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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15
16 <version>1.1.4</version>
17 <date>29 June 2003</date>
18
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Featured Questions</title>
21 <section>
22 <title>Getting Started</title>
23 <body>
24 <ul>
25 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
26 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
27 </ul>
28 </body>
29 </section>
30 <section>
31 <title>Installation</title>
32 <body>
33 <ul>
34 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
35 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</uri></li>
37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
39 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
49 </ul>
50 </body>
51 </section>
52 <section>
53 <title>Package Management</title>
54 <body>
55 <ul>
56 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
57 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
58 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
59 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
60 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
61 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
62 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
72 </ul>
73 </body>
74 </section>
75 <section>
76 <title>Usage</title>
77 <body>
78 <ul>
79 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
80 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
81 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
82 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
83 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
84 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
85 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
87 I log out?</uri></li>
88 </ul>
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Maintenance</title>
93 <body>
94 <ul>
95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
96 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
97 </ul>
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Development</title>
102 <body>
103 <ul>
104 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
105 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
106 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
107 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
108 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
109 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
110 </ul>
111 </body>
112 </section>
113 <section>
114 <title>Resources</title>
115 <body>
116 <ul>
117 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
118 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
119 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
120 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
121 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
122 </ul>
123 </body>
124 </section>
125 </chapter>
126
127
128 <chapter>
129 <title>Getting Started</title>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
133 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
134 </section>
135
136 <section>
137 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
138 <body>
139 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
140 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
141 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
142 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
143 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
144 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
145 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
146 versions.
147 </p>
148 </body>
149 </section>
150 </chapter>
151
152 <chapter>
153 <title>Installation</title>
154
155 <section>
156
157 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
158 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
159 </warn>
160
161 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
162 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
163 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
164 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
165 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
166 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
167 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
168 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
169 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
170 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
171 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
172 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
173 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
174 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
175 </body>
176 </section>
177
178 <section>
179 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
180 <body><p>
181 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
182 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
183 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
184 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
185 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
186 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
187 stabilise anytime soon.
188 </p>
189 </body>
190 </section>
191
192 <section>
193 <title>I have a Sony Super-Slim VAIO laptop, and the Gentoo Linux CD is having problems
194 finding my PCMCIA ATAPI CD-ROM.</title>
195 <body>
196 <p>Make sure the second IDE port is set to CDROM (it unsets itself if the device isn't
197 attached on boot) then do the following at the isolinux <c>boot:</c> prompt:</p>
198 <pre>
199 boot: <i>rescue ide2=0x180,0x386</i>
200 </pre>
201 <p>If you are using a 1.0_rc5 or earlier boot CD, apart from thinking about downloading the latest iso,
202 type <c>gentoo</c> instead of <c>rescue</c>, above.</p>
203 </body>
204
205 </section>
206 <section>
207 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
208 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
209 <body>
210 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
211 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
212 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
213 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
214 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
215 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
216 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
217 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
218 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
219 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
220 </body>
221 </section>
222
223 <section>
224 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
225 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
226 </section>
227
228 <section>
229 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
230 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
231 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
232 </p></body>
233 </section>
234 <section>
235 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
236 <body>
237 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
238 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
239 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
240 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
241 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
242 </p>
243 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
244 </p>
245 </body>
246 </section>
247 <section>
248 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
249 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
250 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
251 command as root:</p>
252 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
257 <body>
258 <p>
259 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
260 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
261 kernel, didn't you?).
262 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
263 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
264 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
265 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
266 </p>
267 </body>
268 </section>
269 <section>
270 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
271 <body>
272 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
273 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
274 </body>
275 </section>
276 <section>
277 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
278 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
279 <body>
280 <p>
281 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
282 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
283 it will be preserved between reboots.
284 </p>
285 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
286 and add these lines:</p>
287 <pre>
288 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
289 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
290 </pre>
291 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
292 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
293 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
294 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
295 </body>
296 </section>
297 <section>
298 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
299 <body><p>
300 During installation the grub boot files are copied
301 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
302 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
303 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
304 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
305 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
306 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
307 unpacking the build snapshot or running
308 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
309 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
310 You can get more information on grub, including how to
311 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
312 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
313 </p>
314 </body>
315 </section>
316
317 <section>
318 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
319 detection. </title>
320 <body>
321 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
322 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
323 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
324 </body>
325 </section>
326
327 <section>
328 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
329 <body>
330 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
331 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
332 </body>
333 </section>
334 <section>
335 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
336 <body>
337 <p>
338 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
339 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
340 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
341 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
342 </p>
343 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
344 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
345 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
346 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
347 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
348 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
349 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
350 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
351 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
352 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
353 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
354 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
355 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
356 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
357 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
358 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
359 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
360 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
361 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
362 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
363 # <i>exit</i>
364 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
365 # <i>reboot</i>
366 </pre>
367 <p>
368 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
369 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
370 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
371 </p>
372 </body>
373 </section>
374 </chapter>
375
376 <chapter>
377 <title>Package Management</title>
378 <section>
379 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
380 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
381 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
382 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
383 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
384 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
385 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
386 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
387 </body>
388 </section>
389
390 <section>
391 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
392 <body>
393 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
394 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
395 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
396 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
397 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
398 </body>
399 </section>
400
401 <section>
402 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
403 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
404 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
405 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
406 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
407 </section>
408
409 <section>
410 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
411 <body>
412 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
413 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
414 </body>
415 </section>
416
417 <section>
418 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
419 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
420 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
421 are as follows:</p>
422 <table>
423 <tr>
424 <th>Flag</th>
425 <th>Description</th>
426 </tr>
427 <tr>
428 <ti>CHOST</ti>
429 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
430 </tr>
431 <tr>
432 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
433 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
434 </tr>
435 <tr>
436 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
437 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
438 files)</ti>
439 </tr>
440 <tr>
441 <ti>USE</ti>
442 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
443 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
444 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
445 also USE-aware.</ti>
446 </tr>
447 <tr>
448 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
449 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
450 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
451 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
452 </tr>
453 </table>
454 </body>
455 </section>
456
457 <section>
458 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
459 <body>
460 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
461 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
462 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
463 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
464 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
465 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
466 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
467 <ol>
468 <li>Environment variables</li>
469 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
470 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
471 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
472 any other place come from here)</li>
473 </ol></p></body>
474 </section>
475
476 <section>
477 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
478 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
479 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
480 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
481 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
482
483
484 </p></body>
485 </section>
486
487 <section>
488 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
489 clobbering my config files?</title>
490 <body><p>
491 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
492 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
493 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
494 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
495 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
496 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
497 which is now part of Portage.
