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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.52 2004/01/27 14:59:35 erwin Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect"><mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail></author>
8 <author title="Reviewer">Colin Morey</author>
9 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->John P. Davis</author>
10 <author title="Editor"><mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail></author>
11 <author title="Editor"><mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail></author>
12 <author title="Editor"><mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail></author>
13 <author title="Editor"><mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail></author>
14 <author title="Editor"><mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail></author>
15 <abstract>
16 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev mailing list
17 and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add, please contact either an author
18 or a member of the documentation team.
19 </abstract>
20
21 <license/>
22
23 <version>1.1.12</version>
24 <date>January 27, 2004</date>
25
26 <chapter>
27 <title>Featured Questions</title>
28 <section>
29 <title>Getting Started</title>
30 <body>
31 <ul>
32 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</uri></li>
33 <li><uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri></li>
34 </ul>
35 </body>
36 </section>
37 <section>
38 <title>Installation</title>
39 <body>
40 <ul>
41 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</uri></li>
42 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri></li>
43 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri></li>
44 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after installation?</uri></li>
45 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</uri></li>
46 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
47 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
48 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
49 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
50 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri></li>
51 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
52 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri></li>
53 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri></li>
54 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</uri></li>
55 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</uri></li>
56 </ul>
57 </body>
58 </section>
59 <section>
60 <title>Package Management</title>
61 <body>
62 <ul>
63 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri></li>
64 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</uri></li>
65 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</uri></li>
66 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri></li>
67 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</uri></li>
68 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri></li>
69 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri></li>
70 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild, how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri></li>
71 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</uri></li>
72 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri></li>
73 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</uri></li>
74 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating system?</uri></li>
75 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri></li>
76 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri></li>
77 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri></li>
78 <li><uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri></li>
79 </ul>
80 </body>
81 </section>
82 <section>
83 <title>Usage</title>
84 <body>
85 <ul>
86 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri></li>
87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri></li>
88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</uri></li>
89 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri></li>
90 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri></li>
91 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri></li>
92 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri></li>
93 <li><uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</uri></li>
94 </ul>
95 </body>
96 </section>
97 <section>
98 <title>Maintenance</title>
99 <body>
100 <ul>
101 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc...</uri></li>
102 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri></li>
103 <li><uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri></li>
104 </ul>
105 </body>
106 </section>
107 <section>
108 <title>Development</title>
109 <body>
110 <ul>
111 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
112 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
113 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</uri></li>
114 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</uri></li>
115 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri></li>
116 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri></li>
117 </ul>
118 </body>
119 </section>
120 <section>
121 <title>Resources</title>
122 <body>
123 <ul>
124 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri></li>
125 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
126 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
127 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</uri></li>
128 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</uri></li>
129 </ul>
130 </body>
131 </section>
132 </chapter>
133
134
135 <chapter>
136 <title>Getting Started</title>
137
138 <section>
139 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
140 <body><p>Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").</p></body>
141 </section>
142
143 <section>
144 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
145 <body>
146 <p>
147 Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
148 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
149 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
150 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
151 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
152 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
153 meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest
154 versions.
155 </p>
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 </chapter>
159
160 <chapter>
161 <title>Installation</title>
162
163 <section>
164 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
165 <body><p>The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
166 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
167 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
168 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
169 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
170 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
171 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
172 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
173 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
174 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
175 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
176 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
177 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.</p>
178 </body>
179 </section>
180
181 <section>
182 <title>Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision) numbers?</title>
183 <body><p>
184 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
185 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
186 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
187 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
188 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
189 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
190 stabilise anytime soon.
191 </p>
192 </body>
193 </section>
194
195 <section>
196 <title>I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
197 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</title>
198 <body>
199 <p>Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by current versions
200 of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the compiler to streamline the assembly code
201 to the point where it doesn't quite do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e> (on IRC)'s CFLAGS
202 is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops
203 -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about
204 as much as I'd want to push global optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use
205 ultra-high optimizations only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%,
206 (eg graphics and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
207 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.</p>
208 <p>Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a bug</p>
209 </body>
210 </section>
211
212 <section>
213 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
214 <body><p>The default password is blank; hit enter.</p></body>
215 </section>
216
217 <section>
218 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
219 <body><p>You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged into.
220 for extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've completed the install.
