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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">
10 Colin Morey
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13 John P. Davis
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 </author>
36
37 <abstract>
38 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 mailing list and from IRC.
40 </abstract>
41
42 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 <license/>
45
46 <version>3.6</version>
47 <date>2006-02-13</date>
48
49 <faqindex>
50 <title>Questions</title>
51 <section>
52 <title>Introduction</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60 answered here.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </section>
65 </faqindex>
66
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Getting Started</title>
69
70 <section id="pronunciation">
71 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
76 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
77 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
78 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
79 </p>
80
81 </body>
82 </section>
83 <section id="differences">
84 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
85 <body>
86
87 <p>
88 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
89 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
90 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
91 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
92 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
93 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
94 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
95 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
96 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
97 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
98 </p>
99
100 <p>
101 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
102 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
103 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
104 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
105 </p>
106
107 <p>
108 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
109 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
110 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
111 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
112 </p>
113
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 </chapter>
117
118 <chapter>
119 <title>Installation</title>
120 <section id="optimizations">
121 <title>
122 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
123 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
124 </title>
125 <body>
126
127 <p>
128 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
129 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
130 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
131 do the same thing anymore.
132 </p>
133
134 <p>
135 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
136 reporting a bug.
137 </p>
138
139 </body>
140 </section>
141 <section id="password">
142 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
143 <body>
144
145 <p>
146 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
147 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
148 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
149 </p>
150
151 </body>
152 </section>
153 <section id="useradd">
154 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
155 <body>
156
157 <p>
158 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
159 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
160 him, so the following command is preferred:
161 </p>
162
163 <pre caption="Using useradd">
164 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
165 </pre>
166
167 <p>
168 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
169 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
170 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
171 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
172 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
173 </p>
174
175 </body>
176 </section>
177 <section id="su">
178 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
179 <body>
180
181 <p>
182 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
183 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
184 as root:
185 </p>
186
187 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
188 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
189 </pre>
190
191 </body>
192 </section>
193 <section id="devfs">
194 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
195 <body>
196
197 <p>
198 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
199 <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
200 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
201 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
202 udev.
203 </p>
204
205 <p>
206 If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
207 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
208 </p>
209
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 <section id="upgrade">
213 <title>
214 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
215 </title>
216 <body>
217
218 <p>
219 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
220 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
221 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
222 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
223 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
224 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
225 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
226 </p>
227
228 </body>
229 </section>
230 <section id="bootrescue">
231 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
232 <body>
233
234 <p>
235 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
236 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
237 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
238 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
239 </p>
240
241 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
242 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
243 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
244 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
245 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
246 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
247 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
248 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
249 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
250 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
251 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
252 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
253 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
254 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
255 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
256 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
257 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
258 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
259 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
260 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
261 # <i>exit</i>
262 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
263 # <i>reboot</i>
264 </pre>
265
266 <p>
267 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
268 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
269 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
270 </p>
271
272 </body>
273 </section>
274 <section id="proxy">
275 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
276 <body>
277
278 <p>
279 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
280 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
281 </p>
282
283 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
284 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
285 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
286 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
287 </pre>
288
289 </body>
290 </section>
291 <section id="isoburning">
292 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
293 <body>
294
295 <p>
296 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
297 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
298 </p>
299
300 <p>
301 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
302 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
303 </p>
304
305 <ul>
306 <li>
307 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
308 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
309 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
310 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
314 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
315 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
316 your brand new CD being burnt.
317 </li>
318 <li>
319 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
320 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
321 by the path to the ISO file :)
322 </li>
323 <li>
324 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
325 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
326 click <c>Start</c>.
327 </li>
328 <li>
329 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
330 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
331 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
332 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
333 </li>
334 <li>
335 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
336 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
337 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
338 </li>
339 </ul>
340
341
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 <section id="cpus">
345 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
346 <body>
347
348 <p>
349 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
350 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
351 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
352 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
357 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
358 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
359 </p>
360
361 <p>
362 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
363 binary stages. Please see the <uri
364 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
365 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section id="dhcp">
371 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
376 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
377 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
378 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
379 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
380 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
381 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
382 </p>
383
384 <p>
385 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
386 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
387 </p>
388
389 <p>
390 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
391 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
392 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
393 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
398 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
399 </p>
400
401 </body>
402 </section>
403 <section id="dualboot">
404 <title>
405 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
406 should I do?
407 </title>
408 <body>
409
410 <p>
411 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
412 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
413 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
414 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
415 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
416 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
420 title Windows XP
421 map (hd1) (hd0)
422 map (hd0) (hd1)
423 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
424 chainloader +1
425 </pre>
426
427 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
428 other=/dev/hdb1
429 label=WindowsXP
430 table=/dev/hdb
431 map-drive = 0x80
432 to = 0x81
433 map-drive = 0x81
434 to = 0x80
435 </pre>
436
437 <p>
438 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
439 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
440 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
441 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
442 you're using.
