/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.47 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Dec 2 19:59:10 2003 UTC (10 years, 9 months ago) by neysx
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.46: +3 -2 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Bug #34845

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.46 2003/11/15 00:35:18 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
9 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
14 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15 <abstract>This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.</abstract>
16
17 <license/>
18
19 <version>1.1.10</version>
20 <date>November 7, 2003</date>
21
22 <chapter>
23 <title>Featured Questions</title>
24 <section>
25 <title>Getting Started</title>
26 <body>
27 <ul>
28 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean? </uri></li>
29 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
30 </ul>
31 </body>
32 </section>
33 <section>
34 <title>Installation</title>
35 <body>
36 <ul>
37 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
38 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
39 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
40 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do i add a normal user?</uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root? </uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)? </uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</uri></li>
50 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
51 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
52 </ul>
53 </body>
54 </section>
55 <section>
56 <title>Package Management</title>
57 <body>
58 <ul>
59 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
60 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
61 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
62 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
72 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
73 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </uri></li>
74 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage? </uri></li>
75 </ul>
76 </body>
77 </section>
78 <section>
79 <title>Usage</title>
80 <body>
81 <ul>
82 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
83 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only. </uri></li>
84 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
85 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only. </uri></li>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile? </uri></li>
87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab? </uri></li>
88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
89 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when
90 I log out?</uri></li>
91 </ul>
92 </body>
93 </section>
94 <section>
95 <title>Maintenance</title>
96 <body>
97 <ul>
98 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</uri></li>
99 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system? </uri></li>
100 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
101 </ul>
102 </body>
103 </section>
104 <section>
105 <title>Development</title>
106 <body>
107 <ul>
108 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
109 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made? </uri></li>
110 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
111 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
112 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors </uri></li>
113 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps? </uri></li>
114 </ul>
115 </body>
116 </section>
117 <section>
118 <title>Resources</title>
119 <body>
120 <ul>
121 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier? </uri></li>
122 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux? </uri></li>
123 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
124 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
125 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now? </uri></li>
126 </ul>
127 </body>
128 </section>
129 </chapter>
130
131
132 <chapter>
133 <title>Getting Started</title>
134
135 <section>
136 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
137 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle".)</p></body>
138 </section>
139
140 <section>
141 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
142 <body>
143 <p>Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
144 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
145 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
146 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
147 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
148 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
149 meaning the packages are continually updated to the lastest
150 versions.
151 </p>
152 </body>
153 </section>
154 </chapter>
155
156 <chapter>
157 <title>Installation</title>
158
159 <section>
160
161 <warn>REPORT all bugs to <uri>bugs.gentoo.org</uri>! Do not report bugs to upstream (original)
162 authors. Report the bugs to Gentoo, and we will move them upstream if necessary.
163 </warn>
164
165 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
166 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
167 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
168 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
169 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
170 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
171 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
172 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
173 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
174 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
175 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
176 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
177 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
178 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
179 </body>
180 </section>
181
182 <section>
183 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
184 <body><p>
185 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
186 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
187 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
188 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
189 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
190 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
191 stabilise anytime soon.
192 </p>
193 </body>
194 </section>
195
196 <section>
197 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
198 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
199 <body>
200 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
201 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
202 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
203 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
204 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
205 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
206 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
207 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
208 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
209 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
210 </body>
211 </section>
212
213 <section>
214 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
215 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
216 </section>
217
218 <section>
219 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
220 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
221 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
222 </p></body>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
226 <body>
227 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
228 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
229 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
230 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
231 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
232 </p>
233 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
234 </p>
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 <section>
238 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
239 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
240 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
241 command as root:</p>
242 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
243 </body>
244 </section>
245 <section>
246 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
247 <body>
248 <p>
249 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
250 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
251 kernel, didn't you?).
252 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
253 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
254 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
255 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
256 </p>
257 </body>
258 </section>
259 <section>
260 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
261 <body>
262 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
263 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 <section>
267 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
268 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
269 <body>
270 <p>
271 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
272 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
273 it will be preserved between reboots.
