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1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.53 2004/02/19 14:49:28 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.54 2004/03/13 12:36:56 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
8<author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author> 8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9</author>
10<author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12</author>
9<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author> 13<author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15</author>
16<author title="Editor">
10<author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author> 17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18</author>
19<author title="Editor">
11<author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author> 20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
12<author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author> 21</author>
13<author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author> 22<author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24</author>
25<author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27</author>
28<author title="Editor">
14<author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author> 29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30</author>
31
15<abstract> 32<abstract>
16This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list 33This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
17and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author 34mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
18or a member of the documentation team. 35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
19</abstract> 36</abstract>
20 37
21<license/> 38<license/>
22 39
23<version>1.1.12</version> 40<version>1.1.12</version>
26<chapter> 43<chapter>
27<title>Featured Questions</title> 44<title>Featured Questions</title>
28<section> 45<section>
29<title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
30<body> 47<body>
48
31<ul> 49<ul>
50 <li>
32<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</uri></li> 51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean
52 ?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
33<li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li> 55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
34</ul> 57</ul>
58
35</body> 59</body>
36</section> 60</section>
37<section> 61<section>
38<title>Installation</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
39<body> 63<body>
64
40<ul> 65<ul>
66 <li>
41<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li> 67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and
42<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li> 68 .tbz2 files?</uri>
43<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li> 69 </li>
70 <li>
71 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes
72 have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
76 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
77 gives?</uri>
78 </li>
79 <li>
44<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li> 80 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after
81 installation?</uri>
82 </li>
83 <li>
45<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li> 84 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other
85 user's) password?</uri>
86 </li>
46<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li> 87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
47<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li> 88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
48<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li> 89 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
49<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li> 90 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
50<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri></li> 91 <li>
92 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away
93 when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri>
94 </li>
51<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li> 95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
52<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li> 96 <li>
53<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri></li> 97 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes
98 during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri>
99 </li>
100 <li>
101 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to
102 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri>
103 </li>
104 <li>
54<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li> 105 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what
106 should I do now?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li>
55<li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li> 109 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
110 have to do?</uri>
111 </li>
56</ul> 112</ul>
113
57</body> 114</body>
58</section> 115</section>
59<section> 116<section>
60<title>Package Management</title> 117<title>Package Management</title>
61<body> 118<body>
119
62<ul> 120<ul>
121 <li>
63<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li> 122 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
64<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li> 125 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead
126 of using BSD's version?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
65<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li> 129 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or
130 BSD's ports?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
66<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li> 133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
67<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li> 136 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for
137 compiling packages?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
68<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li> 140 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri>
69<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li> 141 </li>
70<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li> 142 <li>
143 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed
144 packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild,
148 how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
71<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li> 151 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
152 Can I?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
72<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li> 155 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
156 </li>
157 <li>
73<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li> 158 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a
159 firewall?</uri>
160 </li>
161 <li>
74<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li> 162 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating
75<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li> 163 system?</uri>
76<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li> 164 </li>
77<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri></li> 165 <li>
78<li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri></li> 166 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home.
