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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Author">
7 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
8 </author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">
10 Colin Morey
11 </author>
12 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
13 John P. Davis
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
17 </author>
18 <author title="Editor">
19 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
20 </author>
21 <author title="Editor">
22 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
23 </author>
24 <author title="Editor">
25 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
26 </author>
27 <author title="Editor">
28 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
29 </author>
30 <author title="Editor">
31 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
32 </author>
33 <author title="Editor">
34 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
35 </author>
36 <author title="Editor">
37 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
38 </author>
39
40 <abstract>
41 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
42 mailing list and from IRC.
43 </abstract>
44
45 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
46 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
47 <license/>
48
49 <version>3.13</version>
50 <date>2008-10-25</date>
51
52 <faqindex>
53 <title>Questions</title>
54 <section>
55 <title>Introduction</title>
56 <body>
57
58 <p>
59 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
60 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
61 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
62 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
63 answered here.
64 </p>
65
66 </body>
67 </section>
68 </faqindex>
69
70 <chapter>
71 <title>Getting Started</title>
72
73 <section id="pronunciation">
74 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
75 <body>
76
77 <p>
78 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
79 "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
80 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
81 <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
82 by the inhabitants of the <uri
83 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
84 </p>
85
86 </body>
87 </section>
88 <section id="differences">
89 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
90 <body>
91
92 <p>
93 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
94 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
95 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
96 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
97 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
98 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
99 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
100 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
101 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
102 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
103 </p>
104
105 <p>
106 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
107 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
108 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
109 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
110 </p>
111
112 <p>
113 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
114 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
115 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
116 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
117 </p>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 </chapter>
122
123 <chapter>
124 <title>Installation</title>
125 <section id="optimizations">
126 <title>
127 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
128 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
129 </title>
130 <body>
131
132 <p>
133 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
134 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
135 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
136 do the same thing anymore.
137 </p>
138
139 <p>
140 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
141 reporting a bug.
142 </p>
143
144 </body>
145 </section>
146 <section id="password">
147 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
148 <body>
149
150 <p>
151 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
152 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
153 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
154 </p>
155
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 <section id="useradd">
159 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <p>
163 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
164 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
165 him, so the following command is preferred:
166 </p>
167
168 <pre caption="Using useradd">
169 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
170 </pre>
171
172 <p>
173 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
174 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
175 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
176 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
177 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
178 </p>
179
180 </body>
181 </section>
182 <section id="su">
183 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
184 <body>
185
186 <p>
187 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
188 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
189 as root:
190 </p>
191
192 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
193 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
194 </pre>
195
196 </body>
197 </section>
198 <section id="upgrade">
199 <title>
200 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
201 </title>
202 <body>
203
204 <p>
205 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
206 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
207 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
208 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
209 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
210 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
211 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
212 </p>
213
214 </body>
215 </section>
216 <section id="bootrescue">
217 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
218 <body>
219
220 <p>
221 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
222 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
223 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
224 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
225 </p>
226
227 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
228 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
229 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
230 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
231 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
232 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
233 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
234 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
235 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
236 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
237 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
238 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
239 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
240 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
241 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
242 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
243 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
244 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
245 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
246 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
247 # <i>exit</i>
248 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
249 # <i>reboot</i>
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
254 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
255 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
256 </p>
257
258 </body>
259 </section>
260 <section id="proxy">
261 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
262 <body>
263
264 <p>
265 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
266 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
267 </p>
268
269 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
270 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
271 ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
272 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
273 </pre>
274
275 </body>
276 </section>
277 <section id="isoburning">
278 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
279 <body>
280
281 <p>
282 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
283 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
288 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
289 </p>
290
291 <ul>
292 <li>
293 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
294 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
295 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
296 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
297 </li>
298 <li>
299 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
300 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
301 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
302 your brand new CD being burnt.
303 </li>
304 <li>
305 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
306 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
307 by the path to the ISO file :)
308 </li>
309 <li>
310 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
311 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
312 click <c>Start</c>.
313 </li>
314 <li>
315 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
316 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
317 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
318 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
319 </li>
320 <li>
321 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
322 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
323 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
324 </li>
325 </ul>
326
327
328 </body>
329 </section>
330 <section id="cpus">
331 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
332 <body>
333
334 <p>
335 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
336 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
337 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
338 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
339 </p>
340
341 <p>
342 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
343 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
344 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
345 </p>
346
347 <p>
348 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
349 binary stages. Please see the <uri
350 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
351 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section id="dhcp">
357 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
362 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
363 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
364 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
365 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
366 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
367 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
368 </p>
369
370 <p>
371 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
372 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
373 </p>
374
375 <p>
376 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
377 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
378 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
379 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
384 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </section>
389 <section id="dualboot">
390 <title>
391 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
392 should I do?
393 </title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
398 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
399 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
400 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
401 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
402 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
403 </p>
404
405 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
406 title Windows XP
407 map (hd1) (hd0)
408 map (hd0) (hd1)
409 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
410 chainloader +1
411 </pre>
412
413 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
414 other=/dev/hdb1
415 label=WindowsXP
416 table=/dev/hdb
417 map-drive = 0x80
418 to = 0x81
419 map-drive = 0x81
420 to = 0x80
421 </pre>
422
423 <p>
424 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
425 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
426 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
427 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
428 you're using.
