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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15
16 <version>1.1.4</version>
17 <date>23 June 2003</date>
18
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Getting Started</title>
21
22 <section>
23 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
24 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
25 </section>
26
27 <section>
28 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
29 <body>
30 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
31 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
32 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
33 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
34 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
35 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
36 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
37 versions.
38 </p>
39 </body>
40 </section>
41 </chapter>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>Installation</title>
45
46 <section>
47
48 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
49 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
50 </warn>
51
52 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
53 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
54 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
55 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
56 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
57 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
58 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
59 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
60 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
61 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
62 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
63 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
64 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
65 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
66 </body>
67 </section>
68
69 <section>
70 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
71 <body><p>
72 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
73 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
74 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
75 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
76 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
77 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
78 stabilise anytime soon.
79 </p>
80 </body>
81 </section>
82
83 <section>
84 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
85 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
86 <body>
87 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
88 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
89 <pre>
90 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
91 </pre>
92 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
93 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
94 </body>
95
96 </section>
97 <section>
98 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
99 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
100 <body>
101 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3<c> since it isn't support by current versions
102 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
103 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
104 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
105 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
106 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
107 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
108 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
109 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
110 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
111 </body>
112 </section>
113
114 <section>
115 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
116 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
117 </section>
118
119 <section>
120 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
121 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
122 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
123 </p></body>
124 </section>
125 <section>
126 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
127 <body><p>Everyone seems to think that i shouldn't be using <e>root</e> for everyday use,
128 how can i add another user?</p>
129 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
130 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
131 <p>Insteed of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
132 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
133 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
134 </p>
135 </body>
136 </section>
137 <section>
138 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
139 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
140 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
141 command as root:</p>
142 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
147 <body>
148 <p>
149 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
150 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
151 kernel, didn't you?).
152 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
153 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
154 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
155 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
156 </p>
157 </body>
158 </section>
159 <section>
160 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
161 <body>
162 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
163 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
168 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
169 <body>
170 <p>
171 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
172 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
173 it will be preserved between reboots.
174 </p>
175 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
176 and add these lines:</p>
177 <pre>
178 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
179 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
180 </pre>
181 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
182 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
183 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
184 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
189 <body><p>
190 During installation the grub boot files are copied
191 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
192 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
193 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
194 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
195 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
196 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
197 unpacking the build snapshot or running
198 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
199 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
200 You can get more information on grub, including how to
201 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
202 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
203 </p>
204 </body>
205 </section>
206
207 <section>
208 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
209 detection. </title>
210 <body>
211 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
212 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
213 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
214 </body>
215 </section>
216
217 <section>
218 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
219 <body>
220 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
221 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 </chapter>
225
226 <chapter>
227 <title>Package Management</title>
228 <section>
229 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
230 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
231 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
232 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
233 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
234 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
235 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
236 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
237 </body>
238 </section>
239
240 <section>
241 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
242 <body>
243 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
244 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
245 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
246 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
247 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
248 </body>
249 </section>
250
251 <section>
252 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
253 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
254 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
255 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
256 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
257 </section>
258
259 <section>
260 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
261 <body>
262 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
263 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
264 </body>
265 </section>
266
267 <section>
268 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
269 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
270 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
271 are as follows:</p>
272 <table>
273 <tr>
274 <th>Flag</th>
275 <th>Description</th>
276 </tr>
277 <tr>
278 <ti>CHOST</ti>
279 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
280 </tr>
281 <tr>
282 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
283 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
284 </tr>
285 <tr>
286 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
287 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
288 files)</ti>
289 </tr>
290 <tr>
291 <ti>USE</ti>
292 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
293 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
294 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
295 also USE-aware.</ti>
296 </tr>
297 <tr>
298 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
299 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
300 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
301 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
302 </tr>
303 </table>
304 </body>
305 </section>
306
307 <section>
308 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
309 <body>
310 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
311 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
312 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
313 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
314 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
315 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
316 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
317 <ol>
318 <li>Environment variables</li>
319 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
320 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
321 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
322 any other place come from here)</li>
323 </ol></p></body>
324 </section>
325
326 <section>
327 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
328 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
329 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
330 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
331 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
332
333
334 </p></body>
335 </section>
336
337 <section>
338 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
339 clobbering my config files?</title>
340 <body><p>
341 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
342 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
343 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
344 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
345 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
346 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
347 which is now part of Portage.