167 Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
168 </li>
169 <li>
170 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
171 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to
172 delete these files?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and
176 blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only
177 list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri>
178 </li>
179 <li>
180 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
181 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
182 </li>
79</ul> 183</ul>
184
80</body> 185</body>
81</section> 186</section>
82<section> 187<section>
83<title>Usage</title> 188<title>Usage</title>
84<body> 189<body>
190
85<ul> 191<ul>
86<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li> 192 <li>
193 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
194 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
195 </li>
196 <li>
87<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri></li> 197 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri>
198 </li>
199 <li>
88<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li> 200 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
201 Layout?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
89<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri></li> 204 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
205 </li>
206 <li>
90<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri></li> 207 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri>
208 </li>
209 <li>
91<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri></li> 210 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
211 </li>
212 <li>
92<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li> 213 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
214 </li>
215 <li>
93<li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</uri></li> 216 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
217 out?</uri>
218 </li>
94</ul> 219</ul>
220
95</body> 221</body>
96</section> 222</section>
97<section> 223<section>
98<title>Maintenance</title> 224<title>Maintenance</title>
99<body> 225<body>
226
100<ul> 227<ul>
228 <li>
101<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc...</uri></li> 229 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
102<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri></li> 230 how to fix'em, etc...</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in
234 /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri>
235 </li>
236 <li>
103<li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li> 237 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
238 </li>
104</ul> 239</ul>
240
105</body> 241</body>
106</section> 242</section>
107<section> 243<section>
108<title>Development</title> 244<title>Development</title>
109<body> 245<body>
246
110<ul> 247<ul>
111<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li> 248 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
112<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li> 249 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
250 <li>
113<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li> 251 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage;
252 how would I go about this?</uri>
253 </li>
254 <li>
114<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li> 255 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this
115<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri></li> 256 FAQ?</uri>
116<li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri></li> 257 </li>
258 <li>
259 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces
260 "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri>
261 </li>
262 <li>
263 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
264 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
265 </li>
117</ul> 266</ul>
267
118</body> 268</body>
119</section> 269</section>
120<section> 270<section>
121<title>Resources</title> 271<title>Resources</title>
122<body> 272<body>
273
123<ul> 274<ul>
124<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri></li> 275 <li>
276 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by
277 default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri>
278 </li>
279 <li>
125<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</uri></li> 280 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
281 Linux?</uri>
282 </li>
126<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li> 283 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
127<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li> 284 <li>
285 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
286 mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
287 entire list?</uri>
288 </li>
289 <li>
128<li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</uri></li> 290 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do
291 I do now?</uri>
292 </li>
129</ul> 293</ul>
294
130</body> 295</body>
131</section> 296</section>
132</chapter> 297</chapter>
133 298
134
135<chapter> 299<chapter>
136 <title>Getting Started</title> 300<title>Getting Started</title>
137 301
138 <section> 302<section>
139 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 303<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
140 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").</p></body> 304<body>
305
306<p>
307Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in
308"gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").
309</p>
310
311</body>
141 </section> 312</section>
142
143 <section> 313<section>
144 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 314<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
145 <body> 315<body>
316
146 <p> 317<p>
147 Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 318Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
148 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 319design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
149 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 320<uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
150 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 321<uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
151 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 322<uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
152 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 323distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
153 meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest 324meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest
154 versions. 325versions.
155 </p> 326</p>
327
156 </body> 328</body>
157 </section> 329</section>
158</chapter> 330</chapter>
159 331
160<chapter> 332<chapter>
161 <title>Installation</title> 333<title>Installation</title>
162
163 <section> 334<section>
164 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title> 335<title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
336<body>
337
338<p>
165 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files 339The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
166 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install 340that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
167 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that 341Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
168 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules, 342contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
169 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support, 343necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
170 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install 344as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
171 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD, 345Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
172 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by 346and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
173 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install 347the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution. 348Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents 349Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when 350on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p> 351untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.
178 </body> 352</p>
353
354</body>
179 </section> 355</section>
180
181 <section> 356<section>
357<title>
182 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title> 358 Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision)
183 <body><p> 359 numbers?
360</title>
361<body>
362
363<p>
184 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have 364The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
185 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout 365been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare. 366changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has 367The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and 368hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't 369patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190 stabilise anytime soon. 370stabilise anytime soon.
191 </p> 371</p>
372
192 </body> 373</body>
193 </section> 374</section>
194
195 <section> 375<section>
376<title>
196 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 377 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title> 378 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
379</title>
198 <body> 380<body>
381
382<p>
199 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions 383Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by
200 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code 384current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
201 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS 385compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
202 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops 386do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e>
203 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about 387(on IRC)'s CFLAGS is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr
204 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use 388-fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt
389-falign-functions=4</c>, which is about as much as I'd want to push global
390optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use ultra-high optimizations
205 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, 391only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, (eg graphics
206 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package 392and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p> 393to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.
394</p>
395
396<p>
208 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p> 397Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a
398bug.
399</p>
400
209 </body> 401</body>
210 </section> 402</section>
211
212 <section> 403<section>
213 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title> 404<title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
405<body>
406
407<p>
214 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body> 408The default password is blank; hit enter.