274 </p>
275 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
276 and add these lines:</p>
277 <pre>
278 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
279 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
280 </pre>
281 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
282 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
283 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
284 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
285 </body>
286 </section>
287 <section>
288 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
289 <body><p>
290 During installation the grub boot files are copied
291 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
292 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
293 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
294 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
295 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
296 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
297 unpacking the build snapshot or running
298 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
299 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
300 You can get more information on grub, including how to
301 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
302 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
303 </p>
304 </body>
305 </section>
306
307 <section>
308 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
309 detection. </title>
310 <body>
311 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
312 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
313 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
314 </body>
315 </section>
316
317 <section>
318 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
319 <body>
320 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
321 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
322 </body>
323 </section>
324 <section>
325 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
326 <body>
327 <p>
328 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
329 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
330 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
331 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
332 </p>
333 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
334 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
335 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
336 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
337 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
338 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
339 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
340 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
341 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
342 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
343 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
344 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
345 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
346 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
347 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
348 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
349 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
350 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
351 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
352 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
353 # <i>exit</i>
354 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
355 # <i>reboot</i>
356 </pre>
357 <p>
358 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
359 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
360 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
361 </p>
362 </body>
363 </section>
364 <section>
365 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
366 <body>
367
368 <p>
369 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
370 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
371 </p>
372 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
373 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
374 </pre>
375 <p>
376 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
377 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
378 </p>
379 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
380 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
381 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
382 </pre>
383 <p>
384 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
385 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
386 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
387 handle this situation.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392
393 </chapter>
394
395 <chapter>
396 <title>Package Management</title>
397 <section>
398 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
399 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
400 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
401 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
402 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
403 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
404 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
405 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
406 </body>
407 </section>
408
409 <section>
410 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
411 <body>
412 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
413 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
414 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
415 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
416 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
417 </body>
418 </section>
419
420 <section>
421 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
422 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
423 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
424 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
425 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
426 </section>
427
428 <section>
429 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
430 <body>
431 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
432 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
433 </body>
434 </section>
435
436 <section>
437 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
438 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
439 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
440 are as follows:</p>
441 <table>
442 <tr>
443 <th>Flag</th>
444 <th>Description</th>
445 </tr>
446 <tr>
447 <ti>CHOST</ti>
448 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
449 </tr>
450 <tr>
451 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
452 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
453 </tr>
454 <tr>
455 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
456 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
457 files)</ti>
458 </tr>
459 <tr>
460 <ti>USE</ti>
461 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
462 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
463 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
464 also USE-aware.</ti>
465 </tr>
466 <tr>
467 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
468 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
469 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
470 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
471 </tr>
472 </table>
473 </body>
474 </section>
475
476 <section>
477 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
478 <body>
479 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
480 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
481 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
482 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
483 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
484 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
485 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
486 <ol>
487 <li>Environment variables</li>
488 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
489 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
490 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
491 any other place come from here)</li>
492 </ol></p></body>
493 </section>
494
495 <section>
496 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
497 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
498 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
499 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
500 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
501
502
503 </p></body>
504 </section>
505
506 <section>
507 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
508 clobbering my config files?</title>
509 <body><p>
510 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
511 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
512 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
513 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
514 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
515 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
516 which is now part of Portage.
517 </p></body>
518 </section>
519
520 <section>
521 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
522 <body>
523 <p>
524 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
525 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
526 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
531 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
532 </p>
533
534 <p>
535 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
536 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
537 perform to configure and compile the package.
538 </p>
539
540 <p>
541 When finished, execute <c>touch
542 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
543 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
544 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
545 merge</c>.
546 </p>
547
548 </body>
549 </section>
550
551 <section>
552 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
553 <body><p>
554 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
555 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
556 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
557 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
558 supported.
559 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
560 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
561 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
562 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
563 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
564 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
565 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
566 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
567 lose all your sourcecode.
568 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
569 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
570 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
571 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
572 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
573 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
574 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
575 </p></body>
576 </section>
577
578 <section>
579 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
580 <body><p>
581 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
582 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
583 appropriately.
584 </p></body>
585 </section>
586
587 <section>
588 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
589 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
590 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
591 </section>
592
593 <section>
594 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
595 add them to my system?</title>
596 <body><p>
597 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
598 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
599 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
600 Download sources and bring them on any media
601 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
602 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
603 </p></body>
604 </section>
605
606 <section>
607 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
608 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
609 <body><p>
610 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
611 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
612 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
613 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
614 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
615 again.
