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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.53 2004/02/19 14:49:28 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 </abstract>
37
38 <license/>
39
40 <version>1.1.12</version>
41 <date>January 27, 2004</date>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>Featured Questions</title>
45 <section>
46 <title>Getting Started</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean
52 ?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57 </ul>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>Installation</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">What is the difference between the .iso and
68 .tbz2 files?</uri>
69 </li>
70 <li>
71 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes
72 have different -r (revision) numbers?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
76 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
77 gives?</uri>
78 </li>
79 <li>
80 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">What's the default root password after
81 installation?</uri>
82 </li>
83 <li>
84 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How can I change the root (or indeed any other
85 user's) password?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">How do I add a normal user?</uri></li>
88 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">Why can't a user su to root?</uri></li>
89 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">How do I enable devfs?</uri></li>
90 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect9">How to I disable devfs?</uri></li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect10">How do I get a /dev/mouse that doesn't go away
93 when I reboot (when using devfs)?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li><uri link="#doc_chap3_sect11">Grub can't find stage x.y?</uri></li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect12">My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes
98 during various stages of kernel loading and hardware detection.</uri>
99 </li>
100 <li>
101 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect13">If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to
102 1.4_rc2/rc3/final without reinstalling?</uri>
103 </li>
104 <li>
105 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect14">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what
106 should I do now?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect15">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
110 have to do?</uri>
111 </li>
112 </ul>
113
114 </body>
115 </section>
116 <section>
117 <title>Package Management</title>
118 <body>
119
120 <ul>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
125 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">Why write a new port system (Portage) instead
126 of using BSD's version?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">How does this differ from Debian's apt or
130 BSD's ports?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I install and uninstall packages?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">How can I set a global configuration for
137 compiling packages?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">What happened to /etc/make.defaults?</uri>
141 </li>
142 <li>
143 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">Is there a way to upgrade all installed
144 packages e.g. apt-get upgrade or make World?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">When updating a package using emerge or ebuild,
148 how do I avoid clobbering my config files?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect9">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
152 Can I?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
156 </li>
157 <li>
158 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect11">How do I use emerge from behind a
159 firewall?</uri>
160 </li>
161 <li>
162 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect12">Can I rsync from another operating
163 system?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect13">I have only slow modem connection at home.
167 Can I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
168 </li>
169 <li>
170 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect14">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
171 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to
172 delete these files?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect15">I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and
176 blackdown-jre, and afterwards java-config --list-available-vms would only
177 list blackdown-jre. Openoffice then refuses to emerge. What do I do?</uri>
178 </li>
179 <li>
180 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect16">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
181 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
182 </li>
183 </ul>
184
185 </body>
186 </section>
187 <section>
188 <title>Usage</title>
189 <body>
190
191 <ul>
192 <li>
193 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
194 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
195 </li>
196 <li>
197 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only.</uri>
198 </li>
199 <li>
200 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
201 Layout?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
205 </li>
206 <li>
207 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why is KDE not reading /etc/profile?</uri>
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
211 </li>
212 <li>
213 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
214 </li>
215 <li>
216 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect8">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
217 out?</uri>
218 </li>
219 </ul>
220
221 </body>
222 </section>
223 <section>
224 <title>Maintenance</title>
225 <body>
226
227 <ul>
228 <li>
229 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
230 how to fix'em, etc...</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">How to I view the timestamps in
234 /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5 Gentoo system?</uri>
235 </li>
236 <li>
237 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect3">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
238 </li>
239 </ul>
240
241 </body>
242 </section>
243 <section>
244 <title>Development</title>
245 <body>
246
247 <ul>
248 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri></li>
249 <li><uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri></li>
250 <li>
251 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">I would like a package to be added to Portage;
252 how would I go about this?</uri>
253 </li>
254 <li>
255 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">How can I add a question or answer to this
256 FAQ?</uri>
257 </li>
258 <li>
259 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect5">make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces
260 "invalid unused variable" errors. What gives?</uri>
261 </li>
262 <li>
263 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect6">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
264 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
265 </li>
266 </ul>
267
268 </body>
269 </section>
270 <section>
271 <title>Resources</title>
272 <body>
273
274 <ul>
275 <li>
276 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more about supervise used by
277 default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier?</uri>
278 </li>
279 <li>
280 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
281 Linux?</uri>
282 </li>
283 <li><uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri></li>
284 <li>
285 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
286 mailing list, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
287 entire list?</uri>
288 </li>
289 <li>
290 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect5">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do
291 I do now?</uri>
292 </li>
293 </ul>
294
295 </body>
296 </section>
297 </chapter>
298
299 <chapter>
300 <title>Getting Started</title>
301
302 <section>
303 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 Gentoo is a species of small fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (The "g" in
308 "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle").
