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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <?xml-stylesheet href="/xsl/guide.xsl" type="text/xsl"?>
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
8 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
9 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
12 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
13
14 <version>1.1.2</version>
15 <date>08 October 2002</date>
16
17 <chapter>
18 <title>Getting Started</title>
19
20 <section>
21 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
22 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "jen-two".</p></body>
23 </section>
24
25 <section>
26 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
27 <body>
28 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
29 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
30 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
31 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
32 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
33 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
34 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
35 versions.
36 </p></body> </section> </chapter>
37
38 <chapter>
39 <title>Installation</title>
40
41 <section>
42 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
43 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
44 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
45 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
46 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
47 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
48 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
49 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
50 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
51 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
52 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
53 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
54 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
55 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
56 </body>
57 </section>
58
59 <section>
60 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
61 <body><p>
62 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
63 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
64 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
65 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
66 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
67 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
68 stabilise anytime soon.
69 </p>
70 </body>
71 </section>
72
73 <section>
74 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
75 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
76 <body>
77 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
78 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
79 <pre>
80 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
81 </pre>
82 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
83 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
84 </body>
85
86 </section>
87 <section>
88 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
89 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
90 <body>
91 <p>When you use any optimizations beyond <c>-O3</c>, you're really taking the risk of
92 having broken packages.
93 Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
94 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)
95 uses <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
96 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -malign-functions=4</c>, which is about
97 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
98 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
99 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
100 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
101 </body>
102 </section>
103
104 <section>
105 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
106 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
107 </section>
108
109 <section>
110 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
111 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
112 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
113 </p></body>
114 </section>
115 <section>
116 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
117 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
118 how can i add another user?</p>
119 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
120 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
121 </body>
122 </section>
123 <section>
124 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
125 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
126 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
127 command as root:</p>
128 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
133 <body>
134 <p>
135 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
136 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
137 kernel, didn't you?).
138 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
139 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
140 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
141 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
142 </p>
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
147 <body>
148 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
149 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
150 </body>
151 </section>
152 <section>
153 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
154 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
155 <body>
156 <p>
157 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
158 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
159 it will be preserved between reboots.
160 </p>
161 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
162 and add these lines:</p>
163 <pre>
164 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
165 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
166 </pre>
167 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
168 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
169 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
170 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
175 <body><p>
176 During installation the grub boot files are copied
177 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
178 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
179 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
180 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
181 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
182 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
183 unpacking the build snapshot or running
184 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
185 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
186 You can get more information on grub, including how to
187 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
188 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
189 </p>
190 </body>
191 </section>
192
193 <section>
194 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
195 detection. </title>
196 <body>
197 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
198 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
199 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
200 </body>
201 </section>
202
203 </chapter>
204
205 <chapter>
206 <title>Package Management</title>
207 <section>
208 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
209 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
210 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
211 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
212 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/gentoo-howto.html">Development HOWTO
213 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
214 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
215 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
216 </body>
217 </section>
218
219 <section>
220 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
221 <body>
222 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
223 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
224 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
225 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
226 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
227 </body>
228 </section>
229
230 <section>
231 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
232 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
233 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
234 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
235 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
236 </section>
237
238 <section>
239 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
240 <body>
241 <p>The <uri link="/doc/portage-user.html">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
242 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
243 </body>
244 </section>
245
246 <section>
247 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
248 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
249 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
250 are as follows:</p>
251 <table>
252 <tr>
253 <th>Flag</th>
254 <th>Description</th>
255 </tr>
256 <tr>
257 <ti>CHOST</ti>
258 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
259 </tr>
260 <tr>
261 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
262 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
263 </tr>
264 <tr>
265 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
266 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
267 files)</ti>
268 </tr>
269 <tr>
270 <ti>USE</ti>
271 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
272 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
273 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
274 also USE-aware.</ti>
275 </tr>
276 <tr>
277 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
278 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
279 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
280 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
281 </tr>
282 </table>
283 </body>
284 </section>
285
286 <section>
287 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
288 <body>
289 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
290 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
291 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
292 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
293 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
294 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
295 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
296 <ol>
297 <li>Environment variables</li>
298 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
299 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
300 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
301 any other place come from here)</li>
302 </ol></p></body>
303 </section>
304
305 <section>
306 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
307 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
308 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
309 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
310 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
311
312
313 </p></body>
314 </section>
315
316 <section>
317 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
318 clobbering my config files?</title>
319 <body><p>
320 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
321 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
322 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
323 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
324 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
325 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
326 currently obtained by <c>emerge app-admin/gentoolkit</c>.
327 </p></body>
328 </section>
329
330 <section>
331 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
332 <body><p>
333 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
334 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
335 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
336 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
337 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
338 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
339 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
340 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
341 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
342 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
343 </p></body>
344 </section>
345
346 <section>
347 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
348 <body><p>
349 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
350 rsync traffic, then you can instead download the daily
351 /usr/portage snapshot from
352 <uri>http://cvs.gentoo.org/snapshots</uri>. Just unpack
353 the tarball (using <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>) in
354 the <path>/usr</path> directory.
