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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.117 2010/10/03 18:47:51 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37 <author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39 </author>
40
41 <abstract>
42 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43 mailing list and from IRC.
44 </abstract>
45
46 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
48 <license/>
49
50 <version>5</version>
51 <date>2010-10-13</date>
52
53 <faqindex>
54 <title>Questions</title>
55 <section>
56 <title>Introduction</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64 answered here.
65 </p>
66
67 </body>
68 </section>
69 </faqindex>
70
71 <chapter>
72 <title>Getting Started</title>
73
74 <section id="pronunciation">
75 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
76 <body>
77
78 <p>
79 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80 "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82 <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83 by the inhabitants of the <uri
84 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </section>
89 <section id="differences">
90 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
95 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
96 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
97 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
98 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
99 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
100 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
101 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
102 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
103 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
118 </p>
119
120 </body>
121 </section>
122 </chapter>
123
124 <chapter>
125 <title>Installation</title>
126 <section id="optimizations">
127 <title>
128 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
130 </title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
135 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
136 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
137 do the same thing anymore.
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
142 reporting a bug.
143 </p>
144
145 </body>
146 </section>
147 <section id="password">
148 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
153 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
154 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
155 </p>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159 <section id="useradd">
160 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
161 <body>
162
163 <p>
164 The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166 him, so the following command is preferred:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Using useradd">
170 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
179 </p>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section id="su">
184 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
189 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
190 as root:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
195 </pre>
196
197 </body>
198 </section>
199 <section id="upgrade">
200 <title>
201 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
202 </title>
203 <body>
204
205 <p>
206 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
207 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
208 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
209 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
210 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
211 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
212 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
213 </p>
214
215 </body>
216 </section>
217 <section id="bootrescue">
218 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <p>
222 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
223 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
224 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
225 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
226 </p>
227
228 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
229 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
230 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
231 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
232 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
233 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
234 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
235 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
236 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
237 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
238 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
239 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
240 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
241 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
242 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
243 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
244 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
245 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
246 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
247 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
248 # <i>exit</i>
249 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
250 # <i>reboot</i>
251 </pre>
252
253 <p>
254 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
255 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
256 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
257 </p>
258
259 </body>
260 </section>
261 <section id="proxy">
262 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
263 <body>
264
265 <p>
266 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
267 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
268 </p>
269
270 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
271 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
272 ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
273 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
274 </pre>
275
276 </body>
277 </section>
278 <section id="isoburning">
279 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
280 <body>
281
282 <p>
283 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
284 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
285 </p>
286
287 <p>
288 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
289 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
290 </p>
291
292 <ul>
293 <li>
294 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
295 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
296 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
297 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
298 </li>
299 <li>
300 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
301 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
302 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
303 your brand new CD being burnt.
304 </li>
305 <li>
306 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
307 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
308 by the path to the ISO file :)
309 </li>
310 <li>
311 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
312 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
313 click <c>Start</c>.
314 </li>
315 <li>
316 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
317 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
318 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
319 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
320 </li>
321 <li>
322 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
323 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
324 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
325 </li>
326 </ul>
327
328
329 </body>
330 </section>
331 <section id="cpus">
332 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
333 <body>
334
335 <p>
336 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
337 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
338 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
339 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
340 </p>
341
342 <p>
343 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
344 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
345 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
346 </p>
347
348 <p>
349 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
350 binary stages. Please see the <uri
351 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
352 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
353 </p>
354
355 </body>
356 </section>
357 <section id="dhcp">
358 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
359 <body>
360
361 <p>
362 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
363 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
364 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
365 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
366 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
367 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
368 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
369 </p>
370
371 <p>
372 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
373 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
374 </p>
375
376 <p>
377 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
378 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
379 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
380 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
381 </p>
382
383 <p>
384 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
385 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 <section id="dualboot">
391 <title>
392 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
393 should I do?
394 </title>
395 <body>
396
397 <p>
398 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
399 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
400 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
401 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
402 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
403 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
404 </p>
405
406 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
407 title Windows XP
408 map (hd1) (hd0)
409 map (hd0) (hd1)
410 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
411 chainloader +1
412 </pre>
413
414 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
415 other=/dev/hdb1
416 label=WindowsXP
417 table=/dev/hdb
418 map-drive = 0x80
419 to = 0x81
420 map-drive = 0x81
421 to = 0x80
422 </pre>
423
424 <p>
425 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
426 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
427 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
428 lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
429 </p>
430
431 </body>
432 </section>
433 <section id="stage12">
434 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
435 <body>
436
437 <p>
438 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
439 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
440 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
441 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
442 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
443 </p>
444
445 <p>
446 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
447 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
448 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
449 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
450 suit your needs and then run it:
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
454 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
455 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
456
457 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
458 </pre>
459
460 <p>
461 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
462 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
463 </p>
464
465 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
466 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
467 </pre>
468
469 <p>
470 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
471 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
472 </p>
473
474 </body>
475 </section>
476 </chapter>
477
478 <chapter>
479 <title>Package Management</title>
480 <section id="ebuilds">
481 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
482 <body>
483
484 <p>
485 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
486 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
487 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
488 releases and snapshots. The <uri
489 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
490 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
491 </p>
492
493 <p>
494 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
495 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
496 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
497 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
498 </p>
499
500 <p>
501 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
502 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
503 install packages.