443 </p>
444
445 </body>
446 </section>
447 <section id="stage12">
448 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
449 <body>
450
451 <p>
452 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
453 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
454 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
455 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
456 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
457 </p>
458
459 <p>
460 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
461 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
462 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
463 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
464 suit your needs and then run it:
465 </p>
466
467 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
468 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
469 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
470
471 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
472 </pre>
473
474 <p>
475 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
476 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
477 </p>
478
479 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
480 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
481 </pre>
482
483 <p>
484 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
485 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
486 </p>
487
488 </body>
489 </section>
490 </chapter>
491
492 <chapter>
493 <title>Package Management</title>
494 <section id="ebuilds">
495 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
496 <body>
497
498 <p>
499 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
500 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
501 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
502 releases and snapshots. The <uri
503 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
504 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
505 </p>
506
507 <p>
508 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
509 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
510 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
511 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
512 </p>
513
514 <p>
515 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
516 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
517 install packages.
518 </p>
519
520 </body>
521 </section>
522 <section id="configure">
523 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
528 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
529 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
530 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
531 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
532 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
533 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
534 </p>
535
536 </body>
537 </section>
538 <section id="firewall">
539 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
540 <body>
541
542 <p>
543 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
544 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
545 files manually</uri>.
546 </p>
547
548 </body>
549 </section>
550 <section id="norsync">
551 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
552 <body>
553
554 <p>
555 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
556 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
557 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
558 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
559 a proxy.
560 </p>
561
562 </body>
563 </section>
564 <section id="manualdownload">
565 <title>
566 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
567 else and add them to my system?
568 </title>
569 <body>
570
571 <p>
572 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
573 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
574 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
575 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
576 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
577 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
578 </p>
579
580 </body>
581 </section>
582 <section id="distfiles">
583 <title>
584 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
585 delete these files?
586 </title>
587 <body>
588
589 <p>
590 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
591 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
592 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
593 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
594 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
595 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
596 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
597 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
598 at your own risk.
599 </p>
600
601 </body>
602 </section>
603 <section id="tmpportage">
604 <title>
605 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
606 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
607 </title>
608 <body>
609
610 <p>
611 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
612 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
613 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
614 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
615 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
616 </p>
617
618 </body>
619 </section>
620 </chapter>
621
622 <chapter>
623 <title>Usage</title>
624 <section id="intkeyboard">
625 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
626 <body>
627
628 <p>
629 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
630 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
631 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
632 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
633 localising your environment, refer to <uri
634 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
635 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
636 </p>
637
638 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
639 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
640 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
641 </pre>
642
643 </body>
644 </section>
645 <section id="rootdns">
646 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
647 <body>
648
649 <p>
650 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
651 follows:
652 </p>
653
654 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
655 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
656 </pre>
657
658 </body>
659 </section>
660 <section id="crontab">
661 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
662 <body>
663
664 <p>
665 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
666 </p>
667
668 </body>
669 </section>
670 <section id="numlock">
671 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
672 <body>
673
674 <p>
675 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
676 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
677 </p>
678
679 <p>
680 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
681 section or online manuals for assistance.
682 </p>
683
684 </body>
685 </section>
686 <section id="clear">
687 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
688 <body>
689
690 <p>
691 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
692 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
693 </p>
694
695 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
696 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
697 </pre>
698
699 <p>
700 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
701 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
702 </p>
703
704 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
705 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
706 </body>
707
708 </section>
709 <section id="suinx">
710 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
711 <body>
712
713 <p>
714 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
715 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
716 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
717 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
718 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
719 </p>
720
721 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
722 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
723 </pre>
724
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 </chapter>
728
729 <chapter>
730 <title>Maintenance</title>
731 <section id="filecorruption">
732 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
737 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
738 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
739 directories due to the corruption.
740 </p>
741
742 </body>
743 </section>
744 </chapter>
745
746 <chapter>
747 <title>Development</title>
748 <section id="reportbugs">
749 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
750 <body>
751
752 <p>
753 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
754 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
755 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
756 </p>
757
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 <section id="releases">
761 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
762 <body>
763
764 <p>
765 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
766 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
767 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
768 releases are announced on the <uri
769 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
770 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
771 </p>
772
773 </body>
774 </section>
775 <section id="beeping">
776 <title>
777 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
778 </title>
779 <body>
780
781 <p>
782 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
783 </p>
784
785 <pre caption="Using setterm">
786 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
787 </pre>
788
789 <p>
790 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
791 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
792 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
793 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
794
795 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
796 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
797 </pre>
798
799 <p>
800 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
801 console beeps for.
802 </p>
803
804 </body>
805 </section>
806 </chapter>
807
808 <chapter>
809 <title>Resources</title>
810 <section id="resources">
811 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
812 <body>
813
814 <p>
815 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
816 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
817 </p>
818
819 </body>
820 </section>
821 <section id="buycd">
822 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
823 <body>
824
825 <p>
826 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
827 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
828 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
829 please consider buying from our store if possible.
830 </p>
831
832 <p>
833 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
834 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
835 </p>
836
837 </body>
838 </section>
839 <section id="help">
840 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
841 <body>
842
843 <p>
844 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
845 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
846 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
847 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
848 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
849 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
850 </p>
851
852 </body>
853 </section>
854 </chapter>
855
856 </guide>

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