355 </p></body>
356 </section>
357
358 <section>
359 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
360 <body><p>
361 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
362 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
363 appropriately.
364 </p></body>
365 </section>
366
367 <section>
368 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
369 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
370 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
371 </section>
372
373 <section>
374 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
375 add them to my system?</title>
376 <body><p>
377 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
378 are going to be installed. Download sources and bring them on any media
379 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
380 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
381 </p></body>
382 </section>
383
384 <section>
385 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
386 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
387 <body><p>
388 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
389 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
390 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
391 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
392 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
393 again.
394 </p></body>
395 </section>
396
397 <section>
398 <title>How can I manage my own ebuilds without destroying them by (r)sync?</title>
399 <body>
400 <p>The simplest method is to use anonymous CVS instead of rsync, and
401 maintain your local
402 ebuilds in /usr/portage/local. Here's how to do it:</p>
403 <pre>
404 # <i>emerge cvs</i> <comment>(if necessary)</comment>
405 # <i>cd <path>/usr</path></i>
406 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs login</i> <comment>(hit &lt;enter&gt;)</comment>
407 # <i>cvs -d :pserver:anonymous@gentoo.org:/home/anoncvs get gentoo-x86</i>
408 # <i>cp /usr/portage/distfiles/* gentoo-x86/distfiles/</i>
409 # <i>cp -a /usr/portage/packages/* gentoo-x86/packages/</i>
410 # <i>mv portage portage.old</i>
411 # <i>ln -s gentoo-x86 portage</i>
412 # <i>mkdir /usr/portage/local</i>
413 # <i>echo local &gt;&gt; /usr/portage/profiles/categories</i>
414 # <i>cp /etc/make.conf /etc/make.conf.orig</i>
415 # <i>sed -e 's/#SYNC="cvs/SYNC="cvs/' /etc/make.conf.orig &gt; /etc/make.conf</i>
416 </pre>
417 </body>
418 </section>
419 </chapter>
420
421 <chapter>
422 <title>Usage</title>
423 <section>
424 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
425 account doesn't work. </title>
426 <body>
427 <p>
428 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
429 for your user entry in
430 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
431 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
432 </p>
433 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
434 </body>
435 </section>
436
437 <section>
438 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
439 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
440 set). Type the following as root:</p>
441 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
442 </body>
443 </section>
444
445 <section>
446 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
447 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
448 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
449 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
450 </body>
451 </section>
452
453 <section>
454 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
455 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
456 </p>
457 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
458 </body>
459 </section>
460
461 <section>
462 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
463 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
464 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
465 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
466 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
467 </body>
468 </section>
469 </chapter>
470
471 <chapter>
472 <title>Maintenance</title>
473 <section>
474 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
475 <body>
476 <p>
477 If your
478 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
479 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
480 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
481 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
482 to the corruption.
483 </p>
484 </body>
485 </section>
486 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
487 <section>
488 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
489 system?</title>
490 <body>
491 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
492 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
493
494 <pre>
495 # <i>cat /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal | less</i>
496 </pre>
497
498 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
499
500 <pre>
501 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
502 </pre>
503
504 </body>
505 </section>
506 </chapter>
507
508 <chapter>
509 <title>Development</title>
510 <section>
511 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
512 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
513 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
514 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.openprojects.net">OpenProjects</uri> IRC network.
515 </p></body>
516 </section>
517
518 <section>
519 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
520 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://lists.gentoo.org/mailman/listinfo/gentoo-announce">gentoo-announce</uri>
521 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
522 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
523 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
524 new modules get added.</p></body>
525 </section>
526
527 <section>
528 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
529 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
530 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
531 </section>
532
533 <section>
534 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
535 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
536 "Docs-user" product.</p></body>
537 </section>
538
539 <section>
540 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
541 <body><p>
542 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
543 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
544 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
545 </p></body>
546 </section>
547
548
549 <section>
550 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
551 </title>
552 <body>
553 <p>
554 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
555
556 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
557
558 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
559 you need to put this command in
560 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
561 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
562 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
563 target terminal, like this ;
564
565 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
566
567 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
568 you would like to disable console beeps for.
569 </p>
570 </body>
571 </section>
572 </chapter>
573
574 <chapter>
575 <title>Resources</title>
576 <section>
577 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
578 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
579 </section>
580
581 <section>
582 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
583 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
584 </section>
585
586 <section>
587 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
588 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
589 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
590 </p>
591 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
592 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
593 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
594 </body>
595 </section>
596
597 <section>
598 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
599 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
600 <body>
601 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
602 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
603 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
604 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
605 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
606
607 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
608 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
609 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
610 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
611 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
612 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
613
614 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
615 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
616 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
617 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
618 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
619 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
620 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
621 reasons, many of these covered
622 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
623
624 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
625 administrators have seen them.) </p>
626 </body>
627 </section>
628
629 <section>
630 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
631 <body>
632 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/index-docs.html">here</uri>,
633 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
634 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
635 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
636 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
637 </p>
638 </body>
639 </section>
640 </chapter>
641 </guide>

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