616 </p></body>
617 </section>
618
619 <section>
620 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
621 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
622 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
623
624 <body>
625 <p>Solution: </p>
626 <pre caption = "Solution">
627 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
628 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
629 </pre>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section>
634 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
635 <body>
636 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
637 </body>
638 </section>
639 </chapter>
640
641 <chapter>
642 <title>Usage</title>
643 <section>
644 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
645 account doesn't work. </title>
646 <body>
647 <p>
648 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
649 for your user entry in
650 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
651 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
652 </p>
653 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
654 </body>
655 </section>
656
657 <section>
658 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
659 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
660 set). Type the following as root:</p>
661 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
662 </body>
663 </section>
664
665 <section>
666 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
667 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
668 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
669 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
670 </body>
671 </section>
672
673 <section>
674 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
675 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
676 </p>
677 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
678 </body>
679 </section>
680
681 <section>
682 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
683 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
684 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
685 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
686 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
687 </body>
688 </section>
689
690 <section>
691 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
692 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
693 </p>
694 </body>
695 </section>
696
697 <section>
698 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
699 <body>
700 <p>
701 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
702 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
703 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
704 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
705 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
706 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
707 </p>
708 <p>
709 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
710 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
711 reboot.
712 </p>
713 </body>
714 </section>
715 <section>
716 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
717 <body>
718 <p>
719 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
720 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
721 </p>
722 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
723 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
724 <p>
725 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
726 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
727 </p>
728 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
729 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
730 </body>
731 </section>
732
733
734 </chapter>
735
736 <chapter>
737 <title>Maintenance</title>
738 <section>
739 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
740 <body>
741 <p>
742 If your
743 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
744 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
745 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
746 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
747 to the corruption.
748 </p>
749 </body>
750 </section>
751 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
752 <section>
753 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
754 system?</title>
755 <body>
756 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
757 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
758
759 <pre>
760 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
761 </pre>
762
763 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
764
765 <pre>
766 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
767 </pre>
768
769 </body>
770 </section>
771 <section>
772 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
773 <body>
774
775 <p>
776 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
777 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
778 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
779 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
780 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
781 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
782 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
783 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
784 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
785 </p>
786
787 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
788 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
789 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
790 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
791 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
792 </pre>
793
794 </body>
795 </section>
796 </chapter>
797
798 <chapter>
799 <title>Development</title>
800 <section>
801 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
802 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
803 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
804 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
805 </p></body>
806 </section>
807
808 <section>
809 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
810 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
811 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
812 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
813 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
814 new modules get added.</p></body>
815 </section>
816
817 <section>
818 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
819 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
820 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
821 </section>
822
823 <section>
824 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
825 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
826 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
827 </section>
828
829 <section>
830 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
831 <body><p>
832 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
833 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
834 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
835 </p></body>
836 </section>
837
838
839 <section>
840 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
841 </title>
842 <body>
843 <p>
844 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
845
846 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
847
848 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
849 you need to put this command in
850 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
851 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
852 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
853 target terminal, like this ;
854
855 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
856
857 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
858 you would like to disable console beeps for.
859 </p>
860 </body>
861 </section>
862 </chapter>
863
864 <chapter>
865 <title>Resources</title>
866 <section>
867 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
868 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
869 </section>
870
871 <section>
872 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
873 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
874 </section>
875
876 <section>
877 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
878 <body><p>Yes! Fresh CDRs are available for $5 USD apiece from
879 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010805">Cheapbytes</uri>.
880 </p>
881 <p>There are also CDs for sale at <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
882 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a portion of the profits
883 to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot! </p>
884 </body>
885 </section>
886
887 <section>
888 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
889 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
890 <body>
891 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
892 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
893 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
894 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
895 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
896
897 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
898 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
899 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
900 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
901 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
902 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
903
904 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
905 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
906 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
907 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
908 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
909 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
910 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
911 reasons, many of these covered
912 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
913
914 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
915 administrators have seen them.) </p>
916 </body>
917 </section>
918
919 <section>
920 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
921 <body>
922 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
923 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>,
924 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
925 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
926 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
927 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
928 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
929 </p>
930 </body>
931 </section>
932 </chapter>
933 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20