 1.54 </li>
237     <li>
238 swift 1.61 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
239 swift 1.54 </li>
240     <li>
241 swift 1.61 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
242 swift 1.55 do now?</uri>
243 swift 1.54 </li>
244 swift 1.36 </ul>
245 swift 1.54
246 swift 1.36 </body>
247     </section>
248     </chapter>
249    
250 swift 1.54 <chapter>
251     <title>Getting Started</title>
252    
253 swift 1.61 <section id="pronunciation">
254 swift 1.54 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
255     <body>
256    
257     <p>
258 swift 1.55 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
259 neysx 1.83 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
260 swift 1.55 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
261 neysx 1.78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
262 swift 1.54 </p>
263    
264     </body>
265     </section>
266 swift 1.61 <section id="differences">
267 swift 1.54 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
268     <body>
269 drobbins 1.1
270 swift 1.54 <p>
271 swift 1.55 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
272     link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
273     that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
274     Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
275 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
276 yoswink 1.91 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
277     (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
278 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
279 swift 1.55 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
280 neysx 1.73 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
281 swift 1.54 </p>
282 drobbins 1.1
283 swift 1.54 <p>
284 neysx 1.83 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
285     optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
286 neysx 1.85 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
287     to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 swift 1.54 </p>
289    
290     <p>
291 neysx 1.85 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
292     development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
293 neysx 1.94 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
294 neysx 1.85 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
295 swift 1.54 </p>
296    
297     </body>
298     </section>
299 swift 1.55 </chapter>
300    
301     <chapter>
302     <title>Installation</title>
303 swift 1.61 <section id="optimizations">
304 swift 1.54 <title>
305 neysx 1.85 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
306     -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
307 swift 1.54 </title>
308     <body>
309    
310     <p>
311 swift 1.60 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
312 swift 1.54 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
313     compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
314 swift 1.55 do the same thing anymore.
315 swift 1.54 </p>
316    
317     <p>
318 neysx 1.85 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
319 neysx 1.83 reporting a bug.
320 swift 1.54 </p>
321    
322     </body>
323     </section>
324 swift 1.61 <section id="password">
325 neysx 1.85 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
326 swift 1.54 <body>
327    
328     <p>
329     You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
330 neysx 1.85 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
331     <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
332 swift 1.54 </p>
333    
334     </body>
335     </section>
336 swift 1.61 <section id="useradd">
337 neysx 1.83 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
338 swift 1.54 <body>
339    
340     <p>
341 neysx 1.85 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
342     this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
343     him, so the following command is preferred:
344 swift 1.54 </p>
345    
346     <pre caption="Using useradd">
347 neysx 1.85 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
348 swift 1.54 </pre>
349    
350     <p>
351 neysx 1.85 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
352 fox2mike 1.87 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
353 neysx 1.85 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
354     execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
355     privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
356 swift 1.54 </p>
357    
358     </body>
359     </section>
360 swift 1.61 <section id="su">
361 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
362     <body>
363    
364     <p>
365     For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
366 neysx 1.83 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
367     as root:
368 swift 1.54 </p>
369    
370     <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
371 swift 1.55 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
372 swift 1.54 </pre>
373    
374     </body>
375     </section>
376 swift 1.61 <section id="devfs">
377 bennyc 1.75 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
378 swift 1.54 <body>
379    
380     <p>
381 neysx 1.85 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
382     function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
383     archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
384     link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
385     udev.