309 </p>
310
311 </body>
312 </section>
313 <section>
314 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 Gentoo Linux is a fast, modern distribution with a clean and flexible
319 design -- in this respect, Gentoo may appeal to
320 <uri link="http://www.slackware.com/">Slackware</uri>,
321 <uri link="http://www.linuxfromscratch.org/">Linux From Scratch</uri> or
322 <uri link="http://www.bsd.org/">BSD</uri> users. Unlike most Linux
323 distros, Gentoo has a package system reminiscent of BSD's ports,
324 meaning the packages are continually updated to the latest
325 versions.
326 </p>
327
328 </body>
329 </section>
330 </chapter>
331
332 <chapter>
333 <title>Installation</title>
334 <section>
335 <title>What is the difference between the .iso and .tbz2 files?</title>
336 <body>
337
338 <p>
339 The build <e>.tbz2</e> file is a minimal set of system files
340 that is necessary for allowing a user to bootstrap and install
341 Gentoo Linux. The build <e>.iso</e> is a complete, bootable CD image that
342 contains a system kernel, a reasonably complete set of kernel modules,
343 necessary system tools such as <c>mkfs</c> and networking support,
344 as well as the <e>.tbz2</e> minimal-system tarball. Most users will install
345 Gentoo Linux by burning the .iso file onto a CD, booting off of the CD,
346 and installing from within the minimal linux environment provided by
347 the Gentoo boot CD. It is possible, however, for users to install
348 Gentoo Linux directly from an already-existing Linux distribution.
349 Such users need only download the .tbz2 file, install the contents
350 on a spare partition (making sure to use the <c>p</c> flag when
351 untarring the tarball!), chroot, and install in the usual fashion.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section>
357 <title>
358 Why do the build .iso and .tbz2 files sometimes have different -r (revision)
359 numbers?
360 </title>
361 <body>
362
363 <p>
364 The .tbz2 minimal-system tarball only needs to be revised when there have
365 been significant changes to the core Gentoo Linux system (such as baselayout
366 changes, or a new profile), and as such .tbz2 updates are relatively rare.
367 The .iso file tends to get updated whenever we discover that somebody has
368 hardware that won't boot from our .iso. Since new kernel modules and
369 patches are constantly being generated, this situation probably won't
370 stabilise anytime soon.
371 </p>
372
373 </body>
374 </section>
375 <section>
376 <title>
377 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
378 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
379 </title>
380 <body>
381
382 <p>
383 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't support by
384 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
385 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
386 do the same thing anymore. A possible setting based on <e>Loc-Dog</e>
387 (on IRC)'s CFLAGS is <c>-O3 -mcpu=i686 -march=i686 -fforce-addr
388 -fomit-frame-pointer -funroll-loops -frerun-cse-after-loop -frerun-loop-opt
389 -falign-functions=4</c>, which is about as much as I'd want to push global
390 optimization settings. Beyond this, it's best to use ultra-high optimizations
391 only with specific packages where you really need that extra 2%, (eg graphics
392 and various multimedia programs), and where you can easily test the package
393 to ensure that it hasn't been optimized into oblivion.
394 </p>
395
396 <p>
397 Please try first to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> before reporting a
398 bug.
399 </p>
400
401 </body>
402 </section>
403 <section>
404 <title>What's the default root password after installation?</title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 The default password is blank; hit enter.
409 </p>
410
411 </body>
412 </section>
413 <section>
414 <title>How can i change the root (or indeed any other user's) password?</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
419 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
420 completed the install.