429 </p>
430
431 </body>
432 </section>
433 <section id="stage12">
434 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
439 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
440 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
441 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
442 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
443 </p>
444
445 <p>
446 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
447 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
448 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
449 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
450 suit your needs and then run it:
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
454 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
455 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
456
457 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>
461 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
462 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
463 </p>
464
465 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
466 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 <p>
470 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
471 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
472 </p>
473
474 </body>
475 </section>
476 </chapter>
477
478 <chapter>
479 <title>Package Management</title>
480 <section id="ebuilds">
481 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
482 <body>
483
484 <p>
485 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
486 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
487 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
488 releases and snapshots. The <uri
489 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
490 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
495 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
496 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
497 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
502 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
503 install packages.
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section id="configure">
509 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510 <body>
511
512 <p>
513 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
514 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
515 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
516 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
517 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
518 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
519 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </section>
524 <section id="firewall">
525 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
526 <body>
527
528 <p>
529 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
530 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
531 files manually</uri>.
532 </p>
533
534 </body>
535 </section>
536 <section id="norsync">
537 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
538 <body>
539
540 <p>
541 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
542 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
543 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
544 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
545 a proxy.
546 </p>
547
548 </body>
549 </section>
550 <section id="manualdownload">
551 <title>
552 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
553 else and add them to my system?
554 </title>
555 <body>
556
557 <p>
558 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
559 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
560 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
561 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
562 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
563 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
564 </p>
565
566 </body>
567 </section>
568 <section id="distfiles">
569 <title>
570 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
571 delete these files?
572 </title>
573 <body>
574
575 <p>
576 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
577 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
578 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
579 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
580 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
581 </p>
582
583 <p>
584 You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
585 manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
586 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage.
587 </p>
588
589 </body>
590 </section>
591 <section id="tmpportage">
592 <title>
593 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
594 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
595 </title>
596 <body>
597
598 <p>
599 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
600 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
601 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
602 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
603 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
604 </p>
605
606 </body>
607 </section>
608 </chapter>
609
610 <chapter>
611 <title>Usage</title>
612 <section id="intkeyboard">
613 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
614 <body>
615
616 <p>
617 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
618 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
619 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
620 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
621 localising your environment, refer to <uri
622 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
623 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
624 </p>
625
626 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
627 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
628 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
629 </pre>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section id="rootdns">
634 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
639 follows:
640 </p>
641
642 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
643 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
644 </pre>
645
646 </body>
647 </section>
648 <section id="crontab">
649 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
650 <body>
651
652 <p>
653 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
654 </p>
655
656 </body>
657 </section>
658 <section id="numlock">
659 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
660 <body>
661
662 <p>
663 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
664 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
665 </p>
666
667 <p>
668 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
669 section or online manuals for assistance.
670 </p>
671
672 </body>
673 </section>
674 <section id="clear">
675 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
676 <body>
677
678 <p>
679 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
680 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
681 </p>
682
683 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
684 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
685 </pre>
686
687 <p>
688 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
689 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
690 </p>
691
692 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
693 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
694 </body>
695
696 </section>
697 </chapter>
698
699 <chapter>
700 <title>Maintenance</title>
701 <section id="filecorruption">
702 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
703 <body>
704
705 <p>
706 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
707 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
708 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
709 directories due to the corruption.
710 </p>
711
712 </body>
713 </section>
714 </chapter>
715
716 <chapter>
717 <title>Development</title>
718 <section id="reportbugs">
719 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
720 <body>
721
722 <p>
723 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
724 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
725 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
726 </p>
727
728 </body>
729 </section>
730 <section id="releases">
731 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
732 <body>
733
734 <p>
735 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
736 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
737 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
738 releases are announced on the <uri
739 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
740 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
741 </p>
742
743 </body>
744 </section>
745 <section id="beeping">
746 <title>
747 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
748 </title>
749 <body>
750
751 <p>
752 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
753 </p>
754
755 <pre caption="Using setterm">
756 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
757 </pre>
758
759 <p>
760 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
761 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
762 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
763 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
764
765 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
766 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
767 </pre>
768
769 <p>
770 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
771 console beeps for.
772 </p>
773
774 </body>
775 </section>
776 </chapter>
777
778 <chapter>
779 <title>Resources</title>
780 <section id="resources">
781 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
782 <body>
783
784 <p>
785 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
786 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
787 </p>
788
789 </body>
790 </section>
791 <section id="buycd">
792 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
793 <body>
794
795 <p>
796 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
797 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
798 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
799 please consider buying from our store if possible.
800 </p>
801
802 <p>
803 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
804 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
805 </p>
806
807 </body>
808 </section>
809 <section id="help">
810 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
811 <body>
812
813 <p>
814 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
815 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
816 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
817 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
818 search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
819 folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
820 </p>
821
822 </body>
823 </section>
824 </chapter>
825 </guide>

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