386 swift 1.54 </p>
387    
388     </body>
389     </section>
390 swift 1.61 <section id="upgrade">
391 swift 1.54 <title>
392 swift 1.55 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
393 swift 1.54 </title>
394     <body>
395    
396     <p>
397 neysx 1.85 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
398     been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
399     running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
400     entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
401     individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
402     See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
403     for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
404 swift 1.62 </p>
405    
406 swift 1.54 </body>
407     </section>
408 swift 1.61 <section id="bootrescue">
409 neysx 1.85 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
410 swift 1.54 <body>
411    
412     <p>
413 neysx 1.85 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
414     kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
415 swift 1.54 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
416     <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
417     </p>
418    
419     <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
420 neysx 1.85 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
421 swift 1.37 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
422     # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
423     # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
424     # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
425     # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
426     <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
427     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
428     # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
429     # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
430     # <i>make menuconfig</i>
431     <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
432     <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
433 neysx 1.85 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
434 swift 1.37 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
435     # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
436     <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
437     # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
438     <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
439     # <i>exit</i>
440     # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
441     # <i>reboot</i>
442 swift 1.54 </pre>
443    
444     <p>
445 neysx 1.85 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
446     follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
447 swift 1.54 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
448     </p>
449    
450     </body>
451     </section>
452 swift 1.61 <section id="proxy">
453 swift 1.54 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
454     <body>
455    
456     <p>
457     To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
458     <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
459     </p>
460    
461 swift 1.38 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
462 neysx 1.85 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
463     FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
464     RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
465 swift 1.80 </pre>
466    
467 swift 1.54 </body>
468     </section>
469 swift 1.65 <section id="isoburning">
470     <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
471     <body>
472    
473     <p>
474 neysx 1.83 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
475     just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
476 swift 1.65 </p>
477    
478     <p>
479     There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
480 neysx 1.83 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
481 swift 1.65 </p>
482    
483     <ul>
484     <li>
485     With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
486     from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
487     file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
488     <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
489     </li>
490     <li>
491     With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
492 neysx 1.69 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
493 swift 1.65 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
494     your brand new CD being burnt.
495     </li>
496     <li>
497     With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
498     <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
499     by the path to the ISO file :)
500     </li>
501     <li>
502 neysx 1.85 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
503     Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
504     click <c>Start</c>.
505 swift 1.65 </li>
506 swift 1.66 <li>
507     With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
508     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
509     <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
510     select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
511     </li>
512     <li>
513     With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
514     <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
515     <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
516     </li>
517 swift 1.65 </ul>
518    
519    
520     </body>
521     </section>
522 swift 1.77 <section id="cpus">
523     <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
524     <body>
525    
526     <p>
527     First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
528 neysx 1.83 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
529 neysx 1.95 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
530 swift 1.77 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
531     </p>
532    
533     <p>
534 neysx 1.85 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
535     generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
536     will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
537 swift 1.77 </p>
538    
539     <p>
540 swift 1.99 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
541     binary stages. Please see the <uri
542 neysx 1.85 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
543     guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
544 swift 1.77 </p>
545    
546     </body>
547     </section>
548 swift 1.97 <section id="dhcp">
549     <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
550     <body>
551    
552     <p>
553     First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
554     kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
555     certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
556     for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
557     sure that these kernel modules are listed in
558     <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
559     you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
560     </p>
561    
562     <p>
563     If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
564     you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
565     </p>
566    
567     <p>
568     If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
569     configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
570     <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
571     install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
572     </p>
573    
574     <p>
575     Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
576     link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
577     </p>
578    
579     </body>
580     </section>
581 fox2mike 1.98 <section id="dualboot">
582     <title>
583     I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
584     should I do?
585     </title>
586     <body>
587    
588     <p>
589     This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
590     first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
591     to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
592     with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
593     below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
594     on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
595     </p>
596    
597     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
598     title Windows XP
599     map (hd1) (hd0)
600     map (hd0) (hd1)
601     rootnoverify (hd1,0)
602     chainloader +1
603     </pre>
604    
605     <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
606     other=/dev/hdb1
607     label=WindowsXP
608     table=/dev/hdb
609     map-drive = 0x80
610     to = 0x81
611     map-drive = 0x81
612     to = 0x80
613     </pre>
614    
615     <p>
616     This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
617     without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
618     link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
619     documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
620     you're using.