421 </p>
422
423 </body>
424 </section>
425 <section>
426 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
427 <body>
428
429 <p>
430 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
431 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
432 </p>
433
434 <p>
435 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
436 </p>
437
438 <pre caption="Using useradd">
439 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
440 </pre>
441
442 <p>
443 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
444 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
445 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
446 </p>
447
448 <p>
449 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
450 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
451 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
452 </p>
453
454 </body>
455 </section>
456 <section>
457 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
458 <body>
459
460 <p>
461 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
462 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <i>username</i> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
463 the following command as root:
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
467 # <i>usermod -G users,wheel username</i>
468 </pre>
469
470 </body>
471 </section>
472 <section>
473 <title>How do I enable devfs?</title>
474 <body>
475
476 <p>
477 If you're using 1.0_rc5 or greater, you don't need to do anything special to
478 get devfs working; it's already active (you did make sure that devfs was built
479 into the kernel, didn't you?). However, if you are using a version of Gentoo
480 Linux <e>prior</e> to version 1.0_rc5, add <c>devfs=mount</c> to your
481 <c>GRUB</c> kernel boot options so that the line looks something like
482 <c>kernel /boot/boot/bzImage devfs=mount foo=bar</c> The kernel will then
483 mount the <path>/dev</path> <e>devfs</e> filesystem automatically at boot-time.
484 </p>
485
486 </body>
487 </section>
488 <section>
489 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
490 <body>
491
492 <p>
493 Under Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc6 and later, you can disable devfs by passing the
494 <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel.
495 </p>
496
497 </body>
498 </section>
499 <section>
500 <title>
501 How do I get a <path>/dev/mouse </path> that doesn't go away when I reboot
502 (when using devfs)?
503 </title>
504 <body>
505
506 <p>
507 If you are using 1.0_rc6 or later, then you can just use <c>ln -s</c>
508 to make the usual symbolic link from <path>/dev/mouse</path>, and
509 it will be preserved between reboots.
510 </p>
511
512 <p>
513 All other users need to edit <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path> and add these
514 lines:
515 </p>
516
517 <pre caption="Adding lines to /etc/devfsd.conf">
518 REGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL symlink misc/psaux mouse
519 UNREGISTER ^misc/psaux$ CFUNCTION GLOBAL unlink mouse
520 </pre>
521
522 <p>
523 If you are not using the devfs PS/2 mouse <path>/dev/misc/psaux</path> device,
524 adjust the <c>misc/psaux</c> strings above accoringly. You'll then want to
525 <c>killall -HUP devfsd</c> to get devfsd to reread
526 <path>/etc/devfsd.conf</path>.
527 </p>
528
529 </body>
530 </section>
531 <section>
532 <title>Grub can't find stage x.y?</title>
533 <body>
534
535 <p>
536 During installation the grub boot files are copied to <path>/boot/grub</path>
537 (<path>/boot/boot/grub</path> in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier.) Grub
538 automatically looks in the <path>/boot/grub</path> directory on the boot
539 partition. (We strongly recommend having a separate no-auto boot partition
540 mounted at <path>/boot</path>, since that way it is much more difficult to
541 clobber your kernel and boot info by accident.) The above error generally
542 arises from (a) not using a separate boot partition, (b) forgetting to mount
543 the boot partition at <path>/boot</path> before either unpacking the build
544 snapshot or running <c>emerge --usepkg system</c>, or (c) forgetting the
545 <c>notail</c> option when mounting a ReiserFS <path>/boot</path> partition.
546 You can get more information on grub, including how to debug grub from the
547 grub prompt, by reading the <uri
548 link="http://www-105.ibm.com/developerworks/education.nsf/linux-onlinecourse-bytitle/0F1731DC664023B7862569D0005C44AF?OpenDocument">IBM developerWorks Grub tutorial</uri>.
549 </p>
550
551 </body>
552 </section>
553 <section>
554 <title>
555 My ASUS CUV4X-D won't boot and it freezes during various stages of kernel
556 loading and hardware detection.
557 </title>
558 <body>
559
560 <p>
561 Disable MPS 1.4 (multi-processor-system) in the BIOS or switch this
562 function to 1.1. By using this option you just switch the MPS version. The
563 Multi-Processor-System will still work properly. Make sure to boot Gentoo
564 Linux with the following boot option, noapic.
565 </p>
566
567 </body>
568 </section>
569 <section>
570 <title>
571 If I have Gentoo 1.4_rc1 can I upgrade to 1.4_rc2, 1.4_final/_rc3 without
572 reinstalling?
573 </title>
574 <body>
575
576 <p>
577 In fact there is no difference between the 1.4 releases <b>after they&apos;ve
578 installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such
579 1.4rc1 machine for example, that does <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c> is
580 <b>exactly the same</b> as a machine with 1.4rc2 installed, after it does
581 <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>. The true differences lie in the installer.
