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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">
10 Colin Morey
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13 John P. Davis
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 </author>
36
37 <abstract>
38 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
39 mailing list and from IRC.
40 </abstract>
41
42 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
43 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
44 <license/>
45
46 <version>3.8</version>
47 <date>2008-02-19</date>
48
49 <faqindex>
50 <title>Questions</title>
51 <section>
52 <title>Introduction</title>
53 <body>
54
55 <p>
56 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
57 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
58 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
59 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
60 answered here.
61 </p>
62
63 </body>
64 </section>
65 </faqindex>
66
67 <chapter>
68 <title>Getting Started</title>
69
70 <section id="pronunciation">
71 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
72 <body>
73
74 <p>
75 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
76 "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
77 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
78 <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
79 by the inhabitants of the <uri
80 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
81 </p>
82
83 </body>
84 </section>
85 <section id="differences">
86 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
87 <body>
88
89 <p>
90 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
91 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
92 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
93 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
94 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
95 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
96 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
97 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
98 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
99 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
100 </p>
101
102 <p>
103 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
104 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
105 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
106 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
107 </p>
108
109 <p>
110 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
111 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
112 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
113 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
114 </p>
115
116 </body>
117 </section>
118 </chapter>
119
120 <chapter>
121 <title>Installation</title>
122 <section id="optimizations">
123 <title>
124 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
125 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
126 </title>
127 <body>
128
129 <p>
130 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
131 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
132 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
133 do the same thing anymore.
134 </p>
135
136 <p>
137 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
138 reporting a bug.
139 </p>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section id="password">
144 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <p>
148 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
149 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
150 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
151 </p>
152
153 </body>
154 </section>
155 <section id="useradd">
156 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
157 <body>
158
159 <p>
160 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
161 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
162 him, so the following command is preferred:
163 </p>
164
165 <pre caption="Using useradd">
166 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
167 </pre>
168
169 <p>
170 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
171 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
172 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
173 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
174 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
175 </p>
176
177 </body>
178 </section>
179 <section id="su">
180 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
181 <body>
182
183 <p>
184 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
185 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
186 as root:
187 </p>
188
189 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
190 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
191 </pre>
192
193 </body>
194 </section>
195 <section id="upgrade">
196 <title>
197 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
198 </title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
203 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
204 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
205 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
206 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
207 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
208 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
209 </p>
210
211 </body>
212 </section>
213 <section id="bootrescue">
214 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
215 <body>
216
217 <p>
218 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
219 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
220 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
221 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
222 </p>
223
224 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
225 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
226 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
227 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
228 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
229 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
230 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
231 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
232 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
233 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
234 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
235 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
236 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
237 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
238 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
239 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
240 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
241 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
242 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
243 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
244 # <i>exit</i>
245 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
246 # <i>reboot</i>
247 </pre>
248
249 <p>
250 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
251 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
252 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
253 </p>
254
255 </body>
256 </section>
257 <section id="proxy">
258 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
259 <body>
260
261 <p>
262 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
263 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
264 </p>
265
266 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
267 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
268 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
269 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
270 </pre>
271
272 </body>
273 </section>
274 <section id="isoburning">
275 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
276 <body>
277
278 <p>
279 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
280 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
285 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
286 </p>
287
288 <ul>
289 <li>
290 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
291 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
292 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
293 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
294 </li>
295 <li>
296 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
297 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
298 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
299 your brand new CD being burnt.
300 </li>
301 <li>
302 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
303 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
304 by the path to the ISO file :)
305 </li>
306 <li>
307 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
308 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
309 click <c>Start</c>.
310 </li>
311 <li>
312 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
313 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
314 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
315 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
319 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
320 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
321 </li>
322 </ul>
323
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section id="cpus">
328 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
333 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
334 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
335 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
336 </p>
337
338 <p>
339 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
340 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
341 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
342 </p>
343
344 <p>
345 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
346 binary stages. Please see the <uri
347 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
348 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
349 </p>
350
351 </body>
352 </section>
353 <section id="dhcp">
354 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
355 <body>
356
357 <p>
358 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
359 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
360 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
361 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
362 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
363 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
364 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
365 </p>
366
367 <p>
368 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
369 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
370 </p>
371
372 <p>
373 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
374 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
375 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
376 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
377 </p>
378
379 <p>
380 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
381 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
382 </p>
383
384 </body>
385 </section>
386 <section id="dualboot">
387 <title>
388 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
389 should I do?
390 </title>
391 <body>
392
393 <p>
394 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
395 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
396 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
397 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
398 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
399 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
400 </p>
401
402 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
403 title Windows XP
404 map (hd1) (hd0)
405 map (hd0) (hd1)
406 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
407 chainloader +1
408 </pre>
409
410 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
411 other=/dev/hdb1
412 label=WindowsXP
413 table=/dev/hdb
414 map-drive = 0x80
415 to = 0x81
416 map-drive = 0x81
417 to = 0x80
418 </pre>
419
420 <p>
421 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
422 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
423 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
424 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
425 you're using.