221 </p></body>
222 </section>
223 <section>
224 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
225 <body>
226 <p>The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step is to give
227 this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.</p>
228 <p>Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
229 <pre># <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i></pre>
230 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
231 </p>
232 <p>You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.</p>
233 </body>
234 </section>
235 <section>
236 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
237 <body><p>For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
238 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue the following
239 command as root:</p>
240 <pre># <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i></pre>
241 </body>
242 </section>
243 <section>
244 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
245 <body>
246 <p>
247 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to get
248 devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built into the
249 kernel, didn't you?).
250 However, if you are using a version of Gentoo Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add
251 <c>devfs=mount</c> to your <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something
252 like <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then mount the
253 <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
254 </p>
255 </body>
256 </section>
257 <section>
258 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
259 <body>
260 <p>Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
261 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.</p>
262 </body>
263 </section>
264 <section>
265 <title>How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that
266 doesn't go away when I reboot (when using devfs)?</title>
267 <body>
268 <p>
269 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
270 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
271 it will be preserved between reboots.
272 </p>
273 <p>All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>
274 and add these lines:</p>
275 <pre>
276 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
277 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
278 </pre>
279 <p>If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
280 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
281 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c>
282 to get devfsd to reread <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.</p>
283 </body>
284 </section>
285 <section>
286 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
287 <body><p>
288 During installation the grub boot files are copied
289 to <path>/boot/grub</path> (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and
290 earlier.) Grub automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
291 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition mounted at
292 <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to clobber your kernel and boot
293 info by accident.) The above error generally arises from (a) not using a separate boot
294 partition, (b) forgetting to mount the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either
295 unpacking the build snapshot or running
296 <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
297 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
298 You can get more information on grub, including how to
299 debug grub from the grub prompt, by reading the
300 <uri link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
301 </p>
302 </body>
303 </section>
304
305 <section>
306 <title>My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel loading and hardware
307 detection. </title>
308 <body>
309 <p>Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
310 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The Multi-Processor-System
311 will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo Linux with the following boot option, noapic. </p>
312 </body>
313 </section>
314
315 <section>
316 <title>If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without reinstalling?</title>
317 <body>
318 <p>
319 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based.
320 As such 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
321 </p>
322 </body>
323 </section>
324
325 <section>
326 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
327 <body>
328 <p>
329 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
330 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
331 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
332 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
333 </p>
334 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
335 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
336 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
337 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
338 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
339 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
340 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
341 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
342 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
343 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
344 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
345 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
346 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
347 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
348 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
349 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
350 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
351 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
352 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
353 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
354 # <i>exit</i>
355 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
356 # <i>reboot</i>
357 </pre>
358 <p>
359 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
360 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
361 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
362 </p>
363 </body>
364 </section>
365 <section>
366 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <p>
370 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
371 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
372 </p>
373 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
374 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
375 </pre>
376 <p>
377 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
378 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
379 </p>
380 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
381 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
382 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
383 </pre>
384 <p>
385 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
386 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
387 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
388 handle this situation.
389 </p>
390
391 </body>
392 </section>
393
394 </chapter>
395
396 <chapter>
397 <title>Package Management</title>
398 <section>
399 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
400 <body><p>They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are primarily
401 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a
402 special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources. We generally only build
403 binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO
404 </uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
405 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c>
406 compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the file.)</p>
407 </body>
408 </section>
409
410 <section>
411 <title>Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?</title>
412 <body>
413 <p>In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the design
414 philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of what you'd type to
415 install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy to learn and modify to your
416 needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs, safe unmerging, system profiles,
417 package masking, a real dependency system, and lots of other good stuff.</p>
418 </body>
419 </section>
420
421 <section>
422 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
423 <body><p>Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
424 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database. Think of
425 Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the sensibilities and safety of a
426 Linux package management system built-in.</p></body>
427 </section>
428
429 <section>
430 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
431 <body>
432 <p>The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how to install
433 and uninstall packages, and update Portage.</p>
434 </body>
435 </section>
436
437 <section>
438 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
439 <body><p><path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
440 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most common options
441 are as follows:</p>
442 <table>
443 <tr>
444 <th>Flag</th>
445 <th>Description</th>
446 </tr>
447 <tr>
448 <ti>CHOST</ti>
449 <ti>This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c></ti>
450 </tr>
451 <tr>
452 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
453 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)</ti>
454 </tr>
455 <tr>
456 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
457 <ti>The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,*.cpp etc.