621     </p>
622    
623     </body>
624     </section>
625 swift 1.99 <section id="stage12">
626     <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
627     <body>
628    
629     <p>
630     The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
631     However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
632     development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
633     to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
634     well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
635     </p>
636    
637     <p>
638     Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
639     your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
640     system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
641     <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
642     suit your needs and then run it:
643     </p>
644    
645     <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
646     # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
647     # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
648    
649     # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
650     </pre>
651    
652     <p>
653     Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
654     to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
655     </p>
656    
657     <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
658     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
659     </pre>
660    
661     <p>
662     Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
663     prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
664     </p>
665    
666     </body>
667     </section>
668 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
669    
670     <chapter>
671 swift 1.54 <title>Package Management</title>
672 swift 1.61 <section id="ebuilds">
673 neysx 1.83 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
674 swift 1.54 <body>
675    
676 swift 1.45 <p>
677 neysx 1.85 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
678     which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
679     package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
680     releases and snapshots. The <uri
681 neysx 1.83 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
682 neysx 1.85 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
683 swift 1.45 </p>
684    
685 swift 1.54 <p>
686 neysx 1.85 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
687     <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
688     attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
689     not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
690 swift 1.54 </p>
691    
692     <p>
693 neysx 1.85 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
694 neysx 1.94 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
695 neysx 1.85 install packages.
696 swift 1.54 </p>
697    
698 neysx 1.85 </body>
699     </section>
700     <section id="configure">
701     <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
702     <body>
703 swift 1.54
704     <p>
705 neysx 1.85 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
706 neysx 1.94 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
707 neysx 1.85 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
708 neysx 1.94 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
709 neysx 1.85 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
710     link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
711     HOWTO</uri> for more information.
712 swift 1.54 </p>
713    
714     </body>
715     </section>
716 neysx 1.85 <section id="firewall">
717     <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
718 swift 1.54 <body>
719    
720     <p>
721 neysx 1.85 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
722 swift 1.86 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
723 neysx 1.85 files manually</uri>.
724 swift 1.54 </p>
725    
726     </body>
727     </section>
728 neysx 1.85 <section id="norsync">
729     <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
730 swift 1.54 <body>
731    
732     <p>
733 neysx 1.85 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
734     <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
735     through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
736 neysx 1.94 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
737 neysx 1.85 a proxy.
738 swift 1.54 </p>
739    
740     </body>
741     </section>
742 swift 1.61 <section id="manualdownload">
743 swift 1.54 <title>
744     I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
745     else and add them to my system?
746     </title>
747     <body>
748    
749     <p>
750     Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
751     are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
752     to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
753     sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
754 neysx 1.85 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
755     Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
756 swift 1.54 </p>
757    
758     </body>
759     </section>
760 swift 1.61 <section id="distfiles">
761 swift 1.54 <title>
762 neysx 1.85 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
763 smithj 1.89 delete these files?
764 swift 1.54 </title>
765     <body>
766    
767     <p>
768 neysx 1.85 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
769     However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
770     several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
771     software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
772     be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
773     <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
774     developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
775     Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
776     at your own risk.
777 swift 1.54 </p>
778    
779     </body>
780     </section>
781 swift 1.61 <section id="tmpportage">
782 swift 1.54 <title>
783 cam 1.58 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
784     directories in /var/tmp/portage?
785 swift 1.54 </title>
786     <body>
787    
788     <p>
789     During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
790 neysx 1.85 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
791     a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
792     contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
793     always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
794 swift 1.54 </p>
795    
796     </body>
797     </section>
798 yoswink 1.92 </chapter>
799    
800     <chapter>
801     <title>Usage</title>
802 swift 1.61 <section id="intkeyboard">
803 swift 1.54 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
804     <body>
805    
806     <p>
807 neysx 1.93 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
808     either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
809 swift 1.54 </p>
810    
811 neysx 1.85 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
812     # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
813     </pre>
814    
815 swift 1.54 </body>
816     </section>
817 swift 1.61 <section id="rootdns">
818 neysx 1.85 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
819 swift 1.54 <body>
820    
821     <p>
822     <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
823     follows:
824     </p>
825    
826     <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
827     # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
828     </pre>
829    
830     </body>
831     </section>
832 swift 1.61 <section id="crontab">
833 swift 1.54 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
834     <body>
835    
836     <p>
837     You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
838     </p>
839    
840     </body>
841     </section>
842 swift 1.61 <section id="numlock">
843 swift 1.54 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
844     <body>
845    
846     <p>
847 neysx 1.85 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
848     numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
849 swift 1.54 </p>
850    
851     <p>
852 neysx 1.85 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
853     section or online manuals for assistance.