409</p>
410
411</body>
215 </section> 412</section>
216
217 <section> 413<section>
218 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title> 414<title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
415<body>
416
417<p>
219 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into. 418You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
220 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install. 419into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
221 </p></body> 420completed the install.
421</p>
422
423</body>
222 </section> 424</section>
223 <section> 425<section>
224 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title> 426<title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 <body> 427<body>
428
429<p>
226 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give 430The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
227 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p> 431is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
432</p>
433
434<p>
228 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use: 435Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
436</p>
437
438<pre caption="Using useradd">
229 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre> 439# <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
230 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell. 440</pre>
441
442<p>
443This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
444devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
445root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
231 </p> 446</p>
232 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.</p> 447
448<p>
449You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
450then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
451the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
452</p>
453
233 </body> 454</body>
234 </section> 455</section>
235 <section> 456<section>
236 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title> 457<title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
458<body>
459
460<p>
237 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the 461For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
238 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following 462<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
239 command as root:</p> 463the following command as root:
464</p>
465
466<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
240 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre> 467# <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i>
468</pre>
469
241 </body> 470</body>
242 </section> 471</section>
243 <section> 472<section>
244 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title> 473<title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
245 <body> 474<body>
475
246 <p> 476<p>
247 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get 477If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to
248 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the 478get devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built
249 kernel, didn't you?). 479into the kernel, didn't you?). However, if you are using a version of Gentoo
250 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add 480Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add <c>devfs=mount</c> to your
251 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something 481<c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something like
252 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the 482<c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then
253 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time. 483mount the <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
254 </p> 484</p>
485
255 </body> 486</body>
256 </section> 487</section>
257 <section> 488<section>
258 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 489<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
259 <body> 490<body>
491
492<p>
260 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the 493Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
261 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p> 494<c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.
495</p>
496
262 </body> 497</body>
263 </section> 498</section>
264 <section> 499<section>
265 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that 500<title>
266 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title> 501 How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that doesn't go away when I reboot
502 (when using devfs)?
503</title>
267 <body> 504<body>
505
268 <p> 506<p>
269 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c> 507If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
270 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and 508to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
271 it will be preserved between reboots. 509it will be preserved between reboots.
272 </p> 510</p>
511
512<p>
273 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> 513All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> and add these
274 and add these lines:</p> 514lines:
275<pre> 515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Adding lines to /etc/devfsd.conf">
276REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse 518REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
277UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse 519UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
278</pre> 520</pre>
521
522<p>
279 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device, 523If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
280 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to 524adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
281 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c> 525<c>killall -HUP devfsd</c> to get devfsd to reread
282 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p> 526<path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.
527</p>
528
283 </body> 529</body>
284 </section> 530</section>
285 <section> 531<section>
286 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title> 532<title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
287 <body><p> 533<body>
534
535<p>
288 During installation the grub boot files are copied 536During installation the grub boot files are copied to <path>/boot/grub</path>
289 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and 537(<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier.) Grub
290 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot 538automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
291 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at 539partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition
292 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot 540mounted at <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to
293 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot 541clobber your kernel and boot info by accident.) The above error generally
294 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either 542arises from (a) not using a separate boot partition, (b) forgetting to mount
295 unpacking the build snapshot or running 543the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either unpacking the build
296 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the 544snapshot or running <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
297 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition. 545<c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
298 You can get more information on grub, including how to 546You can get more information on grub, including how to debug grub from the
299 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the 547grub prompt, by reading the <uri
300 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>. 548link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
301 </p> 549</p>
550
302 </body> 551</body>
303 </section> 552</section>
304
305 <section> 553<section>
554<title>
306 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware 555 My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel
307 detection. </title> 556 loading and hardware detection.
557</title>
308 <body> 558<body>
559
560<p>
309 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this 561Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
310 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System 562function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The
311 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p> 563Multi-Processor-System will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo
564Linux with the following boot option, noapic.
565</p>
566
312 </body> 567</body>
313 </section> 568</section>
314
315 <section> 569<section>
570<title>
316 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title> 571 If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without
572 reinstalling?