458 files)</ti>
459 </tr>
460 <tr>
461 <ti>USE</ti>
462 <ti>This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
463 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string, then when
464 you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All our dependencies are
465 also USE-aware.</ti>
466 </tr>
467 <tr>
468 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
469 <ti>A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages. Portage
470 will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before trying the official
471 <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors, set this variable to "".</ti>
472 </tr>
473 </table>
474 </body>
475 </section>
476
477 <section>
478 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
479 <body>
480 <p>As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
481 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
482 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
483 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
484 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
485 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
486 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
487 <ol>
488 <li>Environment variables</li>
489 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
490 <li><path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults</li>
491 <li><path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified in
492 any other place come from here)</li>
493 </ol></p></body>
494 </section>
495
496 <section>
497 <title>Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages
498 e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e> or <e>make World</e>?</title>
499 <body><p><b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to
500 update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c> (again, use it with
501 <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of all installed packages.
502
503
504 </p></body>
505 </section>
506
507 <section>
508 <title>When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
509 clobbering my config files?</title>
510 <body><p>
511 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
512 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is that if
513 a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>, and
514 another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path> will
515 instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A useful
516 tool for examining and updating any protected config files is <c>etc-update</c>,
517 which is now part of Portage.
518 </p></body>
519 </section>
520
521 <section>
522 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
523 <body>
524 <p>
525 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
526 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
527 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
528 </p>
529
530 <p>
531 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
532 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
533 </p>
534
535 <p>
536 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
537 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
538 perform to configure and compile the package.
539 </p>
540
541 <p>
542 When finished, execute <c>touch
543 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
544 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
545 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
546 merge</c>.
547 </p>
548
549 </body>
550 </section>
551
552 <section>
553 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
554 <body><p>
555 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit
556 rsync traffic, then you can use <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch
557 and install a Portage snapshot for you through regular HTTP.
558 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so proxy is fully
559 supported.
560 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
561 ~# <c>emerge-webrsync</c></pre>
562 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
563 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
564 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
565 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
566 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
567 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
568 lose all your sourcecode.
569 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
570 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
571 ~# <c>cd /usr</c>
572 ~# <c>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</c>
573 ~# <c>rm -rf /usr/portage</c>
574 ~# <c>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</c>
575 ~# <c>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</c></pre>
576 </p></body>
577 </section>
578
579 <section>
580 <title>How do I use <i>emerge</i> from behind a firewall?</title>
581 <body><p>
582 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
583 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
584 appropriately.
585 </p></body>
586 </section>
587
588 <section>
589 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
590 <body><p>There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available from
591 <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.</p></body>
592 </section>
593
594 <section>
595 <title>I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere else and
596 add them to my system?</title>
597 <body><p>
598 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
599 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where to
600 download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>.
601 Download sources and bring them on any media
602 home. Put the sources into <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run
603 <c>emerge package</c> to see it picking up the sources you just brought in!
604 </p></body>
605 </section>
606
607 <section>
608 <title>.tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using
609 valuable space. Is it safe to delete these files?</title>
610 <body><p>
611 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
612 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
613 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
614 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
615 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
616 again.
617 </p></body>
618 </section>
619
620 <section>
621 <title>I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
622 <c>java-config --list-available-vms</c> would only list blackdown-jre.
623 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do? </title>
624
625 <body>
626 <p>Solution: </p>
627 <pre caption = "Solution">
628 # <c>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </c>
629 # <c>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </c>
630 </pre>
631
632 </body>
633 </section>
634 <section>
635 <title>What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?</title>
636 <body>
637 <p>
638 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this directory.
639 </p>
640 </body>
641 </section>
642 </chapter>
643
644 <chapter>
645 <title>Usage</title>
646 <section>
647 <title>I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal user
648 account doesn't work. </title>
649 <body>
650 <p>
651 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell specified. Check
652 for your user entry in
653 <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't,
654 you must set a shell for the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this ;
655 </p>
656 <pre># <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i></pre>
657 </body>
658 </section>
659
660 <section>
661 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
662 <body><p>Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the sticky bit
663 set). Type the following as root:</p>
664 <pre># <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i></pre>
665 </body>
666 </section>
667
668 <section>
669 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
670 <body><p>Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.</p>
673 </body>
674 </section>
675
676 <section>
677 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
678 <body><p><path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as follows:
679 </p>
680 <pre># <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i></pre>
681 </body>
682 </section>
683
684 <section>
685 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
686 <body><p>You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde
687 </path>, so that it reads as follows:</p>
688 <pre>#!/bin/sh --login</pre>
689 <p>This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.</p>
690 </body>
691 </section>
692
693 <section>
694 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
695 <body><p>You need to add that user to the <i>cron</i> group.