582 </p>
583
584 </body>
585 </section>
586 <section>
587 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
588 <body>
589
590 <p>
591 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
592 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
593 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
594 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
595 </p>
596
597 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
598 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
599 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
600 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
601 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
602 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
603 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
604 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
605 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
606 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
607 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
608 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
609 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
610 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
611 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
612 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
613 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
614 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
615 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
616 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
617 # <i>exit</i>
618 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
619 # <i>reboot</i>
620 </pre>
621
622 <p>
623 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
624 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
625 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
626 </p>
627
628 </body>
629 </section>
630 <section>
631 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
632 <body>
633
634 <p>
635 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
636 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
637 </p>
638
639 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
640 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
641 </pre>
642
643 <p>
644 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
645 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
646 </p>
647
648 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
649 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
650 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
651 </pre>
652
653 <p>
654 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
655 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect10">What
656 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
657 handle this situation.
658 </p>
659
660 </body>
661 </section>
662 </chapter>
663
664 <chapter>
665 <title>Package Management</title>
666 <section>
667 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
668 <body>
669
670 <p>
671 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; we are
672 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
673 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
674 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
675 The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
676 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
677 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
678 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
679 file).
680 </p>
681
682 </body>
683 </section>
684 <section>
685 <title>
686 Why write a new port system (Portage) instead of using BSD's version?
687 </title>
688 <body>
689
690 <p>
691 In one sentence, because Portage is much better in so many ways. One of the
692 design philosophies of the <c>.ebuild</c> syntax was to make it an analog of
693 what you'd type to install the program manually, thus making Portage very easy
694 to learn and modify to your needs. We also have OpenBSD-style "fake" installs,
695 safe unmerging, system profiles, package masking, a real dependency system,
696 and lots of other good stuff.
697 </p>
698
699 </body>
700 </section>
701 <section>
702 <title>How does this differ from Debian's apt or BSD's ports?</title>
703 <body>
704
705 <p>
706 Portage features the best of apt and ports; for example, USE options, a full
707 dependency system, safe installs and uninstalls, and a true package database.
708 Think of Portage as the best of both worlds; a ports system with the
709 sensibilities and safety of a Linux package management system built-in.
710 </p>
711
712 </body>
713 </section>
714 <section>
715 <title>How do I install and uninstall packages?</title>
716 <body>
717
718 <p>
719 The <uri link="/doc/en/portage-user.xml">Portage User Guide</uri> details how
720 to install and uninstall packages, and update Portage.
721 </p>
722
723 </body>
724 </section>
725 <section>
726 <title>How can I set a global configuration for compiling packages?</title>
727 <body>
728
729 <p>
730 <path>/etc/make.conf</path> should be modified to override global and
731 profile-specific default options used to compile and merge packages. The most
732 common options are as follows:
733 </p>
734
735 <table>
736 <tr>
737 <th>Flag</th>
738 <th>Description</th>
739 </tr>
740 <tr>
741 <ti>CHOST</ti>
742 <ti>
743 This sets the HOST variable for compiles, e.g. <c>i686-pc-linux-gnu</c>
744 </ti>
745 </tr>
746 <tr>
747 <ti>CFLAGS</ti>
748 <ti>
749 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C (*.c files)
750 </ti>
751 </tr>
752 <tr>
753 <ti>CXXFLAGS</ti>
754 <ti>
755 The options for <c>gcc</c> when compiling programs written in C++ (*.c,
756 *.cpp etc. files)
757 </ti>
758 </tr>
759 <tr>
760 <ti>USE</ti>
761 <ti>
762 This allows you to set what optional components you'd like compiled-in, if
763 available. For example, if you have <c>gnome</c> inside the USE string,
764 then when you compile <c>xchat</c>, it will include GNOME support. All
765 our dependencies are also USE-aware.
766 </ti>
767 </tr>
768 <tr>
769 <ti>GENTOO_MIRRORS</ti>
770 <ti>
771 A space separated list of URIs currently mirroring the Gentoo packages.
772 Portage will attempt download from a <c>GENTOO_MIRROR</c> first before
773 trying the official <c>SRC_URI</c>. To force Portage to skip mirrors,
774 set this variable to "".
