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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13
14 <version>1.1.4</version>
15 <date>24 March 2003</date>
16
17 <chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
23 </section>
24
25 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35 versions.
36 </p>
37 </body>
38 </section>
39 </chapter>
40
41 <chapter>
42 <title>Installation</title>
43
44 <section>
45
46 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
47 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
48 </warn>
49
50 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
51 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
52 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
53 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
54 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
55 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
56 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
57 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
58 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
59 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
60 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
61 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
62 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
63 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
64 </body>
65 </section>
66
67 <section>
68 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
69 <body><p>
70 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
71 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
72 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
73 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
74 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
75 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
76 stabilise anytime soon.
77 </p>
78 </body>
79 </section>
80
81 <section>
82 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
83 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
84 <body>
85 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
86 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
87 <pre>
88 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
89 </pre>
90 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
91 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
92 </body>
93
94 </section>
95 <section>
96 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
97 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
98 <body>
99 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
100 having broken packages.
101 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
102 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
103 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
104 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
105 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
106 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
107 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
108 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
109 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
110 </body>
111 </section>
112
113 <section>
114 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
115 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
116 </section>
117
118 <section>
119 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
120 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
121 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
122 </p></body>
123 </section>
124 <section>
125 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
126 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
127 how can i add another user?</p>
128 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
129 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
130 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
131 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
132 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
133 </p>
134 </body>
135 </section>
136 <section>
137 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
138 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
139 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
140 command as root:</p>
141 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
142 </body>
143 </section>
144 <section>
145 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
146 <body>
147 <p>
148 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
149 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
150 kernel, didn't you?).
151 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
152 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
153 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
154 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
155 </p>
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 <section>
159 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
160 <body>
161 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
162 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
163 </body>
164 </section>
165 <section>
166 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
167 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
168 <body>
169 <p>
170 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
171 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
172 it will be preserved between reboots.
173 </p>
174 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
175 and add these lines:</p>
176 <pre>
177 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
178 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
179 </pre>
180 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
181 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
182 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
183 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 <section>
187 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
188 <body><p>
189 During installation the grub boot files are copied
190 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
191 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
192 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
193 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
194 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
195 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
196 unpacking the build snapshot or running
197 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
198 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
199 You can get more information on grub, including how to
200 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
201 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
202 </p>
203 </body>
204 </section>
205
206 <section>
207 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
208 detection. </title>
209 <body>
210 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
211 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
212 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
213 </body>
214 </section>
215
216 <section>
217 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
218 <body>
219 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
220 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge rsync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
221 </body>
222 </section>
223 </chapter>
224
225 <chapter>
226 <title>Package Management</title>
227 <section>
228 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
229 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
230 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
231 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
232 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
233 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
234 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
235 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
236 </body>
237 </section>
238
239 <section>
240 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
241 <body>
242 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
243 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
244 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
245 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
246 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
247 </body>
248 </section>
249
250 <section>
251 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
252 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
253 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
254 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
255 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
256 </section>
257
258 <section>
259 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
260 <body>
261 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
262 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
263 </body>
264 </section>
265
266 <section>
267 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
268 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
269 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
270 are as follows:</p>
271 <table>
272 <tr>
273 <th>Flag</th>
274 <th>Description</th>
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <ti>CHOST</ti>
278 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
279 </tr>
280 <tr>
281 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
282 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
283 </tr>
284 <tr>
285 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
286 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
287 files)</ti>
288 </tr>
289 <tr>
290 <ti>USE</ti>
291 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
292 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
293 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
294 also USE-aware.</ti>
295 </tr>
296 <tr>
297 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
298 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
299 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
300 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
301 </tr>
302 </table>
303 </body>
304 </section>
305
306 <section>
307 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
308 <body>
309 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
310 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
311 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
312 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
313 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
314 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
315 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
316 <ol>
317 <li>Environment variables</li>
318 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
319 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
320 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
321 any other place come from here)</li>
322 </ol></p></body>
323 </section>
324
325 <section>
326 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
327 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
328 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
329 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
330 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
331
332
333 </p></body>
334 </section>
335
336 <section>
337 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
338 clobbering my config files?</title>
339 <body><p>
340 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
341 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
342 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
343 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
344 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
345 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
346 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
347 </p></body>
348 </section>
349
350 <section>
351 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
352 <body><p>
353 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
354 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
355 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
356 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
357 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
358 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
359 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
360 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
361 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
362 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
363 </p></body>
364 </section>
365
366 <section>
367 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
368 <body><p>
369 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
370 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
371 /usr/portage snapshots from
372 <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>. Just unpack
373 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
374 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
375 </p></body>
376 </section>
377
378 <section>
379 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
380 <body><p>
381 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
382 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
383 appropriately.
