/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Diff of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log | View Patch Patch

Revision 1.54 Revision 1.55
1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.54 2004/03/13 12:36:56 swift Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.55 2004/03/15 12:25:45 swift Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title> 6<title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7<author title="Chief Architect"> 7<author title="Chief Architect">
35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team. 35please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36</abstract> 36</abstract>
37 37
38<license/> 38<license/>
39 39
40<version>1.1.12</version> 40<version>2.0</version>
41<date>January 27, 2004</date> 41<date>March 15, 2004</date>
42 42
43<chapter> 43<chapter>
44<title>Featured Questions</title> 44<title>Featured Questions</title>
45<section> 45<section>
46<title>Getting Started</title> 46<title>Getting Started</title>
47<body> 47<body>
48 48
49<ul> 49<ul>
50 <li> 50 <li>
51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean 51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 ?</uri> 52 mean?</uri>
53 </li> 53 </li>
54 <li> 54 <li>
55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri> 55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li> 56 </li>
57</ul> 57</ul>
62<title>Installation</title> 62<title>Installation</title>
63<body> 63<body>
64 64
65<ul> 65<ul>
66 <li> 66 <li>
67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and
68 .tbz2 files?</uri>
69 </li>
70 <li>
71 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes
72 have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and 67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
76 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What 68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
77 gives?</uri> 69 gives?</uri>
78 </li> 70 </li>
79 <li> 71 <li>
80 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after 72 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
81 installation?</uri> 73 password?</uri>
82 </li>
83 <li> 74 </li>
84 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other
85 user's) password?</uri>
86 </li> 75 <li>
87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li> 76 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
89 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
90 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
91 <li> 77 </li>
92 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away
93 when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri>
94 </li> 78 <li>
95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li> 79 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
96 <li> 80 </li>
97 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes
98 during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri>
99 </li> 81 <li>
82 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
100 <li> 83 </li>
101 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to
102 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri>
103 </li> 84 <li>
85 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
104 <li> 87 </li>
88 <li>
105 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what 89 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
106 should I do now?</uri> 90 I do now?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li> 91 </li>
92 <li>
109 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I 93 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
110 have to do?</uri> 94 have to do?</uri>
111 </li> 95 </li>
112</ul> 96</ul>
113 97
114</body> 98</body>
120<ul> 104<ul>
121 <li> 105 <li>
122 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri> 106 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
123 </li> 107 </li>
124 <li> 108 <li>
125 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead
126 of using BSD's version?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or
130 BSD's ports?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for
137 compiling packages?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri>
141 </li>
142 <li>
143 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed
144 packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild,
148 how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. 109 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
152 Can I?</uri> 110 Can I?</uri>
153 </li> 111 </li>
154 <li> 112 <li>
155 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> 113 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
156 </li>
157 <li> 114 </li>
115 <li>
158 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a 116 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I use emerge from behind a
159 firewall?</uri> 117 firewall?</uri>
160 </li> 118 </li>
161 <li> 119 <li>
162 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating 120 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">Can I rsync from another operating
163 system?</uri> 121 system?</uri>
164 </li> 122 </li>
165 <li> 123 <li>
166 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. 124 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
167 Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri> 125 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
168 </li>
169 <li> 126 </li>
127 <li>
170 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are 128 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
171 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to 129 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable spac. Is it safe to
172 delete these files?</uri> 130 delete there files?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li> 131 </li>
175 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and
176 blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only
177 list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri>
178 </li> 132 <li>
179 <li>
180 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to 133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
181 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri> 134 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
182 </li> 135 </li>
183</ul> 136</ul>
184 137
185</body> 138</body>
188<title>Usage</title> 141<title>Usage</title>
189<body> 142<body>
190 143
191<ul> 144<ul>
192 <li> 145 <li>
193 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can 146 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
194 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri> 147 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
195 </li> 148 </li>
196 <li> 149 <li>
197 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri> 150 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
198 </li>
199 <li> 151 </li>
152 <li>
200 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard 153 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
201 Layout?</uri> 154 Layout?</uri>
202 </li> 155 </li>
203 <li> 156 <li>
204 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri> 157 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
205 </li> 158 </li>
206 <li> 159 <li>
207 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri>
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri> 160 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
211 </li>
212 <li> 161 </li>
162 <li>
213 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri> 163 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
214 </li>
215 <li> 164 </li>
165 <li>
216 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log 166 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
217 out?</uri> 167 out?</uri>
218 </li> 168 </li>
219</ul> 169</ul>
220 170
221</body> 171</body>
224<title>Maintenance</title> 174<title>Maintenance</title>
225<body> 175<body>
226 176
227<ul> 177<ul>
228 <li> 178 <li>
229 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- 179 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
230 how to fix'em, etc...</uri> 180 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li> 181 </li>
233 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in
234 /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri>
235 </li> 182 <li>
236 <li>
237 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri> 183 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
238 </li> 184 </li>
239</ul> 185</ul>
240 186
241</body> 187</body>
242</section> 188</section>
243<section> 189<section>
244<title>Development</title> 190<title>Development</title>
245<body> 191<body>
246 192
247<ul> 193<ul>
194 <li>
248 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li> 195 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 </li>
197 <li>
249 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li> 198 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri>
250 <li> 199 </li>
251 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage;
252 how would I go about this?</uri>
253 </li> 200 <li>
254 <li>
255 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this 201 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">How can I add a question or answer to this
256 FAQ?</uri> 202 FAQ?</uri>
257 </li> 203 </li>
258 <li> 204 <li>
259 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces
260 "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri>