573</title>
317 <body> 574<body>
575
318 <p> 576<p>
319 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. 577In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve
320 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer. 578installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such
5791.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is
580<b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does
581<c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 </p> 582</p>
583
322 </body> 584</body>
323 </section> 585</section>
324
325 <section> 586<section>
326 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title> 587<title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
327 <body> 588<body>
589
328 <p> 590<p>
329 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the 591You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
330 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo 592kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
331 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with 593on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
332 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space: 594<path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
333 </p> 595</p>
596
334 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel"> 597<pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
335<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment> 598<comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
336<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment> 599<comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
337# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i> 600# <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
338# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i> 601# <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
339# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i> 602# <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
352# <i>/sbin/lilo</i> 615# <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
353<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment> 616<comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
354# <i>exit</i> 617# <i>exit</i>
355# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i> 618# <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
356# <i>reboot</i> 619# <i>reboot</i>
357 </pre> 620</pre>
358 <p> 621
622<p>
359 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration, 623If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
360 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you 624follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
361 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary). 625should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
362 </p> 626</p>
627
363 </body> 628</body>
364 </section> 629</section>
365 <section> 630<section>
366 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title> 631<title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
367 <body> 632<body>
368 633
369 <p> 634<p>
370 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the 635When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
371 following syntax to authenticate yourself: 636following syntax to authenticate yourself:
372 </p> 637</p>
638
373<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget"> 639<pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
374# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i> 640# <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
375</pre> 641</pre>
376 <p> 642
643<p>
377 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in 644To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
378 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>: 645<path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
379 </p> 646</p>
647
380<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf"> 648<pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
381FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 649FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
382RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}" 650RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
383</pre> 651</pre>
384 <p> 652
653<p>
385 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password 654Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
386 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What 655authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
387 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to 656if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
388 handle this situation. 657handle this situation.
389 </p> 658</p>
390 659
391 </body> 660</body>
392 </section> 661</section>
393
394</chapter> 662</chapter>
395 663
396<chapter> 664<chapter>
397 <title>Package Management</title> 665<title>Package Management</title>
398 <section> 666<section>
399 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 667<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
668<body>
669
670<p>
400 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily 671They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are
401 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a 672primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
402 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build 673(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
403 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO 674apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
675The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
404 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 676contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
405 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> 677create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
406 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p> 678(<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
679file).
680</p>
681
407 </body> 682</body>
408 </section> 683</section>
409
410 <section> 684<section>
685<title>
411 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title> 686 Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?
687</title>
412 <body> 688<body>
689
690<p>
413 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design 691In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the
414 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to 692design philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of
415 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your 693what you'd type to install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy
416 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles, 694to learn and modify to your needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs,
417 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p> 695safe unmerging, system profiles, package masking, a real dependency system,
696and lots of other good stuff.
697</p>
698
418 </body> 699</body>
419 </section> 700</section>
420
421 <section> 701<section>
422 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title> 702<title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
703<body>
704
705<p>
423 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full 706Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
424 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of 707dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database.
425 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a 708Think of Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the
426 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body> 709sensibilities and safety of a Linux package management system built-in.
710</p>
711
712</body>
427 </section> 713</section>
428
429 <section> 714<section>
430 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title> 715<title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
431 <body> 716<body>
717
718<p>
432 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install 719The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how
433 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p> 720to install and uninstall packages, and update Portage.