775 </ti>
776 </tr>
777 </table>
778
779 </body>
780 </section>
781 <section>
782 <title>What happened to <path>/etc/make.defaults</path>?</title>
783 <body>
784
785 <p>
786 As of Portage 1.5 onwards, <path>/etc/make.defaults</path> is antiquated;
787 if you have portage-1.5-r1 or above installed then you can safely delete it.
788 This file has been replaced by <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>
789 (<path>/etc/make.profile</path> should actually be a symlink to,
790 <path>/usr/portage/profiles/default</path>),
791 which contains system profile-specific default settings. The priority order of
792 the various configuration files is as follows (highest first):
793 </p>
794
795 <ol>
796 <li>Environment variables</li>
797 <li><path>/etc/make.conf</path>, for your use</li>
798 <li>
799 <path>/etc/make.profile/make.defaults</path>, for profile-specific defaults
800 </li>
801 <li>
802 <path>/etc/make.globals</path>, for global defaults (settings not specified
803 in any other place come from here)
804 </li>
805 </ol>
806
807 </body>
808 </section>
809 <section>
810 <title>
811 Is there a way to upgrade all installed packages e.g. <e>apt-get upgrade</e>
812 or <e>make World</e>?
813 </title>
814 <body>
815
816 <p>
817 <b>YES!</b> Type <c>emerge --update system</c> (use it with <c>--pretend</c>
818 first) to update all core system packages, and use <c>emerge --update world</c>
819 (again, use it with <c>--pretend</c> first) to do a complete system upgrade of
820 all installed packages.
821 </p>
822
823 </body>
824 </section>
825 <section>
826 <title>
827 When updating a package using <c>emerge</c> or <c>ebuild</c>, how do I avoid
828 clobbering my config files?
829 </title>
830 <body>
831
832 <p>
833 Portage now includes config file management support by default. Type
834 <c>emerge --help config</c> for more details. The (overly) simple answer is
835 that if a package installs <path>foo</path> somewhere under <path>/etc</path>,
836 and another <path>foo</path> already exists there, then the new <path>foo</path>
837 will instead be renamed to <path>._cfgxxxx_foo</path> in that directory. A
838 useful tool for examining and updating any protected config files is
839 <c>etc-update</c>, which is now part of Portage.
840 </p>
841
842 </body>
843 </section>
844 <section>
845 <title>I want to perform the <c>./configure</c> step myself. Can I?</title>
846 <body>
847
848 <p>
849 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
850 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
851 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
852 </p>
853
854 <p>
855 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
856 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
857 </p>
858
859 <p>
860 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
861 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
862 perform to configure and compile the package.
863 </p>
864
865 <p>
866 When finished, execute <c>touch
867 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
868 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
869 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
870 merge</c>.
871 </p>
872
873 </body>
874 </section>
875 <section>
876 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
877 <body>
878
879 <p>
880 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
881 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
882 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
883 proxy is fully supported.
884 </p>
885
886 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
887 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
888 </pre>
889
890 <p>
891 If you cannot do this either, you can manually download a snapshot
892 from <uri>http://distro.ibiblio.org/pub/linux/distributions/gentoo/snapshots/</uri>.
893 In order to install the snapshot correctly, you first need to remove
894 your current <path>/usr/portage</path> so that outdated ebuilds don't
895 stay available on your system. However, you might want to put
896 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> somewhere safe if you don't want to
897 lose all your sourcecode.
898 </p>
899
900 <pre caption="Manually installing the snapshots">
901 <codenote>(First download the snapshot and place it in /usr)</codenote>
902 # <i>cd /usr</i>
903 # <i>mv /usr/portage/distfiles /usr/distfiles-temp</i>
904 # <i>rm -rf /usr/portage</i>
905 # <i>tar xvjf portage-foo.tbz2</i>
906 # <i>mv /usr/distfiles-temp /usr/portage/distfiles</i>
907 </pre>
908
909 </body>
910 </section>
911 <section>
912 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
913 <body>
914
915 <p>
916 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
917 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
918 appropriately.
919 </p>
920
921 </body>
922 </section>
923 <section>
924 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
925 <body>
926
927 <p>
928 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
929 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
930 </p>
931
932 </body>
933 </section>
934 <section>
935 <title>
936 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
937 else and add them to my system?
938 </title>
939 <body>
940
941 <p>
942 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
943 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
944 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
945 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
946 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
947 picking up the sources you just brought in!
948 </p>
949
950 </body>
951 </section>
952 <section>
953 <title>
954 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
955 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
956 files?
