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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3
4 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
5 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
6 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
7 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
8 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhen@gentoo.org">John P. Davis</mail></author>
9 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
14 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
15
16 <version>1.1.6</version>
17 <date>September 23, 2003</date>
18
19 <chapter>
20 <title>Featured Questions</title>
21 <section>
22 <title>Getting Started</title>
23 <body>
24 <ul>
25 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
26 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
27 </ul>
28 </body>
29 </section>
30 <section>
31 <title>Installation</title>
32 <body>
33 <ul>
34 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
35 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
36 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
39 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
49 </ul>
50 </body>
51 </section>
52 <section>
53 <title>Package Management</title>
54 <body>
55 <ul>
56 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
57 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
58 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
59 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
60 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
61 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
62 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
72 </ul>
73 </body>
74 </section>
75 <section>
76 <title>Usage</title>
77 <body>
78 <ul>
79 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
80 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
81 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
82 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
83 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
84 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
85 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
87 I log out?</uri></li>
88 </ul>
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section>
92 <title>Maintenance</title>
93 <body>
94 <ul>
95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
96 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
97 </ul>
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Development</title>
102 <body>
103 <ul>
104 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
105 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
106 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
107 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
108 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
109 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
110 </ul>
111 </body>
112 </section>
113 <section>
114 <title>Resources</title>
115 <body>
116 <ul>
117 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
118 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
119 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
120 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
121 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
122 </ul>
123 </body>
124 </section>
125 </chapter>
126
127
128 <chapter>
129 <title>Getting Started</title>
130
131 <section>
132 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
133 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
134 </section>
135
136 <section>
137 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
138 <body>
139 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
140 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
141 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
142 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
143 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
144 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
145 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
146 versions.
147 </p>
148 </body>
149 </section>
150 </chapter>
151
152 <chapter>
153 <title>Installation</title>
154
155 <section>
156
157 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
158 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
159 </warn>
160
161 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
162 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
163 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
164 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
165 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
166 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
167 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
168 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
169 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
170 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
171 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
172 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
173 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
174 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
175 </body>
176 </section>
177
178 <section>
179 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
180 <body><p>
181 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
182 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
183 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
184 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
185 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
186 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
187 stabilise anytime soon.
188 </p>
189 </body>
190 </section>
191
192 <section>
193 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
194 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
195 <body>
196 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
197 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
198 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
199 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
200 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
201 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
202 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
203 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
204 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
205 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
206 </body>
207 </section>
208
209 <section>
210 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
211 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
212 </section>
213
214 <section>
215 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
216 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
217 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
218 </p></body>
219 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
222 <body>
223 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
224 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
225 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
226 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
227 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
228 </p>
229 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
230 </p>
231 </body>
232 </section>
233 <section>
234 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
235 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
236 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
237 command as root:</p>
238 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
239 </body>
240 </section>
241 <section>
242 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
243 <body>
244 <p>
245 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
246 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
247 kernel, didn't you?).
248 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
249 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
250 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
251 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
252 </p>
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
257 <body>
258 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
259 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
260 </body>
261 </section>
262 <section>
263 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
264 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
265 <body>
266 <p>
267 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
268 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
269 it will be preserved between reboots.
270 </p>
271 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
272 and add these lines:</p>
273 <pre>
274 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
275 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
276 </pre>
277 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
278 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
279 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
280 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
281 </body>
282 </section>
283 <section>
284 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
285 <body><p>
286 During installation the grub boot files are copied
287 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
288 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
289 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
290 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
291 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
292 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
293 unpacking the build snapshot or running
294 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
295 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
296 You can get more information on grub, including how to
297 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
298 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
299 </p>
300 </body>
301 </section>
302
303 <section>
304 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
305 detection. </title>
306 <body>
307 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
308 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
309 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
310 </body>
311 </section>
312
313 <section>
314 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
315 <body>
316 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
317 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
318 </body>
319 </section>
320 <section>
321 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
322 <body>
323 <p>
324 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
325 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
326 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
327 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
328 </p>
329 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
330 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
331 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
332 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
333 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
334 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
335 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
336 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
337 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
338 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
339 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
340 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
341 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
342 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
343 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
344 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
345 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
346 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
347 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
348 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
349 # <i>exit</i>
350 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
351 # <i>reboot</i>
352 </pre>
353 <p>
354 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
355 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
356 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
357 </p>
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section>
361 <title>My proxy requires authentification, what do I have to do?</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
366 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
367 </p>
368 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentification using wget">
369 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
370 </pre>
371 <p>
372 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
373 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
374 </p>
375 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
376 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
377 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
378 </pre>
379 <p>
380 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
381 authentification for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
382 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
383 handle this situation.