434 </body> 721</p>
722
723</body>
435 </section> 724</section>
436
437 <section> 725<section>
438 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title> 726<title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
727<body>
728
729<p>
439 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and 730<path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
440 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options 731profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most
441 are as follows:</p> 732common options are as follows:
733</p>
734
442 <table> 735<table>
443 <tr> 736<tr>
444 <th>Flag</th> 737 <th>Flag</th>
445 <th>Description</th> 738 <th>Description</th>
446 </tr> 739</tr>
447 <tr> 740<tr>
448 <ti>CHOST</ti> 741 <ti>CHOST</ti>
742 <ti>
449 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti> 743 This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>
744 </ti>
450 </tr> 745</tr>
451 <tr> 746<tr>
452 <ti>CFLAGS</ti> 747 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
748 <ti>
453 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti> 749 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)
750 </ti>
454 </tr> 751</tr>
455 <tr> 752<tr>
456 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti> 753 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
754 <ti>
457 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc. 755 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,
458 files)</ti> 756 *.cpp etc. files)
757 </ti>
459 </tr> 758</tr>
460 <tr> 759<tr>
461 <ti>USE</ti> 760 <ti>USE</ti>
761 <ti>
462 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if 762 This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
463 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when 763 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string,
464 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are 764 then when you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All
465 also USE-aware.</ti> 765 our dependencies are also USE-aware.
766 </ti>
466 </tr> 767</tr>
467 <tr> 768<tr>
468 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti> 769 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
770 <ti>
469 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage 771 A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages.
470 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official 772 Portage will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before
471 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti> 773 trying the official <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors,
774 set this variable to "".
775 </ti>
472 </tr> 776</tr>
473 </table> 777</table>
778
474 </body> 779</body>
475 </section> 780</section>
476
477 <section> 781<section>
478 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title> 782<title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
479 <body> 783<body>
784
785<p>
480 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated; 786As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
481 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it. 787if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
482 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path> 788This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
483 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to, 789(<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
484 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>), 790<path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
485 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of 791which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
486 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first): 792the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
793</p>
794
487 <ol> 795<ol>
488 <li>Environment variables</li> 796 <li>Environment variables</li>
489 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li> 797 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
798 <li>
490 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li> 799 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults
800 </li>
801 <li>
491 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in 802 <path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified
492 any other place come from here)</li> 803 in any other place come from here)
493 </ol></p></body> 804 </li>
805</ol>
806
807</body>
494 </section> 808</section>
495
496 <section> 809<section>
497 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages 810<title>
498 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title> 811 Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e>
812 or <e>make World</e>?
813</title>
814<body>
815
816<p>
499 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to 817<b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c>
500 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with 818first) to update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c>
501 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages. 819(again, use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of
820all installed packages.
821</p>
502 822
503 823</body>
504 </p></body>
505 </section> 824</section>
506
507 <section> 825<section>
826<title>
508 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid 827 When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
509 clobbering my config files?</title> 828 clobbering my config files?
510 <body><p> 829</title>
830<body>
831
832<p>
511 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type 833Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
512 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if 834<c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is
513 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and 835that if a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>,
514 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will 836and another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path>
515 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful 837will instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A
516 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>, 838useful tool for examining and updating any protected config files is
517 which is now part of Portage. 839<c>etc-update</c>, which is now part of Portage.
518 </p></body> 840</p>
841
842</body>
519 </section> 843</section>
520
521 <section> 844<section>
522 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 845<title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
523 <body> 846<body>
847
524<p> 848<p>
525Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple 849Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
526ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>). 850ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
527Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it. 851Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
528</p> 852</p>
529 853
530<p> 854<p>
531Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild 855Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
532/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>. 856/usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
533</p> 857</p>
534 858
535<p> 859<p>
536Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>. 860Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
544into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with 868into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
545<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; 869<c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
546merge</c>. 870merge</c>.
547</p> 871</p>
548 872
549 </body> 873</body>
550 </section> 874</section>
551
552 <section> 875<section>
553 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title> 876<title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
554 <body><p> 877<body>
555 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit 878
556 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch 879<p>
557 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP. 880If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
558 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully 881<c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
559 supported. 882through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
883proxy is fully supported.
884</p>
885
560 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync"> 886<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
561~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre> 887# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
888</pre>
889
890<p>
562 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot 891If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
563 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>. 892from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
564 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove 893In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
565 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't 894your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
566 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put 895stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
567 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to 896<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
568 lose all your sourcecode. 897lose all your sourcecode.