348 </p></body>
349 </section>
350
351 <section>
352 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
353 <body><p>
354 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
355 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
356 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
357 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
358 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
359 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
360 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
361 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
362 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
363 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
364 </p></body>
365 </section>
366
367 <section>
368 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
369 <body><p>
370 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
371 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
372 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
373 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
374 supported.
375 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
376 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
377 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
378 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
379 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
380 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
381 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
382 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
383 lose all your sourcecode.
384 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
385 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
386 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
387 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
388 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
389 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
390 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
391 </p></body>
392 </section>
393
394 <section>
395 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
396 <body><p>
397 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
398 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
399 appropriately.
400 </p></body>
401 </section>
402
403 <section>
404 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
405 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
406 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
407 </section>
408
409 <section>
410 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
411 add them to my system?</title>
412 <body><p>
413 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
414 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
415 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
416 Download sources and bring them on any media
417 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
418 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
419 </p></body>
420 </section>
421
422 <section>
423 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
424 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
425 <body><p>
426 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
427 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
428 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
429 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
430 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
431 again.
432 </p></body>
433 </section>
434
435 <section>
436 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
437 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
438 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
439
440 <body>
441 <p>Solution: </p>
442 <pre caption = "Solution">
443 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
444 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
445 </pre>
446
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 <section>
450 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
451 <body>
452 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
453 </body>
454 </section>
455 </chapter>
456
457 <chapter>
458 <title>Usage</title>
459 <section>
460 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
461 account doesn't work. </title>
462 <body>
463 <p>
464 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
465 for your user entry in
466 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
467 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
468 </p>
469 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
470 </body>
471 </section>
472
473 <section>
474 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
475 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
476 set). Type the following as root:</p>
477 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
478 </body>
479 </section>
480
481 <section>
482 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
483 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
484 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
485 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
486 </body>
487 </section>
488
489 <section>
490 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
491 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
492 </p>
493 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
494 </body>
495 </section>
496
497 <section>
498 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
499 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
500 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
501 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
502 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
503 </body>
504 </section>
505
506 <section>
507 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
508 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
509 </p>
510 </body>
511 </section>
512
513 <section>
514 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
515 <body>
516 <p>
517 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
518 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
519 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
520 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
521 <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xsetup_0</path> (for any graphical login manager).
522 </p>
523 <p>
524 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
525 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
526 reboot.
527 </p>
528 </body>
529 </section>
530
531 </chapter>
532
533 <chapter>
534 <title>Maintenance</title>
535 <section>
536 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
537 <body>
538 <p>
539 If your
540 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
541 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
542 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
543 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
544 to the corruption.
545 </p>
546 </body>
547 </section>
548 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
549 <section>
550 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
551 system?</title>
552 <body>
553 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
554 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
555
556 <pre>
557 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
558 </pre>
559
560 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
561
562 <pre>
563 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
564 </pre>
565
566 </body>
567 </section>
568 </chapter>
569
570 <chapter>
571 <title>Development</title>
572 <section>
573 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
574 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
575 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
576 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
577 </p></body>
578 </section>
579
580 <section>
581 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
582 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
583 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
584 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
585 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
586 new modules get added.</p></body>
587 </section>
588
589 <section>
590 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
591 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
592 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
593 </section>
594
595 <section>
596 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
597 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
598 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
599 </section>
600
601 <section>
602 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
603 <body><p>
604 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
605 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
606 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
607 </p></body>
608 </section>
609
610
611 <section>
612 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
613 </title>
614 <body>
615 <p>
616 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
617
618 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
619
620 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
621 you need to put this command in
622 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
623 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
624 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
625 target terminal, like this ;
626
627 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
628
629 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
630 you would like to disable console beeps for.
631 </p>
632 </body>
633 </section>
634 </chapter>
635
636 <chapter>
637 <title>Resources</title>
638 <section>
639 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
640 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
641 </section>
642
643 <section>
644 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
645 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
646 </section>
647
648 <section>
649 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
650 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
651 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
652 </p>
653 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
654 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
655 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
656 </body>
657 </section>
658
659 <section>
660 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
661 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
662 <body>
663 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
664 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
665 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
666 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
667 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
668
669 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
670 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
671 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
672 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
673 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
674 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
675
676 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
677 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
678 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
679 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
680 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
681 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
682 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
683 reasons, many of these covered
684 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
685
686 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
687 administrators have seen them.) </p>
688 </body>
689 </section>
690
691 <section>
692 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
693 <body>
694 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
695 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
696 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
697 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
698 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
699 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
700 </p>
701 </body>
702 </section>
703 </chapter>
704 </guide>

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