854 swift 1.54 </p>
855    
856     </body>
857     </section>
858 swift 1.61 <section id="clear">
859 swift 1.54 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
860     <body>
861    
862     <p>
863     To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
864     <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
865     </p>
866    
867     <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
868     $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
869     </pre>
870    
871     <p>
872     If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
873     user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
874     </p>
875    
876     <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
877     # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
878     </body>
879    
880     </section>
881 swift 1.76 <section id="suinx">
882     <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
883     <body>
884    
885     <p>
886     This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
887     don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
888     link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
889     the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
890     <path>/etc/profile</path>.
891     </p>
892    
893     <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
894     export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
895     </pre>
896    
897     </body>
898     </section>
899 swift 1.54 </chapter>
900    
901     <chapter>
902     <title>Maintenance</title>
903 swift 1.61 <section id="filecorruption">
904 neysx 1.94 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
905 swift 1.54 <body>
906    
907     <p>
908 neysx 1.85 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
909     run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
910     make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
911     directories due to the corruption.
912 swift 1.54 </p>
913    
914     </body>
915     </section>
916 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
917 yoswink 1.92
918 drobbins 1.1 <chapter>
919 swift 1.54 <title>Development</title>
920 swift 1.61 <section id="reportbugs">
921 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
922     <body>
923    
924     <p>
925 neysx 1.85 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
926     your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
927 swift 1.54 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
928     </p>
929    
930     </body>
931     </section>
932 swift 1.61 <section id="releases">
933 swift 1.54 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
934     <body>
935    
936     <p>
937 neysx 1.85 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
938     new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
939     our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
940     releases are announced on the <uri
941     link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
942     on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
943 swift 1.54 </p>
944    
945     </body>
946     </section>
947 swift 1.61 <section id="beeping">
948 swift 1.54 <title>
949 neysx 1.85 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
950 swift 1.54 </title>
951     <body>
952    
953     <p>
954     Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
955     </p>
956    
957     <pre caption="Using setterm">
958     # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
959     </pre>
960    
961     <p>
962 neysx 1.85 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
963     command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
964     beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
965     command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
966 swift 1.54
967     <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
968     # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
969     </pre>
970    
971     <p>
972     You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
973     console beeps for.
974     </p>
975    
976     </body>
977     </section>
978 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
979    
980     <chapter>
981     <title>Resources</title>
982 swift 1.61 <section id="resources">
983 swift 1.54 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
984     <body>
985    
986     <p>
987 neysx 1.85 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
988 neysx 1.96 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
989 swift 1.54 </p>
990    
991     </body>
992     </section>
993 swift 1.61 <section id="buycd">
994 erwin 1.52 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
995     <body>
996    
997 swift 1.54 <p>
998 neysx 1.94 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
999 neysx 1.85 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1000     purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
1001     please consider buying from our store if possible.
1002 erwin 1.52 </p>
1003    
1004     <p>
1005 swift 1.82 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1006     link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1007 erwin 1.52 </p>
1008    
1009     </body>
1010     </section>
1011 swift 1.61 <section id="help">
1012 swift 1.54 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1013     <body>
1014    
1015     <p>
1016 neysx 1.85 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1017     link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1018     Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1019     To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1020     to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1021     Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1022 swift 1.54 </p>
1023    
1024     </body>
1025     </section>
1026 drobbins 1.1 </chapter>
1027 swift 1.54
1028 drobbins 1.1 </guide>

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