898</p>
899
569 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots"> 900<pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
570<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote> 901<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
571~# <c>cd /usr</c> 902# <i>cd /usr</i>
572~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c> 903# <i>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</i>
573~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c> 904# <i>rm -rf /usr/portage</i>
574~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c> 905# <i>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</i>
575~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre> 906# <i>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</i>
576 </p></body> 907</pre>
908
909</body>
577 </section> 910</section>
578
579 <section> 911<section>
580 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title> 912<title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
581 <body><p> 913<body>
914
915<p>
582 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work, 916Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
583 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy 917edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
584 appropriately. 918appropriately.
585 </p></body> 919</p>
920
921</body>
586 </section> 922</section>
587
588 <section> 923<section>
589 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title> 924<title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
925<body>
926
927<p>
590 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from 928There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
591 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body> 929from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
930</p>
931
932</body>
592 </section> 933</section>
593
594 <section> 934<section>
935<title>
595 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and 936 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
596 add them to my system?</title> 937 else and add them to my system?
597 <body><p> 938</title>
939<body>
940
941<p>
598 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs 942Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
599 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to 943are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
600 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. 944to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
601 Download sources and bring them on any media 945sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
602 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run 946<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
603 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in! 947picking up the sources you just brought in!
604 </p></body> 948</p>
949
950</body>
605 </section> 951</section>
606
607 <section> 952<section>
608 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using 953<title>
609 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title> 954 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
610 <body><p> 955 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
956 files?
957</title>
958<body>
959
960<p>
611 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow 961Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
612 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if 962connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
613 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of 963possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
614 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you 964a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
615 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet 965upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
616 again. 966again.
617 </p></body> 967</p>
968
969</body>
618 </section> 970</section>
619
620 <section> 971<section>
972<title>
621 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards 973 I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
622 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre. 974 java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre.
623 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title> 975 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do?
624 976</title>
625 <body> 977<body>
626 <p>Solution: </p> 978
979<p>
980Solution:
981</p>
982
627 <pre caption = "Solution"> 983<pre caption = "Solution">
628# <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c> 984# <i>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </i>
629# <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c> 985# <i>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </i>
630 </pre> 986</pre>
631 987
632 </body> 988</body>
633 </section> 989</section>
634 <section> 990<section>
635 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title> 991<title>
992 What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and
993 directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?
994</title>
636 <body> 995<body>
637 <p> 996
638 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory. 997<p>
639 </p> 998During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
999<path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
1000directory.
1001</p>
1002
640 </body> 1003</body>
641 </section> 1004</section>
642</chapter> 1005</chapter>
643 1006
644<chapter> 1007<chapter>
645 <title>Usage</title> 1008<title>Usage</title>
646 <section> 1009<section>
1010<title>
647 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user 1011 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
648 account doesn't work. </title> 1012 user account doesn't work.
649 <body> 1013</title>
1014<body>
1015
650 <p> 1016<p>
651 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check 1017This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
652 for your user entry in 1018specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
653 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, 1019ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
654 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ; 1020the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
655 </p> 1021</p>
1022
1023<pre caption="Using usermod">
656 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre> 1024# <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
1025</pre>
1026
657 </body> 1027</body>
658 </section> 1028</section>
659
660 <section> 1029<section>
661 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title> 1030<title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
1031<body>
1032
1033<p>
662 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit 1034Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
663 set). Type the following as root:</p> 1035sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
1036</p>
1037
1038<pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
664 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre> 1039# <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
1040</pre>
1041
665 </body> 1042</body>
666 </section> 1043</section>
667
668 <section> 1044<section>
669 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title> 1045<title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
1046<body>
1047
1048<p>
670 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>. 1049Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script: 1050Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p> 1051<c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
1052</p>
1053
673 </body> 1054</body>
674 </section> 1055</section>
675
676 <section> 1056<section>
677 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title> 1057<title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
1058<body>
1059
1060<p>
678 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows: 1061<path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
1062follows:
679 </p> 1063</p>
1064
1065<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
680 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre> 1066# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
1067</pre>
1068
681 </body> 1069</body>
682 </section> 1070</section>
683
684 <section> 1071<section>
685 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title> 1072<title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
686 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde 1073<body>
687 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p> 1074
688 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre> 1075<p>
1076You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in
1077<path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde</path>, so that it reads as follows:
1078</p>
1079
1080<pre caption="Adding --login to startkde">
1081#!/bin/sh --login
1082</pre>
1083
1084<p>
689 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p> 1085This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.
