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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">
10 Colin Morey
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13 John P. Davis
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 </author>
36
37 <abstract>
38 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 mailing list and from IRC.
40 </abstract>
41
42 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 <license/>
45
46 <version>3.7</version>
47 <date>2007-10-15</date>
48
49 <faqindex>
50 <title>Questions</title>
51 <section>
52 <title>Introduction</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60 answered here.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </section>
65 </faqindex>
66
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Getting Started</title>
69
70 <section id="pronunciation">
71 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
76 "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
77 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
78 <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
79 by the inhabitants of the <uri
80 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
81 </p>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 <section id="differences">
86 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
91 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
92 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
93 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
94 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
95 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
96 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
97 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
98 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
99 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
104 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
105 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
106 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
111 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
112 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
113 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 </chapter>
119
120 <chapter>
121 <title>Installation</title>
122 <section id="optimizations">
123 <title>
124 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
125 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
126 </title>
127 <body>
128
129 <p>
130 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
131 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
132 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
133 do the same thing anymore.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
138 reporting a bug.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section id="password">
144 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
149 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
150 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
151 </p>
152
153 </body>
154 </section>
155 <section id="useradd">
156 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
157 <body>
158
159 <p>
160 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
161 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
162 him, so the following command is preferred:
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Using useradd">
166 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
167 </pre>
168
169 <p>
170 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
171 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
172 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
173 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
174 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
175 </p>
176
177 </body>
178 </section>
179 <section id="su">
180 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
185 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
186 as root:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
190 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
191 </pre>
192
193 </body>
194 </section>
195 <section id="devfs">
196 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
197 <body>
198
199 <p>
200 Gentoo can work with devfs kernel support, udev userland support or static
201 <path>/dev</path>. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
202 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
203 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
204 udev.
205 </p>
206
207 <p>
208 If you want to use the static <path>/dev</path>, please set
209 <c>RC_DEVICES="static"</c> in <path>/etc/conf.d/rc</path>.
210 </p>
211
212 </body>
213 </section>
214 <section id="upgrade">
215 <title>
216 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
217 </title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
222 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
223 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
224 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
225 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
226 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
227 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
228 </p>
229
230 </body>
231 </section>
232 <section id="bootrescue">
233 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
234 <body>
235
236 <p>
237 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
238 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
239 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
240 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
241 </p>
242
243 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
244 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
245 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
246 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
247 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
248 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
249 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
250 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
251 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
252 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
253 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
254 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
255 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
256 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
257 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
258 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
259 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
260 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
261 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
262 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
263 # <i>exit</i>
264 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
265 # <i>reboot</i>
266 </pre>
267
268 <p>
269 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
270 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
271 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
272 </p>
273
274 </body>
275 </section>
276 <section id="proxy">
277 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
278 <body>
279
280 <p>
281 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
282 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
283 </p>
284
285 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
286 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
287 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
288 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
289 </pre>
290
291 </body>
292 </section>
293 <section id="isoburning">
294 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
295 <body>
296
297 <p>
298 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
299 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
300 </p>
301
302 <p>
303 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
304 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
305 </p>
306
307 <ul>
308 <li>
309 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
310 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
311 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
312 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
313 </li>
314 <li>
315 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
316 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
317 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
318 your brand new CD being burnt.
319 </li>
320 <li>
321 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
322 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
323 by the path to the ISO file :)
324 </li>
325 <li>
326 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
327 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
328 click <c>Start</c>.
329 </li>
330 <li>
331 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
332 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
333 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
334 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
335 </li>
336 <li>
337 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
338 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
339 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
340 </li>
341 </ul>
342
343
344 </body>
345 </section>
346 <section id="cpus">
347 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
348 <body>
349
350 <p>
351 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
352 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
353 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
354 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
355 </p>
356
357 <p>
358 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
359 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
360 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
365 binary stages. Please see the <uri
366 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
367 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
368 </p>
369
370 </body>
371 </section>
372 <section id="dhcp">
373 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
378 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
379 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
380 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
381 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
382 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
383 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
384 </p>
385
386 <p>
387 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
388 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
389 </p>
390
391 <p>
392 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
393 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
394 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
395 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
396 </p>
397
398 <p>
399 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
400 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </section>
405 <section id="dualboot">
406 <title>
407 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
408 should I do?
409 </title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
414 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
415 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
416 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
417 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
418 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
422 title Windows XP
423 map (hd1) (hd0)
424 map (hd0) (hd1)
425 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
426 chainloader +1
427 </pre>
428
429 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
430 other=/dev/hdb1
431 label=WindowsXP
432 table=/dev/hdb
433 map-drive = 0x80
434 to = 0x81
435 map-drive = 0x81
436 to = 0x80
437 </pre>
438
439 <p>
440 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
441 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
442 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
443 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
444 you're using.
