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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.119 2011/09/11 08:43:18 swift Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37 <author title="Editor">
38 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
39 </author>
40
41 <abstract>
42 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
43 mailing list and from IRC.
44 </abstract>
45
46 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
47 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
48 <license/>
49
50 <version>7</version>
51 <date>2011-10-13</date>
52
53 <faqindex>
54 <title>Questions</title>
55 <section>
56 <title>Introduction</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
61 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
62 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
63 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
64 answered here.
65 </p>
66
67 </body>
68 </section>
69 </faqindex>
70
71 <chapter>
72 <title>Getting Started</title>
73
74 <section id="pronunciation">
75 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
76 <body>
77
78 <p>
79 <e>Gentoo</e> is pronounced "gen-too" (the "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in
80 "gentle"). The scientific name of the <uri
81 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gentoo_penguin">Gentoo penguin</uri> is
82 <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the penguin
83 by the inhabitants of the <uri
84 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Falkland_Islands">Falkland Islands</uri>.
85 </p>
86
87 </body>
88 </section>
89 <section id="differences">
90 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
91 <body>
92
93 <p>
94 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
95 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
96 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
97 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
98 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
99 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
100 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
101 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
102 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
103 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
104 </p>
105
106 <p>
107 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
108 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
109 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
110 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
111 </p>
112
113 <p>
114 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
115 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
116 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
117 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
118 </p>
119
120 </body>
121 </section>
122 </chapter>
123
124 <chapter>
125 <title>Installation</title>
126 <section id="optimizations">
127 <title>
128 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
129 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
130 </title>
131 <body>
132
133 <p>
134 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
135 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
136 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
137 do the same thing anymore.
138 </p>
139
140 <p>
141 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
142 reporting a bug.
143 </p>
144
145 </body>
146 </section>
147 <section id="password">
148 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
149 <body>
150
151 <p>
152 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
153 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
154 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
155 </p>
156
157 </body>
158 </section>
159 <section id="useradd">
160 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
161 <body>
162
163 <p>
164 The command <c>useradd username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
165 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
166 him, so the following command is preferred:
167 </p>
168
169 <pre caption="Using useradd">
170 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
171 </pre>
172
173 <p>
174 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
175 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
176 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
177 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
178 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
179 </p>
180
181 </body>
182 </section>
183 <section id="su">
184 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
185 <body>
186
187 <p>
188 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
189 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
190 as root:
191 </p>
192
193 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
194 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
195 </pre>
196
197 </body>
198 </section>
199 <section id="upgrade">
200 <title>
201 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
202 </title>
203 <body>
204
205 <p>
206 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
207 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> (or higher) based.
208 As such, running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
209 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
210 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
211 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
212 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
213 </p>
214
215 <p>
216 Also note that the <c>emerge -uDN world</c> command updates the packages you
217 have installed as well as its dependencies, but not the build-time dependencies
218 (packages needed during builds but not when the software is installed). To
219 update those as well, add the <c>--with-bdeps=y</c> option.
220 </p>
221
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 <section id="bootrescue">
225 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <p>
229 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
230 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
231 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
232 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
236 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
237 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
238 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
239 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
240 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
241 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
242 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
243 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
244 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
245 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
246 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
247 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
248 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
249 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
250 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
251 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/&lt;kernel_name&gt;</i>
252 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
253 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
254 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
255 # <i>exit</i>
256 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
257 # <i>reboot</i>
258 </pre>
259
260 <p>
261 If, on the other hand, the problem lies with your bootloader configuration,
262 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
263 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </section>
268 <section id="proxy">
269 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
274 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
275 </p>
276
277 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
278 http_proxy="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
279 ftp_proxy="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
280 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
281 </pre>
282
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 <section id="isoburning">
286 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
287 <body>
288
289 <p>
290 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
291 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
292 </p>
293
294 <p>
295 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
296 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
297 </p>
298
299 <ul>
300 <li>
301 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
302 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
303 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
304 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
305 </li>
306 <li>
307 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
308 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
309 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
310 your brand new CD being burnt.