261 </li>
262 <li>
263 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling 205 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
264 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri> 206 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
265 </li> 207 </li>
266</ul> 208</ul>
267 209
268</body> 210</body>
269</section> 211</section>
271<title>Resources</title> 213<title>Resources</title>
272<body> 214<body>
273 215
274<ul> 216<ul>
275 <li> 217 <li>
276 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by
277 default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri>
278 </li>
279 <li>
280 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo 218 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
281 Linux?</uri> 219 Linux?</uri>
282 </li> 220 </li>
221 <li>
283 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li> 222 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
284 <li> 223 </li>
224 <li>
285 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo 225 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
286 mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the 226 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
287 entire list?</uri> 227 entire list?</uri>
288 </li> 228 </li>
289 <li> 229 <li>
290 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do 230 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
291 I do now?</uri> 231 do now?</uri>
292 </li> 232 </li>
293</ul> 233</ul>
294 234
295</body> 235</body>
296</section> 236</section>
302<section> 242<section>
303<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title> 243<title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
304<body> 244<body>
305 245
306<p> 246<p>
307Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in 247A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
308"gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). 248"g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
249penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
309</p> 251</p>
310 252
311</body> 253</body>
312</section> 254</section>
313<section> 255<section>
314<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title> 256<title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
315<body> 257<body>
316 258
317<p> 259<p>
318Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible 260Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
319design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to 261link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
320<uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>, 262that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
321<uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or 263Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
322<uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux 264link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
323distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports, 265conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
324meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest 266sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
325versions. 267link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
270</p>
271
272<p>
273With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277<e>meta-distribution</e>.
278</p>
279
280<p>
281Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
326</p> 286</p>
327 287
328</body> 288</body>
329</section> 289</section>
330</chapter> 290</chapter>
331 291
332<chapter> 292<chapter>
333<title>Installation</title> 293<title>Installation</title>
334<section>
335<title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
336<body>
337
338<p>
339The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
340that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
341Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
342contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
343necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
344as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
345Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
346and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
347the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
348Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
349Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
350on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
351untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.
352</p>
353
354</body>
355</section>
356<section>
357<title>
358 Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision)
359 numbers?
360</title>
361<body>
362
363<p>
364The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
365been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
366changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
367The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
368hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
369patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
370stabilise anytime soon.
371</p>
372
373</body>
374</section>
375<section> 294<section>
376<title> 295<title>
377 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math 296 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
378 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives? 297 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
379</title> 298</title>
381 300
382<p> 301<p>
383Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by 302Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by
384current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the 303current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
385compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite 304compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
386do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> 305do the same thing anymore.
387(on IRC)'s CFLAGS is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr
388-fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt
389-falign-functions=4</c>, which is about as much as I'd want to push global
390optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use ultra-high optimizations
391only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, (eg graphics
392and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
393to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.
394</p>
395
396<p> 306</p>
307
308<p>
397Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a 309Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
398bug. 310bug.
399</p> 311</p>
400 312
401</body> 313</body>
402</section> 314</section>
403<section> 315<section>
404<title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
405<body>
406
407<p>
408The default password is blank; hit enter.
409</p>
410
411</body>
412</section>
413<section>
414<title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title> 316<title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
415<body> 317<body>
416 318
417<p> 319<p>
418You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged 320You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
419into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've 321into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
462<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue 364<e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
463the following command as root: 365the following command as root:
464</p> 366</p>
465 367
466<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group"> 368<pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
467# <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i> 369# <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
468</pre>
469
470</body>
471</section>
472<section>
473<title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
474<body>
475
476<p>
477If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to
478get devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built
479into the kernel, didn't you?). However, if you are using a version of Gentoo
480Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add <c>devfs=mount</c> to your
481<c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something like
482<c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then
483mount the <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
484</p> 370</pre>
485 371
486</body> 372</body>
487</section> 373</section>
488<section> 374<section>
489<title>How to I disable devfs?</title> 375<title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
490<body> 376<body>
491 377
492<p> 378<p>
493Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the 379If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
494<c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. 380can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
381other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
382kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
383to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
384link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
495</p> 385</p>
496 386
497</body> 387</body>
498</section> 388</section>
499<section> 389<section>
500<title> 390<title>
501 How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that doesn't go away when I reboot 391 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
502 (when using devfs)?