957 </title>
958 <body>
959
960 <p>
961 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
962 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
963 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
964 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
965 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
966 again.
967 </p>
968
969 </body>
970 </section>
971 <section>
972 <title>
973 I went to emerge blackdown-jdk and blackdown-jre, and afterwards
974 java-config --list-available-vms would only list blackdown-jre.
975 Openoffice would then refuse to emerge. What do I do?
976 </title>
977 <body>
978
979 <p>
980 Solution:
981 </p>
982
983 <pre caption = "Solution">
984 # <i>emerge unmerge blackdown-jre blackdown-jdk </i>
985 # <i>CONFIG_PROTECT="" emerge blackdown-jdk </i>
986 </pre>
987
988 </body>
989 </section>
990 <section>
991 <title>
992 What's in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>? Is it safe to delete the files and
993 directories in <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>?
994 </title>
995 <body>
996
997 <p>
998 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
999 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
1000 directory.
1001 </p>
1002
1003 </body>
1004 </section>
1005 </chapter>
1006
1007 <chapter>
1008 <title>Usage</title>
1009 <section>
1010 <title>
1011 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
1012 user account doesn't work.
1013 </title>
1014 <body>
1015
1016 <p>
1017 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
1018 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
1019 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
1020 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
1021 </p>
1022
1023 <pre caption="Using usermod">
1024 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
1025 </pre>
1026
1027 </body>
1028 </section>
1029 <section>
1030 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
1031 <body>
1032
1033 <p>
1034 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
1035 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
1036 </p>
1037
1038 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
1039 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
1040 </pre>
1041
1042 </body>
1043 </section>
1044 <section>
1045 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
1046 <body>
1047
1048 <p>
1049 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
1050 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
1051 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
1052 </p>
1053
1054 </body>
1055 </section>
1056 <section>
1057 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
1058 <body>
1059
1060 <p>
1061 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
1062 follows:
1063 </p>
1064
1065 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
1066 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
1067 </pre>
1068
1069 </body>
1070 </section>
1071 <section>
1072 <title>Why is KDE not reading <path>/etc/profile</path>?</title>
1073 <body>
1074
1075 <p>
1076 You need to add <c>--login</c> to the first line in
1077 <path>/opt/kde2.1/bin/startkde</path>, so that it reads as follows:
1078 </p>
1079
1080 <pre caption="Adding --login to startkde">
1081 #!/bin/sh --login
1082 </pre>
1083
1084 <p>
1085 This fix has been added to recent versions of KDE.
1086 </p>
1087
1088 </body>
1089 </section>
1090 <section>
1091 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
1092 <body>
1093
1094 <p>
1095 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
1096 </p>
1097
1098 </body>
1099 </section>
1100 <section>
1101 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
1102 <body>
1103
1104 <p>
1105 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
1106 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
1107 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
1108 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
1109 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
1110 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
1111 </p>
1112
1113 <p>
1114 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
1115 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
1116 reboot.
1117 </p>
1118
1119 </body>
1120 </section>
1121 <section>
1122 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
1123 <body>
1124
1125 <p>
1126 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
1127 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
1128 </p>
1129
1130 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
1131 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
1132 </pre>
1133
1134 <p>
1135 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
1136 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
1137 </p>
1138
1139 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
1140 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
1141 </body>
1142
1143 </section>
1144 </chapter>
1145
1146 <chapter>
1147 <title>Maintenance</title>
1148 <section>
1149 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
1150 <body>
1151
1152 <p>
1153 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
1154 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
1155 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
1156 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
1157 to the corruption.