311 </li>
312 <li>
313 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
314 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
315 by the path to the ISO file :)
316 </li>
317 <li>
318 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
319 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
320 click <c>Start</c>.
321 </li>
322 <li>
323 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
324 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
325 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
326 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
327 </li>
328 <li>
329 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
330 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
331 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
332 </li>
333 </ul>
334
335
336 </body>
337 </section>
338 <section id="cpus">
339 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
340 <body>
341
342 <p>
343 First you need to find out what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
344 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
345 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
346 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
351 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
352 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
353 </p>
354
355 <p>
356 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
357 binary stages. Please see the <uri
358 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-4.4.3/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
359 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
360 </p>
361
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section id="dhcp">
365 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
370 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
371 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
372 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
373 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
374 <path>/etc/conf.d/modules</path>.
375 </p>
376
377 <p>
378 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
379 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
380 </p>
381
382 <p>
383 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
384 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
385 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
386 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
387 </p>
388
389 <p>
390 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
391 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
392 </p>
393
394 </body>
395 </section>
396 <section id="dualboot">
397 <title>
398 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
399 should I do?
400 </title>
401 <body>
402
403 <p>
404 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
405 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
406 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
407 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
408 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
409 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
410 </p>
411
412 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
413 title Windows XP
414 map (hd1) (hd0)
415 map (hd0) (hd1)
416 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
417 chainloader +1
418 </pre>
419
420 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
421 other=/dev/hdb1
422 label=WindowsXP
423 table=/dev/hdb
424 map-drive = 0x80
425 to = 0x81
426 map-drive = 0x81
427 to = 0x80
428 </pre>
429
430 <p>
431 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
432 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
433 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/">GRUB documentation</uri> and in <c>man
434 lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader you're using.
435 </p>
436
437 </body>
438 </section>
439 <section id="stage12">
440 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
441 <body>
442
443 <p>
444 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
445 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
446 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
447 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
448 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
453 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
454 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
455 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
456 suit your needs and then run it:
457 </p>
458
459 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
460 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
461 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
462
463 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
464 </pre>
465
466 <p>
467 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
468 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
469 </p>
470
471 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
472 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
473 </pre>
474
475 <p>
476 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
477 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
478 </p>
479
480 </body>
481 </section>
482 </chapter>
483
484 <chapter>
485 <title>Package Management</title>
486 <section id="ebuilds">
487 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
488 <body>
489
490 <p>
491 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
492 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
493 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
494 releases and snapshots. The <uri
495 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
496 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
501 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
502 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
503 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
504 </p>
505
506 <p>
507 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
508 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
509 install packages.
510 </p>
511
512 </body>
513 </section>
514 <section id="configure">
515 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
516 <body>
517
518 <p>
519 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
520 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
521 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
522 place it in a Portage overlay (that's why overlays exist). This is <e>much</e>
523 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
524 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
525 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
526 </p>
527
528 </body>
529 </section>
530 <section id="firewall">
531 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
532 <body>
533
534 <p>
535 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
536 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
537 files manually</uri>.
538 </p>
539
540 </body>
541 </section>
542 <section id="norsync">
543 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
544 <body>
545
546 <p>
547 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
548 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
549 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
550 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
551 a proxy.
552 </p>
553
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 <section id="manualdownload">
557 <title>
558 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
559 else and add them to my system?
560 </title>
561 <body>
562
563 <p>
564 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
565 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
566 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
567 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
568 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
569 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
570 </p>
571
572 </body>
573 </section>
574 <section id="distfiles">
575 <title>
576 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
577 delete these files?
578 </title>
579 <body>
580
581 <p>
582 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
583 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
584 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
585 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
586 be necessary to download them from the internet again.