503</title> 392</title>
504<body> 393<body>
505 394
506<p> 395<p>
507If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
508to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
509it will be preserved between reboots.
510</p>
511
512<p>
513All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> and add these
514lines:
515</p>
516
517<pre caption="Adding lines to /etc/devfsd.conf">
518REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
519UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
520</pre>
521
522<p>
523If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
524adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
525<c>killall -HUP devfsd</c> to get devfsd to reread
526<path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.
527</p>
528
529</body>
530</section>
531<section>
532<title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
533<body>
534
535<p>
536During installation the grub boot files are copied to <path>/boot/grub</path>
537(<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier.) Grub
538automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
539partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition
540mounted at <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to
541clobber your kernel and boot info by accident.) The above error generally
542arises from (a) not using a separate boot partition, (b) forgetting to mount
543the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either unpacking the build
544snapshot or running <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
545<c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
546You can get more information on grub, including how to debug grub from the
547grub prompt, by reading the <uri
548link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
549</p>
550
551</body>
552</section>
553<section>
554<title>
555 My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel
556 loading and hardware detection.
557</title>
558<body>
559
560<p>
561Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
562function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The
563Multi-Processor-System will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo
564Linux with the following boot option, noapic.
565</p>
566
567</body>
568</section>
569<section>
570<title>
571 If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without
572 reinstalling?
573</title>
574<body>
575
576<p>
577In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve 396In fact there is no difference between the various releases
578installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such 397<b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
5791.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is 398<c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
580<b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does 399will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
581<c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer. 400The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
582</p> 401</p>
583 402
584</body> 403</body>
585</section> 404</section>
586<section> 405<section>
666<section> 485<section>
667<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title> 486<title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
668<body> 487<body>
669 488
670<p> 489<p>
671They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are 490They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
672primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts 491primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
673(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build 492(<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
674apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. 493apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
675The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the 494The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
676contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we 495contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
680</p> 499</p>
681 500
682</body> 501</body>
683</section> 502</section>
684<section> 503<section>
685<title>
686 Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?
687</title>
688<body>
689
690<p>
691In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the
692design philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of
693what you'd type to install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy
694to learn and modify to your needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs,
695safe unmerging, system profiles, package masking, a real dependency system,
696and lots of other good stuff.
697</p>
698
699</body>
700</section>
701<section>
702<title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
703<body>
704
705<p>
706Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
707dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database.
708Think of Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the
709sensibilities and safety of a Linux package management system built-in.
710</p>
711
712</body>
713</section>
714<section>
715<title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
716<body>
717
718<p>
719The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how
720to install and uninstall packages, and update Portage.
721</p>
722
723</body>
724</section>
725<section>
726<title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
727<body>
728
729<p>
730<path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
731profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most
732common options are as follows:
733</p>
734
735<table>
736<tr>
737 <th>Flag</th>
738 <th>Description</th>
739</tr>
740<tr>
741 <ti>CHOST</ti>
742 <ti>
743 This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>
744 </ti>
745</tr>
746<tr>
747 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
748 <ti>
749 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)
750 </ti>
751</tr>
752<tr>
753 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
754 <ti>
755 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,
756 *.cpp etc. files)
757 </ti>
758</tr>
759<tr>
760 <ti>USE</ti>
761 <ti>
762 This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
763 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string,
764 then when you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All
765 our dependencies are also USE-aware.
766 </ti>
767</tr>
768<tr>
769 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
770 <ti>
771 A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages.
772 Portage will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before
773 trying the official <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors,
774 set this variable to "".
775 </ti>
776</tr>
777</table>
778
779</body>
780</section>
781<section>
782<title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
783<body>
784
785<p>
786As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
787if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
788This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
789(<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
790<path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
791which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
792the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
793</p>
794
795<ol>
796 <li>Environment variables</li>
797 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
798 <li>
799 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults
800 </li>
801 <li>
802 <path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified
803 in any other place come from here)
804 </li>
805</ol>
806
807</body>
808</section>
809<section>
810<title>
811 Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e>
812 or <e>make World</e>?