426 </p>
427
428 </body>
429 </section>
430 <section id="stage12">
431 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
432 <body>
433
434 <p>
435 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
436 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
437 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
438 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
439 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
440 </p>
441
442 <p>
443 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
444 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
445 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
446 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
447 suit your needs and then run it:
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
451 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
452 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
453
454 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
455 </pre>
456
457 <p>
458 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
459 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
460 </p>
461
462 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
463 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
468 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
469 </p>
470
471 </body>
472 </section>
473 </chapter>
474
475 <chapter>
476 <title>Package Management</title>
477 <section id="ebuilds">
478 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
479 <body>
480
481 <p>
482 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
483 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
484 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
485 releases and snapshots. The <uri
486 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
487 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
488 </p>
489
490 <p>
491 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
492 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
493 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
494 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
495 </p>
496
497 <p>
498 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
499 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
500 install packages.
501 </p>
502
503 </body>
504 </section>
505 <section id="configure">
506 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
507 <body>
508
509 <p>
510 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
511 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
512 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
513 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
514 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
515 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
516 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
517 </p>
518
519 </body>
520 </section>
521 <section id="firewall">
522 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
523 <body>
524
525 <p>
526 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
527 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
528 files manually</uri>.
529 </p>
530
531 </body>
532 </section>
533 <section id="norsync">
534 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
535 <body>
536
537 <p>
538 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
539 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
540 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
541 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
542 a proxy.
543 </p>
544
545 </body>
546 </section>
547 <section id="manualdownload">
548 <title>
549 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
550 else and add them to my system?
551 </title>
552 <body>
553
554 <p>
555 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
556 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
557 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
558 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
559 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
560 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
561 </p>
562
563 </body>
564 </section>
565 <section id="distfiles">
566 <title>
567 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
568 delete these files?
569 </title>
570 <body>
571
572 <p>
573 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
574 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
575 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
576 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
577 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
578 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
579 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
580 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
581 at your own risk.
582 </p>
583
584 </body>
585 </section>
586 <section id="tmpportage">
587 <title>
588 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
589 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
590 </title>
591 <body>
592
593 <p>
594 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
595 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
596 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
597 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
598 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
599 </p>
600
601 </body>
602 </section>
603 </chapter>
604
605 <chapter>
606 <title>Usage</title>
607 <section id="intkeyboard">
608 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
609 <body>
610
611 <p>
612 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
613 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
614 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
615 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
616 localising your environment, refer to <uri
617 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
618 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
619 </p>
620
621 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
622 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
623 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
624 </pre>
625
626 </body>
627 </section>
628 <section id="rootdns">
629 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
630 <body>
631
632 <p>
633 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
634 follows:
635 </p>
636
637 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
638 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
639 </pre>
640
641 </body>
642 </section>
643 <section id="crontab">
644 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
645 <body>
646
647 <p>
648 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
649 </p>
650
651 </body>
652 </section>
653 <section id="numlock">
654 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
655 <body>
656
657 <p>
658 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
659 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
660 </p>
661
662 <p>
663 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
664 section or online manuals for assistance.
665 </p>
666
667 </body>
668 </section>
669 <section id="clear">
670 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
671 <body>
672
673 <p>
674 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
675 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
676 </p>
677
678 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
679 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
680 </pre>
681
682 <p>
683 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
684 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
685 </p>
686
687 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
688 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
689 </body>
690
691 </section>
692 <section id="suinx">
693 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
694 <body>
695
696 <p>
697 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
698 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
699 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
700 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
701 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
702 </p>
703
704 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
705 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
706 </pre>
707
708 </body>
709 </section>
710 </chapter>
711
712 <chapter>
713 <title>Maintenance</title>
714 <section id="filecorruption">
715 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
716 <body>
717
718 <p>
719 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
720 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
721 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
722 directories due to the corruption.
723 </p>
724
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 </chapter>
728
729 <chapter>
730 <title>Development</title>
731 <section id="reportbugs">
732 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
737 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
738 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
739 </p>
740
741 </body>
742 </section>
743 <section id="releases">
744 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
745 <body>
746
747 <p>
748 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
749 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
750 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
751 releases are announced on the <uri
752 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
753 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
754 </p>
755
756 </body>
757 </section>
758 <section id="beeping">
759 <title>
760 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
761 </title>
762 <body>
763
764 <p>
765 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
766 </p>
767
768 <pre caption="Using setterm">
769 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
770 </pre>
771
772 <p>
773 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
774 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
775 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
776 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
777
778 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
779 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
780 </pre>
781
782 <p>
783 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
784 console beeps for.
785 </p>
786
787 </body>
788 </section>
789 </chapter>
790
791 <chapter>
792 <title>Resources</title>
793 <section id="resources">
794 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
795 <body>
796
797 <p>
798 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
799 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
800 </p>
801
802 </body>
803 </section>
804 <section id="buycd">
805 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
806 <body>
807
808 <p>
809 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
810 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
811 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
812 please consider buying from our store if possible.
813 </p>
814
815 <p>
816 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
817 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
818 </p>
819
820 </body>
821 </section>
822 <section id="help">
823 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
824 <body>
825
826 <p>
827 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
828 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
829 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
830 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
831 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
832 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
833 </p>
834
835 </body>
836 </section>
837 </chapter>
838
839 </guide>

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