384 </p>
385
386 </body>
387 </section>
388
389 </chapter>
390
391 <chapter>
392 <title>Package Management</title>
393 <section>
394 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
395 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
396 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
397 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
398 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
399 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
400 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
401 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
402 </body>
403 </section>
404
405 <section>
406 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
407 <body>
408 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
409 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
410 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
411 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
412 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
413 </body>
414 </section>
415
416 <section>
417 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
418 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
419 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
420 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
421 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
422 </section>
423
424 <section>
425 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
426 <body>
427 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
428 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
429 </body>
430 </section>
431
432 <section>
433 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
434 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
435 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
436 are as follows:</p>
437 <table>
438 <tr>
439 <th>Flag</th>
440 <th>Description</th>
441 </tr>
442 <tr>
443 <ti>CHOST</ti>
444 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
448 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
452 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
453 files)</ti>
454 </tr>
455 <tr>
456 <ti>USE</ti>
457 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
458 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
459 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
460 also USE-aware.</ti>
461 </tr>
462 <tr>
463 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
464 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
465 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
466 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
467 </tr>
468 </table>
469 </body>
470 </section>
471
472 <section>
473 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
474 <body>
475 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
476 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
477 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
478 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
479 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
480 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
481 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
482 <ol>
483 <li>Environment variables</li>
484 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
485 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
486 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
487 any other place come from here)</li>
488 </ol></p></body>
489 </section>
490
491 <section>
492 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
493 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
494 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
495 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
496 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
497
498
499 </p></body>
500 </section>
501
502 <section>
503 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
504 clobbering my config files?</title>
505 <body><p>
506 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
507 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
508 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
509 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
510 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
511 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
512 which is now part of Portage.
513 </p></body>
514 </section>
515
516 <section>
517 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
518 <body><p>
519 Yes, but it is not trivial. First do <c>man ebuild</c> followed by
520 <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild unpack</c>. Then <c>cd</c> to
521 <path>/var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/work</path>. You can manually perform
522 the <c>./configure</c> and <c>make</c> steps yourself (you'll have to do
523 both, since Portage does not separate the configure and build steps). To
524 have Portage finish the installation (so that you can easily remove it later,
525 should you desire to do so, and it will be registered in Portage as a possible
526 dependency) you first need to <c>touch /var/tmp/portage/foo-x.y.z/.compiled</c>
527 (tricking Portage into thinking that <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild compile</c> has
528 completed), followed by <c>ebuild foo-x.y.z.ebuild merge</c>.
529 </p></body>
530 </section>
531
532 <section>
533 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
534 <body><p>
535 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
536 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
537 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
538 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
539 supported.
540 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
541 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
542 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
543 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
544 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
545 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
546 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
547 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
548 lose all your sourcecode.
549 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
550 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
551 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
552 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
553 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
554 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
555 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
556 </p></body>
557 </section>
558
559 <section>
560 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
561 <body><p>
562 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
563 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
564 appropriately.
565 </p></body>
566 </section>
567
568 <section>
569 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
570 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
571 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
572 </section>
573
574 <section>
575 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
576 add them to my system?</title>
577 <body><p>
578 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
579 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
580 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
581 Download sources and bring them on any media
582 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
583 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
584 </p></body>
585 </section>
586
587 <section>
588 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
589 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
590 <body><p>
591 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
592 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
593 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
594 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
595 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
596 again.