696 </p>
697 </body>
698 </section>
699
700 <section>
701 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
702 <body>
703 <p>
704 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
705 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
706 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
707 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
708 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
709 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
710 </p>
711 <p>
712 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
713 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
714 reboot.
715 </p>
716 </body>
717 </section>
718 <section>
719 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
720 <body>
721 <p>
722 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
723 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
724 </p>
725 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
726 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i></pre>
727 <p>
728 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
729 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
730 </p>
731 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
732 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
733 </body>
734 </section>
735
736
737 </chapter>
738
739 <chapter>
740 <title>Maintenance</title>
741 <section>
742 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
743 <body>
744 <p>
745 If your
746 ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
747 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
748 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
749 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
750 to the corruption.
751 </p>
752 </body>
753 </section>
754 <!-- is this still relevant? -cpm -->
755 <section>
756 <title>How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo
757 system?</title>
758 <body>
759 <p>To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to pipe the
760 current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:</p>
761
762 <pre>
763 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
764 </pre>
765
766 <p>Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:</p>
767
768 <pre>
769 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
770 </pre>
771
772 </body>
773 </section>
774 <section>
775 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
776 <body>
777
778 <p>
779 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
780 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
781 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
782 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
783 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
784 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
785 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
786 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
787 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
788 </p>
789
790 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
791 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
792 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
793 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
794 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
795 </pre>
796
797 </body>
798 </section>
799 </chapter>
800
801 <chapter>
802 <title>Development</title>
803 <section>
804 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
805 <body><p>For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise, use our
806 Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can also visit us in
807 <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
808 </p></body>
809 </section>
810
811 <section>
812 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
813 <body><p>New releases are announced on the <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
814 mailing list<!-- TODO: approximatley every X months -->, In reality the packages themselves
815 are updated shortly after the main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc
816 are released, that tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
817 new modules get added.</p></body>
818 </section>
819
820 <section>
821 <title>I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?</title>
822 <body><p>Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
823 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.</p></body>
824 </section>
825
826 <section>
827 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
828 <body><p>Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
829 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.</p></body>
830 </section>
831
832 <section>
833 <title>make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors</title>
834 <body><p>
835 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
836 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>,
837 and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
838 </p></body>
839 </section>
840
841
842 <section>
843 <title>My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?
844 </title>
845 <body>
846 <p>
847 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this ;
848
849 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0</i></pre>
850
851 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
852 you need to put this command in
853 <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only
854 disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
855 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
856 target terminal, like this ;
857
858 <pre># <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i></pre>
859
860 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal
861 you would like to disable console beeps for.
862 </p>
863 </body>
864 </section>
865 </chapter>
866
867 <chapter>
868 <title>Resources</title>
869 <section>
870 <title>Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</title>
871 <body><p><!-- TODO: --><uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri></p></body>
872 </section>
873
874 <section>
875 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
876 <body><p>The official Gentoo documentation can be found on <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.</p></body>
877 </section>
878
879 <section>
880 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
881 <body>
882
883 <p>Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
884 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
885 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
886 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
887 </p>
888
889 <p>
890 You can also find fresh CDs from
891 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
892 </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
893 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
894 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
895 </p>
896
897 </body>
898 </section>
899
900 <section>
901 <title>Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
902 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?</title>
903 <body>
904 <p>The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
905 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
906 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
907 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
908 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
909
910 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
911 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
912 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
913 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
914 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
915 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
916
917 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
918 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
919 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
920 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
921 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
922 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
923 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
924 reasons, many of these covered
925 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
926
927 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
928 administrators have seen them.) </p>
929 </body>
930 </section>
931
932 <section>
933 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
934 <body>
935 <p>A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>,
936 failing that, the various Gentoo Linux mailing
937 lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo mailling lists,
938 just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want
939 to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <i>#gentoo</i>
940 on <i>irc.freenode.net</i>.
941 </p>
942 </body>
943 </section>
944 </chapter>
945 </guide>

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