1086</p>
1087
690 </body> 1088</body>
691 </section> 1089</section>
692
693 <section> 1090<section>
694 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 1091<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
1092<body>
1093
1094<p>
695 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group. 1095You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
696 </p> 1096</p>
1097
697 </body> 1098</body>
698 </section> 1099</section>
699
700 <section> 1100<section>
701 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title> 1101<title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
702 <body> 1102<body>
703 <p> 1103
1104<p>
704 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when 1105If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
705 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and 1106you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
706 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to 1107add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
707 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or 1108<path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
708 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such 1109<path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
709 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM. 1110as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
710 </p> 1111</p>
711 <p> 1112
1113<p>
712 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add 1114If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
713 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next 1115numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
714 reboot. 1116reboot.
715 </p> 1117</p>
716 </body> 1118
1119</body>
717 </section> 1120</section>
718 <section> 1121<section>
719 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title> 1122<title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
720 <body> 1123<body>
721 <p> 1124
1125<p>
722 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your 1126To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
723 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script: 1127<path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
724 </p> 1128</p>
1129
725 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout"> 1130<pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
726$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre> 1131$ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
727 <p> 1132</pre>
1133
1134<p>
728 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new 1135If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
729 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>: 1136user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
730 </p> 1137</p>
1138
731 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout"> 1139<pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
732# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre> 1140# <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
733 </body> 1141</body>
1142
734 </section> 1143</section>
735
736
737</chapter> 1144</chapter>
738 1145
739<chapter> 1146<chapter>
740 <title>Maintenance</title> 1147<title>Maintenance</title>
741 <section> 1148<section>
742 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title> 1149<title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
743 <body> 1150<body>
1151
744 <p> 1152<p>
745 If your
746 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo 1153If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
747 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 1154Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
748 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 1155the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
749 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 1156again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
750 to the corruption. 1157to the corruption.
751 </p> 1158</p>
1159
752 </body> 1160</body>
753 </section> 1161</section>
754<!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
755 <section> 1162<section>
1163<title>
756 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo 1164 How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5
757 system?</title> 1165 Gentoo system?
1166</title>
758 <body> 1167<body>
1168
1169<p>
759 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the 1170To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to
760 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p> 1171pipe the current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:
1172</p>
761 1173
762<pre> 1174<pre caption="Using tai64nlocal">
763# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i> 1175# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
764</pre> 1176</pre>
765 1177
1178<p>
766<p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p> 1179Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:
1180</p>
767 1181
768<pre> 1182<pre caption="Using tai64nlocal (bis)">
769# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i> 1183# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
770</pre> 1184</pre>
771 1185
772</body> 1186</body>
773 </section> 1187</section>
774 <section> 1188<section>
775 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title> 1189<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
776 <body> 1190<body>
777 1191
778<p> 1192<p>
779Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately 1193Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
780recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this 1194recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
781performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux 1195performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
782system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily 1196system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
792# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i> 1206# <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
793<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote> 1207<codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
794# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i> 1208# <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
795</pre> 1209</pre>
796 1210
797 </body> 1211</body>
798 </section> 1212</section>
799</chapter> 1213</chapter>
800 1214
801<chapter> 1215<chapter>
802 <title>Development</title> 1216<title>Development</title>
803 <section> 1217<section>
804 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title> 1218<title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
1219<body>
1220
1221<p>
805 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our 1222For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
806 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in 1223use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
1224also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
807 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network. 1225link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
808 </p></body> 1226</p>
1227
1228</body>
809 </section> 1229</section>
810
811 <section> 1230<section>
812 <title>How often are new releases made?</title> 1231<title>How often are new releases made?</title>
813 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 1232<body>
814 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves 1233
815 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc 1234<p>
1235New releases are announced on the <uri
1236link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
1237mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
1238main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc are released, that
816 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 1239tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
817 new modules get added.</p></body> 1240new modules get added.
1241</p>
1242
1243</body>
818 </section> 1244</section>
819
820 <section> 1245<section>
1246<title>
821 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title> 1247 I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?