597 </p></body>
598 </section>
599
600 <section>
601 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
602 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
603 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
604
605 <body>
606 <p>Solution: </p>
607 <pre caption = "Solution">
608 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
609 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
610 </pre>
611
612 </body>
613 </section>
614 <section>
615 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
616 <body>
617 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
618 </body>
619 </section>
620 </chapter>
621
622 <chapter>
623 <title>Usage</title>
624 <section>
625 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
626 account doesn't work. </title>
627 <body>
628 <p>
629 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
630 for your user entry in
631 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
632 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
633 </p>
634 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
635 </body>
636 </section>
637
638 <section>
639 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
640 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
641 set). Type the following as root:</p>
642 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
643 </body>
644 </section>
645
646 <section>
647 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
648 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
649 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
650 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
651 </body>
652 </section>
653
654 <section>
655 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
656 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
657 </p>
658 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
659 </body>
660 </section>
661
662 <section>
663 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
664 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
665 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
666 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
667 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
668 </body>
669 </section>
670
671 <section>
672 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
673 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
674 </p>
675 </body>
676 </section>
677
678 <section>
679 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
680 <body>
681 <p>
682 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
683 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
684 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
685 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
686 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
687 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
688 </p>
689 <p>
690 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
691 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
692 reboot.
693 </p>
694 </body>
695 </section>
696 <section>
697 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
698 <body>
699 <p>
700 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
701 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
702 </p>
703 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
704 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
705 <p>
706 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
707 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
708 </p>
709 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
710 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
711 </body>
712 </section>
713
714
715 </chapter>
716
717 <chapter>
718 <title>Maintenance</title>
719 <section>
720 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
721 <body>
722 <p>
723 If your
724 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
725 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
726 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
727 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
728 to the corruption.
729 </p>
730 </body>
731 </section>
732 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
733 <section>
734 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
735 system?</title>
736 <body>
737 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
738 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
739
740 <pre>
741 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
742 </pre>
743
744 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
745
746 <pre>
747 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
748 </pre>
749
750 </body>
751 </section>
752 </chapter>
753
754 <chapter>
755 <title>Development</title>
756 <section>
757 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
758 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
759 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
760 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
761 </p></body>
762 </section>
763
764 <section>
765 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
766 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
767 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
768 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
769 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
770 new modules get added.</p></body>
771 </section>
772
773 <section>
774 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
775 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
776 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
777 </section>
778
779 <section>
780 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
781 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
782 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
783 </section>
784
785 <section>
786 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
787 <body><p>
788 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
789 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
790 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
791 </p></body>
792 </section>
793
794
795 <section>
796 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
797 </title>
798 <body>
799 <p>
800 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
801
802 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
803
804 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
805 you need to put this command in
806 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
807 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
808 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
809 target terminal, like this ;
810
811 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
812
813 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
814 you would like to disable console beeps for.
815 </p>
816 </body>
817 </section>
818 </chapter>
819
820 <chapter>
821 <title>Resources</title>
822 <section>
823 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
824 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
825 </section>
826
827 <section>
828 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
829 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.linuxdoc.org</uri>.</p></body>
830 </section>
831
832 <section>
833 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
834 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
835 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
836 </p>
837 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
838 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
839 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
840 </body>
841 </section>
842
843 <section>
844 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
845 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
846 <body>
847 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
848 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
849 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
850 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
851 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
852
853 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
854 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
855 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
856 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
857 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
858 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
859
860 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
861 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
862 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
863 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
864 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
865 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
866 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
867 reasons, many of these covered
868 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
869
870 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
871 administrators have seen them.) </p>
872 </body>
873 </section>
874
875 <section>
876 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
877 <body>
878 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant doumentation <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/docs.xml">here</uri>,
879 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
880 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
881 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
882 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
883 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
884 </p>
885 </body>
886 </section>
887 </chapter>
888 </guide>

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