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section id="configure">
509 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510 <body>
511
512 <p>
513 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
514 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
515 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
516 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
517 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
518 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
519 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
520 </p>
521
522 </body>
523 </section>
524 <section id="firewall">
525 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
526 <body>
527
528 <p>
529 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
530 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
531 files manually</uri>.
532 </p>
533
534 </body>
535 </section>
536 <section id="norsync">
537 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
538 <body>
539
540 <p>
541 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
542 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
543 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
544 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
545 a proxy.
546 </p>
547
548 </body>
549 </section>
550 <section id="manualdownload">
551 <title>
552 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
553 else and add them to my system?
554 </title>
555 <body>
556
557 <p>
558 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
559 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
560 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
561 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
562 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
563 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
564 </p>
565
566 </body>
567 </section>
568 <section id="distfiles">
569 <title>
570 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
571 delete these files?
572 </title>
573 <body>
574
575 <p>
576 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
577 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
578 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
579 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
580 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
581 </p>
582
583 <p>
584 You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
585 manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
586 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
587 as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
588 </p>
589
590 </body>
591 </section>
592 <section id="tmpportage">
593 <title>
594 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
595 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
596 </title>
597 <body>
598
599 <p>
600 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
601 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
602 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
603 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
604 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
605 </p>
606
607 </body>
608 </section>
609 </chapter>
610
611 <chapter>
612 <title>Usage</title>
613 <section id="intkeyboard">
614 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
615 <body>
616
617 <p>
618 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
619 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
620 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
621 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
622 localising your environment, refer to <uri
623 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
624 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
625 </p>
626
627 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
628 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
629 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
630 </pre>
631
632 </body>
633 </section>
634 <section id="rootdns">
635 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
636 <body>
637
638 <p>
639 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
640 follows:
641 </p>
642
643 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
644 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
645 </pre>
646
647 </body>
648 </section>
649 <section id="crontab">
650 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
651 <body>
652
653 <p>
654 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
655 </p>
656
657 </body>
658 </section>
659 <section id="numlock">
660 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
661 <body>
662
663 <p>
664 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
665 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
666 </p>
667
668 <p>
669 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
670 section or online manuals for assistance.
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </section>
675 <section id="clear">
676 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
681 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
682 </p>
683
684 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
685 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
686 </pre>
687
688 <p>
689 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
690 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
691 </p>
692
693 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
694 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
695 </body>
696
697 </section>
698 </chapter>
699
700 <chapter>
701 <title>Maintenance</title>
702 <section id="filecorruption">
703 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
704 <body>
705
706 <p>
707 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
708 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
709 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
710 directories due to the corruption.
711 </p>
712
713 </body>
714 </section>
715 </chapter>
716
717 <chapter>
718 <title>Development</title>
719 <section id="reportbugs">
720 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
721 <body>
722
723 <p>
724 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
725 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
726 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
727 </p>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 <section id="releases">
732 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
737 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
738 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
739 releases are announced on the <uri
740 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
741 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
742 </p>
743
744 </body>
745 </section>
746 <section id="beeping">
747 <title>
748 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
749 </title>
750 <body>
751
752 <p>
753 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
754 </p>
755
756 <pre caption="Using setterm">
757 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
758 </pre>
759
760 <p>
761 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
762 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
763 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
764 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
765
766 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
767 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
768 </pre>
769
770 <p>
771 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
772 console beeps for.
773 </p>
774
775 </body>
776 </section>
777 </chapter>
778
779 <chapter>
780 <title>Resources</title>
781 <section id="resources">
782 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
783 <body>
784
785 <p>
786 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
787 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
788 </p>
789
790 </body>
791 </section>
792 <section id="buycd">
793 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
794 <body>
795
796 <p>
797 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
798 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
799 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
800 please consider buying from our store if possible.
801 </p>
802
803 <p>
804 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
805 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
806 </p>
807
808 </body>
809 </section>
810 <section id="help">
811 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
812 <body>
813
814 <p>
815 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
816 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
817 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
818 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
819 search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
820 folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
821 </p>
822
823 </body>
824 </section>
825 </chapter>
826 </guide>

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