1248</title>
1249<body>
1250
1251<p>
822 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type 1252Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
823 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body> 1253"ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.
1254</p>
1255
1256</body>
824 </section> 1257</section>
825
826 <section> 1258<section>
827 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title> 1259<title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
1260<body>
1261
1262<p>
828 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 1263Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
829 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body> 1264"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
1265</p>
1266
1267</body>
830 </section> 1268</section>
831
832 <section> 1269<section>
1270<title>
833 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title> 1271 make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors
834 <body><p> 1272</title>
1273<body>
1274
1275<p>
835 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running 1276Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
836 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, 1277<c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export
837 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>. 1278<c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
838 </p></body> 1279</p>
1280
1281</body>
839 </section> 1282</section>
840
841
842 <section> 1283<section>
1284<title>
843 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? 1285 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
844 </title> 1286 beeps?
845 <body> 1287</title>
846 <p> 1288<body>
1289
1290<p>
847 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ; 1291Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
1292</p>
848 1293
849 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre> 1294<pre caption="Using setterm">
1295# <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
1296</pre>
850 1297
1298<p>
851 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot 1299If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
852 you need to put this command in 1300you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
853 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
854 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable 1301this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
855 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the 1302beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
856 target terminal, like this ; 1303target terminal, like this:
1304</p>
857 1305
1306<pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
858 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre> 1307# <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
1308</pre>
859 1309
860 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal 1310<p>
861 you would like to disable console beeps for. 1311You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
862 </p> 1312console beeps for.
863 </body> 1313</p>
1314
1315</body>
864 </section> 1316</section>
865</chapter> 1317</chapter>
866 1318
867<chapter> 1319<chapter>
868<title>Resources</title> 1320<title>Resources</title>
869 <section> 1321<section>
1322<title>
870 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title> 1323 Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5
871 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body> 1324 and earlier?
1325</title>
1326<body>
1327
1328<p>
1329<uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri>
1330</p>
1331
1332</body>
872 </section> 1333</section>
873
874 <section> 1334<section>
875 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 1335<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
876 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body> 1336<body>
1337
1338<p>
1339The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1340<uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1341<uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1342</p>
1343
1344</body>
877 </section> 1345</section>
878
879<section> 1346<section>
880<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title> 1347<title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
881<body> 1348<body>
882 1349
1350<p>
883<p>Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on 1351Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
884our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you 1352our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
885purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. 1353purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
886So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-) 1354So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
887</p> 1355</p>
888 1356
894portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! 1362portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
895</p> 1363</p>
896 1364
897</body> 1365</body>
898</section> 1366</section>
899
900 <section> 1367<section>
1368<title>
901 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer 1369 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
902 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title> 1370 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1371</title>
903 <body> 1372<body>
1373
1374<p>
904 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging 1375The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
905 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against 1376(altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
906 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various 1377altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
907 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the 1378reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
908 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted. 1379entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1380</p>
909 1381
1382<p>
910 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that 1383Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
911 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most 1384your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
912 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you 1385users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
913 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to 1386don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
914 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at 1387the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
915 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>. 1388<uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1389</p>
916 1390
1391<p>
917 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily 1392Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
918 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides. 1393discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
919 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing 1394Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
920 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other 1395it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
921 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the 1396times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
922 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is 1397administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
923 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several 1398felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
924 reasons, many of these covered 1399reasons, many of these covered
925 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>. 1400<uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1401</p>
926 1402
1403<p>
927 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list 1404(There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
928 administrators have seen them.) </p> 1405administrators have seen them).
1406</p>
1407
929 </body> 1408</body>
930 </section> 1409</section>
931
932 <section> 1410<section>
933 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title> 1411<title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
934 <body> 1412<body>
935 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, 1413
936 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing 1414<p>
1415A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1416link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1417the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
937 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, 1418link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
938 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want 1419mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
939 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i> 1420else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
940 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>. 1421<c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
941 </p> 1422</p>
1423
942 </body> 1424</body>
943 </section> 1425</section>
944</chapter> 1426</chapter>
1427
945</guide> 1428</guide>

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