587 </p>
588
589 <p>
590 You can use the <c>eclean</c> script from <c>app-portage/gentoolkit</c> to
591 manage the contents of <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and a few other
592 locations. Please read <c>man eclean</c> to learn more about its usage, as well
593 as the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoolkit.xml">Gentoolkit Guide</uri>.
594 </p>
595
596 </body>
597 </section>
598 <section id="tmpportage">
599 <title>
600 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
601 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
602 </title>
603 <body>
604
605 <p>
606 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
607 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
608 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
609 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
610 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
611 </p>
612
613 </body>
614 </section>
615 </chapter>
616
617 <chapter>
618 <title>Usage</title>
619 <section id="intkeyboard">
620 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
621 <body>
622
623 <p>
624 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. To have
625 console working correctly with extended characters in your keymap you might
626 also need to set up variables <c>CONSOLETRANSLATION</c> and <c>CONSOLEFONT</c>
627 in your <path>/etc/conf.d/consolefont</path> (for further information on
628 localising your environment, refer to <uri
629 link="/doc/en/guide-localization.xml">our localisation guide</uri>).
630 Then, either <c>reboot</c>, or restart the keymaps and consolefont scripts:
631 </p>
632
633 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
634 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
635 # <i>/etc/init.d/consolefont restart</i>
636 </pre>
637
638 </body>
639 </section>
640 <section id="rootdns">
641 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
642 <body>
643
644 <p>
645 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
646 follows:
647 </p>
648
649 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
650 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
651 </pre>
652
653 </body>
654 </section>
655 <section id="crontab">
656 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
657 <body>
658
659 <p>
660 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
661 </p>
662
663 </body>
664 </section>
665 <section id="numlock">
666 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
667 <body>
668
669 <p>
670 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
671 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
672 </p>
673
674 <p>
675 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
676 section or online manuals for assistance.
677 </p>
678
679 </body>
680 </section>
681 <section id="clear">
682 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
683 <body>
684
685 <p>
686 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
687 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
688 </p>
689
690 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
691 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
692 </pre>
693
694 <p>
695 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
696 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
697 </p>
698
699 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
700 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
701 </body>
702
703 </section>
704 </chapter>
705
706 <chapter>
707 <title>Maintenance</title>
708 <section id="filecorruption">
709 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
710 <body>
711
712 <p>
713 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
714 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
715 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
716 directories due to the corruption.
717 </p>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 </chapter>
722
723 <chapter>
724 <title>Development</title>
725 <section id="reportbugs">
726 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
727 <body>
728
729 <p>
730 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
731 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <uri
732 link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri> on IRC.
733 </p>
734
735 </body>
736 </section>
737 <section id="releases">
738 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
739 <body>
740
741 <p>
742 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
743 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
744 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
745 releases are announced on the <uri
746 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
747 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
748 </p>
749
750 </body>
751 </section>
752 <section id="beeping">
753 <title>
754 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
755 </title>
756 <body>
757
758 <p>
759 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
760 </p>
761
762 <pre caption="Using setterm">
763 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
764 </pre>
765
766 <p>
767 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
768 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
769 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
770 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
771
772 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
773 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
774 </pre>
775
776 <p>
777 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
778 console beeps for.
779 </p>
780
781 </body>
782 </section>
783 </chapter>
784
785 <chapter>
786 <title>Resources</title>
787 <section id="resources">
788 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
789 <body>
790
791 <p>
792 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
793 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
794 </p>
795
796 </body>
797 </section>
798 <section id="buycd">
799 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
800 <body>
801
802 <p>
803 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
804 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
805 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
806 please consider buying from our store if possible.
807 </p>
808
809 <p>
810 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
811 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
812 </p>
813
814 </body>
815 </section>
816 <section id="help">
817 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
818 <body>
819
820 <p>
821 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
822 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
823 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
824 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to
825 search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo
826 folks, visit us on irc: <uri link="irc://irc.gentoo.org/gentoo">#gentoo</uri>.
827 </p>
828
829 </body>
830 </section>
831 </chapter>
832 </guide>

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