1158 </p>
1159
1160 </body>
1161 </section>
1162 <section>
1163 <title>
1164 How to I view the timestamps in /var/log/syslog.d, etc. on a pre-1.0_rc5
1165 Gentoo system?
1166 </title>
1167 <body>
1168
1169 <p>
1170 To view multilog (Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5 and earlier) timestamps, you need to
1171 pipe the current log through the <c>tai64nlocal</c>command:
1172 </p>
1173
1174 <pre caption="Using tai64nlocal">
1175 # <i>tai64nlocal &lt; /var/log/syslog.d/current | less</i>
1176 </pre>
1177
1178 <p>
1179 Or, alternatively, if you want to "tail" the log:
1180 </p>
1181
1182 <pre caption="Using tai64nlocal (bis)">
1183 # <i>tail -f /var/log/syslog.d/current | tai64nlocal</i>
1184 </pre>
1185
1186 </body>
1187 </section>
1188 <section>
1189 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
1190 <body>
1191
1192 <p>
1193 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
1194 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
1195 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
1196 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
1197 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
1198 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
1199 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
1200 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
1201 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
1202 </p>
1203
1204 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
1205 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
1206 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
1207 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
1208 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
1209 </pre>
1210
1211 </body>
1212 </section>
1213 </chapter>
1214
1215 <chapter>
1216 <title>Development</title>
1217 <section>
1218 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
1219 <body>
1220
1221 <p>
1222 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
1223 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
1224 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
1225 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
1226 </p>
1227
1228 </body>
1229 </section>
1230 <section>
1231 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
1232 <body>
1233
1234 <p>
1235 New releases are announced on the <uri
1236 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
1237 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
1238 main authors release new code. As for when new Cd images etc are released, that
1239 tends to be whenever there are any major updates to the base code, or when
1240 new modules get added.
1241 </p>
1242
1243 </body>
1244 </section>
1245 <section>
1246 <title>
1247 I would like a package to be added to Portage; how would I go about this?
1248 </title>
1249 <body>
1250
1251 <p>
1252 Head over to <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and submit a new bug of the type
1253 "ebuild". Attach your ebuild to the bug report.
1254 </p>
1255
1256 </body>
1257 </section>
1258 <section>
1259 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
1260 <body>
1261
1262 <p>
1263 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
1264 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
1265 </p>
1266
1267 </body>
1268 </section>
1269 <section>
1270 <title>
1271 make -f Makefile.cvs on a KDE app produces "invalid unused variable" errors
1272 </title>
1273 <body>
1274
1275 <p>
1276 Export <c>WANT_AUTOMAKE_1_4=1</c> for all KDE projects before running
1277 <c>make -f Makefile.cvs</c>. Also, for KDE2 apps export
1278 <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_1=1</c>, and for KDE3 apps export <c>WANT_AUTOCONF_2_5=1</c>.
1279 </p>
1280
1281 </body>
1282 </section>
1283 <section>
1284 <title>
1285 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
1286 beeps?
1287 </title>
1288 <body>
1289
1290 <p>
1291 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
1292 </p>
1293
1294 <pre caption="Using setterm">
1295 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
1296 </pre>
1297
1298 <p>
1299 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
1300 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
1301 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
1302 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
1303 target terminal, like this:
1304 </p>
1305
1306 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
1307 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
1308 </pre>
1309
1310 <p>
1311 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
1312 console beeps for.
1313 </p>
1314
1315 </body>
1316 </section>
1317 </chapter>
1318
1319 <chapter>
1320 <title>Resources</title>
1321 <section>
1322 <title>
1323 Where can I find more about supervise used by default in Gentoo Linux 1.0_rc5
1324 and earlier?
1325 </title>
1326 <body>
1327
1328 <p>
1329 <uri>http://cr.yp.to/daemontools.html</uri>
1330 </p>
1331
1332 </body>
1333 </section>
1334 <section>
1335 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
1336 <body>
1337
1338 <p>
1339 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1340 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1341 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1342 </p>
1343
1344 </body>
1345 </section>
1346 <section>
1347 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1348 <body>
1349
1350 <p>
1351 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1352 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1353 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1354 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1355 </p>
1356
1357 <p>
1358 You can also find fresh CDs from
1359 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
1360 </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1361 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1362 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1363 </p>
1364
1365 </body>
1366 </section>
1367 <section>
1368 <title>
1369 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1370 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1371 </title>
1372 <body>
1373
1374 <p>
1375 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1376 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1377 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1378 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1379 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1380 </p>
1381
1382 <p>
1383 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1384 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1385 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1386 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1387 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1388 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1389 </p>
1390
1391 <p>
1392 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1393 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1394 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1395 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1396 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1397 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1398 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1399 reasons, many of these covered
1400 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1401 </p>
1402
1403 <p>
1404 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1405 administrators have seen them).
1406 </p>
1407
1408 </body>
1409 </section>
1410 <section>
1411 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1412 <body>
1413
1414 <p>
1415 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1416 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1417 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1418 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1419 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1420 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1421 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1422 </p>
1423
1424 </body>
1425 </section>
1426 </chapter>
1427
1428 </guide>

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