498 </p></body>
499 </section>
500
501 <section>
502 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
503 <body><p>
504 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
505 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
506 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
507 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
508 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
509 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
510 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
511 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
512 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
513 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
514 </p></body>
515 </section>
516
517 <section>
518 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
519 <body><p>
520 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
521 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
522 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
523 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
524 supported.
525 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
526 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
527 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
528 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
529 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
530 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
531 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
532 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
533 lose all your sourcecode.
534 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
535 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
536 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
537 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
538 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
539 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
540 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
541 </p></body>
542 </section>
543
544 <section>
545 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
546 <body><p>
547 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
548 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
549 appropriately.
550 </p></body>
551 </section>
552
553 <section>
554 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
555 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
556 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
557 </section>
558
559 <section>
560 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
561 add them to my system?</title>
562 <body><p>
563 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
564 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
565 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
566 Download sources and bring them on any media
567 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
568 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
569 </p></body>
570 </section>
571
572 <section>
573 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
574 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
575 <body><p>
576 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
577 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
578 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
579 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
580 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
581 again.
582 </p></body>
583 </section>
584
585 <section>
586 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
587 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
588 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
589
590 <body>
591 <p>Solution: </p>
592 <pre caption = "Solution">
593 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
594 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
595 </pre>
596
597 </body>
598 </section>
599 <section>
600 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
601 <body>
602 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 </chapter>
606
607 <chapter>
608 <title>Usage</title>
609 <section>
610 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
611 account doesn't work. </title>
612 <body>
613 <p>
614 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
615 for your user entry in
616 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
617 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
618 </p>
619 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
620 </body>
621 </section>
622
623 <section>
624 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
625 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
626 set). Type the following as root:</p>
627 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
628 </body>
629 </section>
630
631 <section>
632 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
633 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
634 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
635 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
636 </body>
637 </section>
638
639 <section>
640 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
641 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
642 </p>
643 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
644 </body>
645 </section>
646
647 <section>
648 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
649 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
650 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
651 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
652 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
653 </body>
654 </section>
655
656 <section>
657 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
658 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
659 </p>
660 </body>
661 </section>
662
663 <section>
664 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
665 <body>
666 <p>
667 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
668 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
669 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
670 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
671 <path>/etc/X11/xdm/Xsetup_0</path> (for any graphical login manager).
672 </p>
673 <p>
674 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
675 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
676 reboot.
677 </p>
678 </body>
679 </section>
680 <section>
681 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
682 <body>
683 <p>
684 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
685 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
686 </p>
687 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
688 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
689 <p>
690 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
691 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
692 </p>
693 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
694 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
695 </body>
696 </section>
697
698
699 </chapter>
700
701 <chapter>
702 <title>Maintenance</title>
703 <section>
704 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
705 <body>
706 <p>
707 If your
708 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
709 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
710 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
711 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
712 to the corruption.
713 </p>
714 </body>
715 </section>
716 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
717 <section>
718 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
719 system?</title>
720 <body>
721 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
722 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
723
724 <pre>
725 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
726 </pre>
727
728 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
729
730 <pre>
731 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
732 </pre>
733
734 </body>
735 </section>
736 </chapter>
737
738 <chapter>
739 <title>Development</title>
740 <section>
741 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
742 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
743 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
744 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
745 </p></body>
746 </section>
747
748 <section>
749 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
750 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
751 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
752 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
753 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
754 new modules get added.</p></body>
755 </section>
756
757 <section>
758 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
759 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
760 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
761 </section>
762
763 <section>
764 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
765 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
766 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
767 </section>
768
769 <section>
770 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
771 <body><p>
772 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
773 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
774 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
775 </p></body>
776 </section>
777
778
779 <section>
780 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
781 </title>
782 <body>
783 <p>
784 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
785
786 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
787
788 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
789 you need to put this command in
790 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
791 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
792 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
793 target terminal, like this ;
794
795 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
796
797 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
798 you would like to disable console beeps for.
799 </p>
800 </body>
801 </section>
802 </chapter>
803
804 <chapter>
805 <title>Resources</title>
806 <section>
807 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
808 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
809 </section>
810
811 <section>
812 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
813 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
814 </section>
815
816 <section>
817 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
818 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
819 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
820 </p>
821 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
822 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
823 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
824 </body>
825 </section>
826
827 <section>
828 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
829 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
830 <body>
831 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
832 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
833 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
834 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
835 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
836
837 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
838 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
839 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
840 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
841 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
842 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
843
844 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
845 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
846 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
847 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
848 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
849 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
850 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
851 reasons, many of these covered
852 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
853
854 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
855 administrators have seen them.) </p>
856 </body>
857 </section>
858
859 <section>
860 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
861 <body>
862 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
863 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
864 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
865 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
866 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
867 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
868 </p>
869 </body>
870 </section>
871 </chapter>
872 </guide>

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