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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
13 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
14
15 <version>1.1.2</version>
16 <date>30 December 2002</date>
17
18 <chapter>
19 <title>Getting Started</title>
20
21 <section>
22 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
23 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
24 </section>
25
26 <section>
27 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
28 <body>
29 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
30 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
31 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
32 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
33 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
34 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
35 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
36 versions.
37 </p>
38 </body>
39 </section>
40 </chapter>
41
42 <chapter>
43 <title>Installation</title>
44
45 <section>
46
47 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
48 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
49 </warn>
50
51 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
52 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
53 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
54 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
55 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
56 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
57 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
58 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
59 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
60 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
61 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
62 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
63 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
64 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
65 </body>
66 </section>
67
68 <section>
69 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
70 <body><p>
71 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
72 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
73 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
74 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
75 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
76 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
77 stabilise anytime soon.
78 </p>
79 </body>
80 </section>
81
82 <section>
83 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
84 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
85 <body>
86 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
87 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
88 <pre>
89 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
90 </pre>
91 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
92 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
93 </body>
94
95 </section>
96 <section>
97 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
98 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
99 <body>
100 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
101 having broken packages.
102 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
103 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
104 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
105 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
106 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
107 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
108 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
109 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
110 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
111 </body>
112 </section>
113
114 <section>
115 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
116 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
117 </section>
118
119 <section>
120 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
121 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
122 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
123 </p></body>
124 </section>
125 <section>
126 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
127 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
128 how can i add another user?</p>
129 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
130 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
131 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
132 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
133 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
134 </p>
135 </body>
136 </section>
137 <section>
138 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
139 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
140 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
141 command as root:</p>
142 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
147 <body>
148 <p>
149 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
150 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
151 kernel, didn't you?).
152 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
153 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
154 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
155 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
156 </p>
157 </body>
158 </section>
159 <section>
160 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
161 <body>
162 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
163 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
168 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
169 <body>
170 <p>
171 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
172 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
173 it will be preserved between reboots.
174 </p>
175 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
176 and add these lines:</p>
177 <pre>
178 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
179 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
180 </pre>
181 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
182 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
183 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
184 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
189 <body><p>
190 During installation the grub boot files are copied
191 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
192 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
193 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
194 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
195 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
196 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
197 unpacking the build snapshot or running
198 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
199 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
200 You can get more information on grub, including how to
201 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
202 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
203 </p>
204 </body>
205 </section>
206
207 <section>
208 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
209 detection. </title>
210 <body>
211 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
212 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
213 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
214 </body>
215 </section>
216
217 </chapter>
218
219 <chapter>
220 <title>Package Management</title>
221 <section>
222 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
223 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
224 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
225 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
226 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
227 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
228 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
229 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
230 </body>
231 </section>
232
233 <section>
234 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
235 <body>
236 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
237 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
238 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
239 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
240 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
241 </body>
242 </section>
243
244 <section>
245 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
246 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
247 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
248 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
249 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
250 </section>
251
252 <section>
253 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
254 <body>
255 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
256 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
257 </body>
258 </section>
259
260 <section>
261 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
262 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
263 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
264 are as follows:</p>
265 <table>
266 <tr>
267 <th>Flag</th>
268 <th>Description</th>
269 </tr>
270 <tr>
271 <ti>CHOST</ti>
272 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
273 </tr>
274 <tr>
275 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
276 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
277 </tr>
278 <tr>
279 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
280 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
281 files)</ti>
282 </tr>
283 <tr>
284 <ti>USE</ti>
285 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
286 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
287 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
288 also USE-aware.</ti>
289 </tr>
290 <tr>
291 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
292 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
293 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
294 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
295 </tr>
296 </table>
297 </body>
298 </section>
299
300 <section>
301 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
302 <body>
303 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
304 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
305 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
306 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
307 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
308 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
309 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
310 <ol>
311 <li>Environment variables</li>
312 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
313 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
314 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
315 any other place come from here)</li>
316 </ol></p></body>
317 </section>
318
319 <section>
320 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
321 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
322 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
323 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
324 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
325
326
327 </p></body>
328 </section>
329
330 <section>
331 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
332 clobbering my config files?</title>
333 <body><p>
334 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
335 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
336 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
337 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
338 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
339 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
340 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
341 </p></body>
342 </section>
343
344 <section>
345 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
346 <body><p>
347 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
348 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
349 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
350 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
351 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
352 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
353 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
354 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
355 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
356 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
357 </p></body>
358 </section>
359
360 <section>
361 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
362 <body><p>
363 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
364 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
365 /usr/portage snapshots from
366 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
367 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
368 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
369 </p></body>
370 </section>
371
372 <section>
373 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
374 <body><p>
375 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
376 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
377 appropriately.
