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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.104 2006/02/13 15:36:26 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="sven.vermeulen@siphos.be">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.6</version>
48 <date>2006-11-28</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64 <ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72 </ul>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>Installation</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <ul>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125 Tarball?</uri>
126 </li>
127 </ul>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>Package Management</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <ul>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
141 Can I?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
145 firewall?</uri>
146 </li>
147 <li>
148 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
152 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
156 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
160 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
161 </li>
162 </ul>
163
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Usage</title>
168 <body>
169
170 <ul>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
173 Layout?</uri>
174 </li>
175 <li>
176 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
180 </li>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
186 out?</uri>
187 </li>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190 su'ing</uri>
191 </li>
192 </ul>
193
194 </body>
195 </section>
196 <section>
197 <title>Maintenance</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <ul>
201 <li>
202 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
203 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
204 </li>
205 </ul>
206
207 </body>
208 </section>
209 <section>
210 <title>Development</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <ul>
214 <li>
215 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
216 </li>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
219 </li>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
222 beeps?</uri>
223 </li>
224 </ul>
225
226 </body>
227 </section>
228 <section>
229 <title>Resources</title>
230 <body>
231
232 <ul>
233 <li>
234 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
235 Linux?</uri>
236 </li>
237 <li>
238 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
239 </li>
240 <li>
241 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
242 do now?</uri>
243 </li>
244 </ul>
245
246 </body>
247 </section>
248 </chapter>
249
250 <chapter>
251 <title>Getting Started</title>
252
253 <section id="pronunciation">
254 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
259 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
260 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
261 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 <section id="differences">
267 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
272 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
273 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
274 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
275 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
276 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
277 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
278 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
279 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
280 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
285 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
286 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
287 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
292 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
293 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
294 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
295 </p>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 </chapter>
300
301 <chapter>
302 <title>Installation</title>
303 <section id="optimizations">
304 <title>
305 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
306 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
307 </title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
312 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
313 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
314 do the same thing anymore.
315 </p>
316
317 <p>
318 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
319 reporting a bug.
320 </p>
321
322 </body>
323 </section>
324 <section id="password">
325 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
326 <body>
327
328 <p>
329 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
330 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
331 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
332 </p>
333
334 </body>
335 </section>
336 <section id="useradd">
337 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
342 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
343 him, so the following command is preferred:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Using useradd">
347 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
352 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
353 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
354 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
355 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section id="su">
361 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
366 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
367 as root:
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
371 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 <section id="devfs">
377 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <p>
381 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
382 <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
383 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
384 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
385 udev.
386 </p>
387
388 <p>
389 If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
390 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
391 </p>
392
393 </body>
394 </section>
395 <section id="upgrade">
396 <title>
397 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
398 </title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
403 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
404 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
405 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
406 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
407 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
408 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
409 </p>
410
411 </body>
412 </section>
413 <section id="bootrescue">
414 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
419 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
436 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
439 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
441 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444 # <i>exit</i>
445 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446 # <i>reboot</i>
447 </pre>
448
449 <p>
450 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
451 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
452 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453 </p>
454
455 </body>
456 </section>
457 <section id="proxy">
458 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
463 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
467 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
468 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
469 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
470 </pre>
471
472 </body>
473 </section>
474 <section id="isoburning">
475 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
476 <body>
477
478 <p>
479 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
480 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
481 </p>
482
483 <p>
484 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
485 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
486 </p>
487
488 <ul>
489 <li>
490 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
491 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
492 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
493 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
494 </li>
495 <li>
496 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
497 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
498 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
499 your brand new CD being burnt.
500 </li>
501 <li>
502 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
503 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
504 by the path to the ISO file :)
505 </li>
506 <li>
507 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
508 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
509 click <c>Start</c>.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
513 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
514 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
515 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
519 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
520 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
521 </li>
522 </ul>
523
524
525 </body>
526 </section>
527 <section id="cpus">
528 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
529 <body>
530
531 <p>
532 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
533 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
534 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
535 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
536 </p>
537
538 <p>
539 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
540 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
541 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
542 </p>
543
544 <p>
545 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
546 binary stages. Please see the <uri
547 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
548 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
549 </p>
550
551 </body>
552 </section>
553 <section id="dhcp">
554 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
555 <body>
556
557 <p>
558 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
559 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
560 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
561 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
562 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
563 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
564 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
565 </p>
566
567 <p>
568 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
569 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
570 </p>
571
572 <p>
573 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
574 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
575 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
576 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
577 </p>
578
579 <p>
580 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
581 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
582 </p>
583
584 </body>
585 </section>
586 <section id="dualboot">
587 <title>
588 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
589 should I do?
590 </title>
591 <body>
592
593 <p>
594 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
595 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
596 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
597 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
598 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
599 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
600 </p>
601
602 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
603 title Windows XP
604 map (hd1) (hd0)
605 map (hd0) (hd1)
606 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
607 chainloader +1
608 </pre>
609
610 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
611 other=/dev/hdb1
612 label=WindowsXP
613 table=/dev/hdb
614 map-drive = 0x80
615 to = 0x81
616 map-drive = 0x81
617 to = 0x80
618 </pre>
619
620 <p>
621 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
622 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
623 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
624 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
625 you're using.