384 </p></body>
385 </section>
386
387 <section>
388 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
389 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
390 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
391 </section>
392
393 <section>
394 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
395 add them to my system?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
398 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
399 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
400 Download sources and bring them on any media
401 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
402 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
403 </p></body>
404 </section>
405
406 <section>
407 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
408 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
409 <body><p>
410 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
411 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
412 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
413 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
414 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
415 again.
416 </p></body>
417 </section>
418
419 <section>
420 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
421 <body>
422 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
423 maintain your local
424 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
425 <pre>
426 # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
427 # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
428 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
429 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
430 # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
431 # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
432 # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
433 # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
434 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
435 # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
436 # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
437 # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
438 </pre>
439 </body>
440 </section>
441
442 <section>
443 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
444 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
445 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
446
447 <body>
448 <p>Solution: </p>
449 <pre caption = "Solution">
450 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
451 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
452 </pre>
453
454 </body>
455 </section>
456 <section>
457 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
458 <body>
459 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
460 </body>
461 </section>
462 </chapter>
463
464 <chapter>
465 <title>Usage</title>
466 <section>
467 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
468 account doesn't work. </title>
469 <body>
470 <p>
471 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
472 for your user entry in
473 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
474 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
475 </p>
476 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
477 </body>
478 </section>
479
480 <section>
481 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
482 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
483 set). Type the following as root:</p>
484 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
485 </body>
486 </section>
487
488 <section>
489 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
490 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
491 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
492 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
493 </body>
494 </section>
495
496 <section>
497 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
498 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
499 </p>
500 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
501 </body>
502 </section>
503
504 <section>
505 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
506 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
507 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
508 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
509 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
510 </body>
511 </section>
512
513 <section>
514 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
515 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
516 </p>
517 </body>
518 </section>
519 </chapter>
520
521 <chapter>
522 <title>Maintenance</title>
523 <section>
524 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
525 <body>
526 <p>
527 If your
528 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
529 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
530 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
531 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
532 to the corruption.
533 </p>
534 </body>
535 </section>
536 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
537 <section>
538 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
539 system?</title>
540 <body>
541 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
542 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
543
544 <pre>
545 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
546 </pre>
547
548 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
549
550 <pre>
551 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
552 </pre>
553
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 </chapter>
557
558 <chapter>
559 <title>Development</title>
560 <section>
561 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
562 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
563 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
564 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
565 </p></body>
566 </section>
567
568 <section>
569 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
570 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
571 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
572 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
573 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
574 new modules get added.</p></body>
575 </section>
576
577 <section>
578 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
579 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
580 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
581 </section>
582
583 <section>
584 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
585 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
586 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
587 </section>
588
589 <section>
590 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
591 <body><p>
592 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
593 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
594 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
595 </p></body>
596 </section>
597
598
599 <section>
600 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
601 </title>
602 <body>
603 <p>
604 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
605
606 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
607
608 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
609 you need to put this command in
610 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
611 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
612 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
613 target terminal, like this ;
614
615 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
616
617 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
618 you would like to disable console beeps for.
619 </p>
620 </body>
621 </section>
622 </chapter>
623
624 <chapter>
625 <title>Resources</title>
626 <section>
627 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
628 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
629 </section>
630
631 <section>
632 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
633 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
634 </section>
635
636 <section>
637 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
638 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
639 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
640 </p>
641 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
642 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
643 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
644 </body>
645 </section>
646
647 <section>
648 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
649 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
650 <body>
651 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
652 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
653 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
654 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
655 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
656
657 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
658 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
659 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
660 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
661 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
662 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
663
664 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
665 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
666 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
667 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
668 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
669 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
670 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
671 reasons, many of these covered
672 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
673
674 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
675 administrators have seen them.) </p>
676 </body>
677 </section>
678
679 <section>
680 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
681 <body>
682 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
683 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
684 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
685 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
686 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
687 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
688 </p>
689 </body>
690 </section>
691 </chapter>
692 </guide>

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