378 </p></body>
379 </section>
380
381 <section>
382 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
383 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
384 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
385 </section>
386
387 <section>
388 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
389 add them to my system?</title>
390 <body><p>
391 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
392 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
393 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
394 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
395 </p></body>
396 </section>
397
398 <section>
399 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
400 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
401 <body><p>
402 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
403 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
404 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
405 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
406 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
407 again.
408 </p></body>
409 </section>
410
411 <section>
412 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
413 <body>
414 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
415 maintain your local
416 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
417 <pre>
418 # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
419 # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
420 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
421 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
422 # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
423 # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
424 # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
425 # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
426 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
427 # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
428 # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
429 # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
430 </pre>
431 </body>
432 </section>
433
434 <section>
435 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
436 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
437 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
438
439 <body>
440 <p>Solution: </p>
441 <pre caption = "Solution">
442 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
443 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
444 </pre>
445
446 </body>
447 </section>
448 </chapter>
449
450 <chapter>
451 <title>Usage</title>
452 <section>
453 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
454 account doesn't work. </title>
455 <body>
456 <p>
457 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
458 for your user entry in
459 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
460 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
461 </p>
462 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
463 </body>
464 </section>
465
466 <section>
467 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
468 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
469 set). Type the following as root:</p>
470 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
471 </body>
472 </section>
473
474 <section>
475 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
476 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
477 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
478 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
479 </body>
480 </section>
481
482 <section>
483 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
484 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
485 </p>
486 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
487 </body>
488 </section>
489
490 <section>
491 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
492 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
493 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
494 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
495 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
496 </body>
497 </section>
498 </chapter>
499
500 <chapter>
501 <title>Maintenance</title>
502 <section>
503 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
504 <body>
505 <p>
506 If your
507 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
508 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
509 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
510 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
511 to the corruption.
512 </p>
513 </body>
514 </section>
515 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
516 <section>
517 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
518 system?</title>
519 <body>
520 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
521 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
522
523 <pre>
524 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
525 </pre>
526
527 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
528
529 <pre>
530 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
531 </pre>
532
533 </body>
534 </section>
535 </chapter>
536
537 <chapter>
538 <title>Development</title>
539 <section>
540 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
541 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
542 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
543 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
544 </p></body>
545 </section>
546
547 <section>
548 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
549 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
550 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
551 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
552 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
553 new modules get added.</p></body>
554 </section>
555
556 <section>
557 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
558 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
559 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
560 </section>
561
562 <section>
563 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
564 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
565 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
566 </section>
567
568 <section>
569 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
570 <body><p>
571 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
572 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
573 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
574 </p></body>
575 </section>
576
577
578 <section>
579 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
580 </title>
581 <body>
582 <p>
583 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
584
585 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
586
587 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
588 you need to put this command in
589 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
590 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
591 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
592 target terminal, like this ;
593
594 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
595
596 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
597 you would like to disable console beeps for.
598 </p>
599 </body>
600 </section>
601 </chapter>
602
603 <chapter>
604 <title>Resources</title>
605 <section>
606 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
607 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
608 </section>
609
610 <section>
611 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
612 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
613 </section>
614
615 <section>
616 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
617 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
618 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
619 </p>
620 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
621 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
622 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
623 </body>
624 </section>
625
626 <section>
627 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
628 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
629 <body>
630 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
631 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
632 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
633 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
634 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
635
636 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
637 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
638 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
639 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
640 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
641 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
642
643 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
644 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
645 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
646 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
647 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
648 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
649 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
650 reasons, many of these covered
651 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
652
653 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
654 administrators have seen them.) </p>
655 </body>
656 </section>
657
658 <section>
659 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
660 <body>
661 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
662 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
663 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
664 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
665 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
666 </p>
667 </body>
668 </section>
669 </chapter>
670 </guide>

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