626 </p>
627
628 </body>
629 </section>
630 <section id="stage12">
631 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
632 <body>
633
634 <p>
635 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
636 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
637 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
638 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
639 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
640 </p>
641
642 <p>
643 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
644 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
645 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
646 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
647 suit your needs and then run it:
648 </p>
649
650 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
651 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
652 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
653
654 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
655 </pre>
656
657 <p>
658 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
659 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
660 </p>
661
662 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
663 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
664 </pre>
665
666 <p>
667 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
668 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
669 </p>
670
671 </body>
672 </section>
673 </chapter>
674
675 <chapter>
676 <title>Package Management</title>
677 <section id="ebuilds">
678 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
679 <body>
680
681 <p>
682 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
683 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
684 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
685 releases and snapshots. The <uri
686 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
687 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
688 </p>
689
690 <p>
691 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
692 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
693 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
694 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
695 </p>
696
697 <p>
698 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
699 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
700 install packages.
701 </p>
702
703 </body>
704 </section>
705 <section id="configure">
706 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
707 <body>
708
709 <p>
710 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
711 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
712 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
713 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
714 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
715 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
716 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
717 </p>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 <section id="firewall">
722 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
723 <body>
724
725 <p>
726 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
727 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
728 files manually</uri>.
729 </p>
730
731 </body>
732 </section>
733 <section id="norsync">
734 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
735 <body>
736
737 <p>
738 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
739 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
740 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
741 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
742 a proxy.
743 </p>
744
745 </body>
746 </section>
747 <section id="manualdownload">
748 <title>
749 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
750 else and add them to my system?
751 </title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
756 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
757 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
758 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
759 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
760 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
761 </p>
762
763 </body>
764 </section>
765 <section id="distfiles">
766 <title>
767 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
768 delete these files?
769 </title>
770 <body>
771
772 <p>
773 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
774 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
775 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
776 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
777 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
778 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
779 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
780 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
781 at your own risk.
782 </p>
783
784 </body>
785 </section>
786 <section id="tmpportage">
787 <title>
788 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
789 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
790 </title>
791 <body>
792
793 <p>
794 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
795 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
796 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
797 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
798 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
799 </p>
800
801 </body>
802 </section>
803 </chapter>
804
805 <chapter>
806 <title>Usage</title>
807 <section id="intkeyboard">
808 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
809 <body>
810
811 <p>
812 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
813 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
814 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
815 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
816 localising your environment, refer to <uri
817 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
818 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
819 </p>
820
821 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
822 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
823 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
824 </pre>
825
826 </body>
827 </section>
828 <section id="rootdns">
829 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
830 <body>
831
832 <p>
833 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
834 follows:
835 </p>
836
837 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
838 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
839 </pre>
840
841 </body>
842 </section>
843 <section id="crontab">
844 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
845 <body>
846
847 <p>
848 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
849 </p>
850
851 </body>
852 </section>
853 <section id="numlock">
854 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
855 <body>
856
857 <p>
858 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
859 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
860 </p>
861
862 <p>
863 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
864 section or online manuals for assistance.
865 </p>
866
867 </body>
868 </section>
869 <section id="clear">
870 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
871 <body>
872
873 <p>
874 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
875 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
876 </p>
877
878 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
879 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
880 </pre>
881
882 <p>
883 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
884 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
885 </p>
886
887 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
888 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
889 </body>
890
891 </section>
892 <section id="suinx">
893 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
894 <body>
895
896 <p>
897 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
898 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
899 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
900 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
901 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
902 </p>
903
904 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
905 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
906 </pre>
907
908 </body>
909 </section>
910 </chapter>
911
912 <chapter>
913 <title>Maintenance</title>
914 <section id="filecorruption">
915 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
916 <body>
917
918 <p>
919 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
920 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
921 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
922 directories due to the corruption.
923 </p>
924
925 </body>
926 </section>
927 </chapter>
928
929 <chapter>
930 <title>Development</title>
931 <section id="reportbugs">
932 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
933 <body>
934
935 <p>
936 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
937 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
938 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
939 </p>
940
941 </body>
942 </section>
943 <section id="releases">
944 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
945 <body>
946
947 <p>
948 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
949 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
950 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
951 releases are announced on the <uri
952 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
953 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
954 </p>
955
956 </body>
957 </section>
958 <section id="beeping">
959 <title>
960 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
961 </title>
962 <body>
963
964 <p>
965 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
966 </p>
967
968 <pre caption="Using setterm">
969 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
970 </pre>
971
972 <p>
973 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
974 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
975 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
976 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
977
978 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
979 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
980 </pre>
981
982 <p>
983 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
984 console beeps for.
985 </p>
986
987 </body>
988 </section>
989 </chapter>
990
991 <chapter>
992 <title>Resources</title>
993 <section id="resources">
994 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
995 <body>
996
997 <p>
998 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
999 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
1000 </p>
1001
1002 </body>
1003 </section>
1004 <section id="buycd">
1005 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1006 <body>
1007
1008 <p>
1009 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
1010 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1011 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
1012 please consider buying from our store if possible.
1013 </p>
1014
1015 <p>
1016 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1017 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1018 </p>
1019
1020 </body>
1021 </section>
1022 <section id="help">
1023 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1024 <body>
1025
1026 <p>
1027 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1028 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1029 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1030 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1031 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1032 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1033 </p>
1034
1035 </body>
1036 </section>
1037 </chapter>
1038
1039 </guide>

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