445 </p>
446
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 <section id="stage12">
450 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
451 <body>
452
453 <p>
454 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
455 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
456 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
457 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
458 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
459 </p>
460
461 <p>
462 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
463 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
464 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
465 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
466 suit your needs and then run it:
467 </p>
468
469 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
470 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
471 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
472
473 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
474 </pre>
475
476 <p>
477 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
478 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
479 </p>
480
481 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
482 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
483 </pre>
484
485 <p>
486 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
487 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
488 </p>
489
490 </body>
491 </section>
492 </chapter>
493
494 <chapter>
495 <title>Package Management</title>
496 <section id="ebuilds">
497 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
498 <body>
499
500 <p>
501 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
502 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
503 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
504 releases and snapshots. The <uri
505 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
506 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
511 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
512 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
513 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
514 </p>
515
516 <p>
517 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
518 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
519 install packages.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </section>
524 <section id="configure">
525 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
526 <body>
527
528 <p>
529 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
530 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
531 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
532 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
533 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
534 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
535 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </section>
540 <section id="firewall">
541 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
542 <body>
543
544 <p>
545 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
546 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
547 files manually</uri>.
548 </p>
549
550 </body>
551 </section>
552 <section id="norsync">
553 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
554 <body>
555
556 <p>
557 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
558 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
559 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
560 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
561 a proxy.
562 </p>
563
564 </body>
565 </section>
566 <section id="manualdownload">
567 <title>
568 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
569 else and add them to my system?
570 </title>
571 <body>
572
573 <p>
574 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
575 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
576 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
577 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
578 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
579 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
580 </p>
581
582 </body>
583 </section>
584 <section id="distfiles">
585 <title>
586 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
587 delete these files?
588 </title>
589 <body>
590
591 <p>
592 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
593 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
594 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
595 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
596 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
597 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
598 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
599 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
600 at your own risk.
601 </p>
602
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 <section id="tmpportage">
606 <title>
607 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
608 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
609 </title>
610 <body>
611
612 <p>
613 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
614 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
615 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
616 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
617 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
618 </p>
619
620 </body>
621 </section>
622 </chapter>
623
624 <chapter>
625 <title>Usage</title>
626 <section id="intkeyboard">
627 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
628 <body>
629
630 <p>
631 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
632 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
633 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
634 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
635 localising your environment, refer to <uri
636 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
637 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
638 </p>
639
640 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
641 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
642 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
643 </pre>
644
645 </body>
646 </section>
647 <section id="rootdns">
648 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
649 <body>
650
651 <p>
652 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
653 follows:
654 </p>
655
656 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
657 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
658 </pre>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 <section id="crontab">
663 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
664 <body>
665
666 <p>
667 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
668 </p>
669
670 </body>
671 </section>
672 <section id="numlock">
673 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
674 <body>
675
676 <p>
677 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
678 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
679 </p>
680
681 <p>
682 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
683 section or online manuals for assistance.
684 </p>
685
686 </body>
687 </section>
688 <section id="clear">
689 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
690 <body>
691
692 <p>
693 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
694 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
695 </p>
696
697 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
698 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
699 </pre>
700
701 <p>
702 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
703 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
704 </p>
705
706 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
707 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
708 </body>
709
710 </section>
711 <section id="suinx">
712 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
713 <body>
714
715 <p>
716 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
717 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
718 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
719 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
720 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
721 </p>
722
723 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
724 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
725 </pre>
726
727 </body>
728 </section>
729 </chapter>
730
731 <chapter>
732 <title>Maintenance</title>
733 <section id="filecorruption">
734 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
735 <body>
736
737 <p>
738 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
739 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
740 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
741 directories due to the corruption.
742 </p>
743
744 </body>
745 </section>
746 </chapter>
747
748 <chapter>
749 <title>Development</title>
750 <section id="reportbugs">
751 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
756 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
757 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
758 </p>
759
760 </body>
761 </section>
762 <section id="releases">
763 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
764 <body>
765
766 <p>
767 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
768 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
769 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
770 releases are announced on the <uri
771 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
772 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
773 </p>
774
775 </body>
776 </section>
777 <section id="beeping">
778 <title>
779 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
780 </title>
781 <body>
782
783 <p>
784 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
785 </p>
786
787 <pre caption="Using setterm">
788 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
789 </pre>
790
791 <p>
792 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
793 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
794 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
795 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
796
797 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
798 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
799 </pre>
800
801 <p>
802 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
803 console beeps for.
804 </p>
805
806 </body>
807 </section>
808 </chapter>
809
810 <chapter>
811 <title>Resources</title>
812 <section id="resources">
813 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
814 <body>
815
816 <p>
817 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
818 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
819 </p>
820
821 </body>
822 </section>
823 <section id="buycd">
824 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
825 <body>
826
827 <p>
828 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
829 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
830 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
831 please consider buying from our store if possible.
832 </p>
833
834 <p>
835 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
836 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
837 </p>
838
839 </body>
840 </section>
841 <section id="help">
842 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
843 <body>
844
845 <p>
846 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
847 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
848 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
849 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
850 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
851 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
852 </p>
853
854 </body>
855 </section>
856 </chapter>
857
858 </guide>

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