813</title>
814<body>
815
816<p>
817<b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c>
818first) to update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c>
819(again, use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of
820all installed packages.
821</p>
822
823</body>
824</section>
825<section>
826<title>
827 When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
828 clobbering my config files?
829</title>
830<body>
831
832<p>
833Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
834<c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is
835that if a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>,
836and another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path>
837will instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A
838useful tool for examining and updating any protected config files is
839<c>etc-update</c>, which is now part of Portage.
840</p>
841
842</body>
843</section>
844<section>
845<title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title> 504<title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
846<body> 505<body>
847 506
848<p> 507<p>
849Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple 508Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
883proxy is fully supported. 542proxy is fully supported.
884</p> 543</p>
885 544
886<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync"> 545<pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
887# <i>emerge-webrsync</i> 546# <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
888</pre>
889
890<p>
891If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
892from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
893In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
894your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
895stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
896<path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
897lose all your sourcecode.
898</p>
899
900<pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
901<codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
902# <i>cd /usr</i>
903# <i>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</i>
904# <i>rm -rf /usr/portage</i>
905# <i>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</i>
906# <i>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</i>
907</pre> 547</pre>
908 548
909</body> 549</body>
910</section> 550</section>
911<section> 551<section>
968 608
969</body> 609</body>
970</section> 610</section>
971<section> 611<section>
972<title> 612<title>
973 I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
974 java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre.
975 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do?
976</title>
977<body>
978
979<p>
980Solution:
981</p>
982
983<pre caption = "Solution">
984# <i>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </i>
985# <i>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </i>
986</pre>
987
988</body>
989</section>
990<section>
991<title>
992 What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and 613 What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and
993 directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? 614 directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?
994</title> 615</title>
995<body> 616<body>
996 617
1063</p> 684</p>
1064 685
1065<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf"> 686<pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
1066# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i> 687# <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
1067</pre> 688</pre>
1068
1069</body>
1070</section>
1071<section>
1072<title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
1073<body>
1074
1075<p>
1076You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in
1077<path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde</path>, so that it reads as follows:
1078</p>
1079
1080<pre caption="Adding --login to startkde">
1081#!/bin/sh --login
1082</pre>
1083
1084<p>
1085This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.
1086</p>
1087 689
1088</body> 690</body>
1089</section> 691</section>
1090<section> 692<section>
1091<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title> 693<title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
1154Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on 756Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
1155the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent 757the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
1156again, although you may have lost some files or directories due 758again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
1157to the corruption. 759to the corruption.
1158</p> 760</p>
1159
1160</body>
1161</section>
1162<section>
1163<title>
1164 How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5
1165 Gentoo system?
1166</title>
1167<body>
1168
1169<p>
1170To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to
1171pipe the current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:
1172</p>
1173
1174<pre caption="Using tai64nlocal">
1175# <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
1176</pre>
1177
1178<p>
1179Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:
1180</p>
1181
1182<pre caption="Using tai64nlocal (bis)">
1183# <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
1184</pre>
1185 761
1186</body> 762</body>
1187</section> 763</section>
1188<section> 764<section>
1189<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title> 765<title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
1233 809
1234<p> 810<p>
1235New releases are announced on the <uri 811New releases are announced on the <uri
1236link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> 812link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
1237mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the 813mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
1238main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc are released, that 814main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
1239tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when 815<uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
1240new modules get added.
1241</p>
1242
1243</body>
1244</section>
1245<section>
1246<title>
1247 I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?
1248</title>
1249<body>
1250
1251<p>
1252Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
1253"ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.
1254</p> 816</p>
1255 817
1256</body> 818</body>
1257</section> 819</section>
1258<section> 820<section>
1260<body> 822<body>
1261 823
1262<p> 824<p>
1263Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the 825Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
1264"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component. 826"Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
1265</p>
1266
1267</body>
1268</section>
1269<section>
1270<title>
1271 make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors
1272</title>
1273<body>
1274
1275<p>
1276Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
1277<c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export
1278<c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
1279</p> 827</p>
1280 828
1281</body> 829</body>
1282</section> 830</section>
1283<section> 831<section>
1316</section> 864</section>
1317</chapter> 865</chapter>
1318 866
1319<chapter> 867<chapter>
1320<title>Resources</title> 868<title>Resources</title>
1321<section>
1322<title>
1323 Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5
1324 and earlier?
1325</title>
1326<body>
1327
1328<p>
1329<uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri>
1330</p>
1331
1332</body>
1333</section>
1334<section> 869<section>
1335<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title> 870<title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
1336<body> 871<body>
1337 872
1338<p> 873<p>

Legend:
Removed from v.1.54  
changed lines
  Added in v.1.55

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20