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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.59 2004/04/15 07:15:17 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 </abstract>
37
38 <license/>
39
40 <version>2.2</version>
41 <date>April 15, 2004</date>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>Featured Questions</title>
45 <section>
46 <title>Getting Started</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect1">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#doc_chap2_sect2">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57 </ul>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>Installation</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect1">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect2">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect3">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect4">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect5">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect6">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect7">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#doc_chap3_sect8">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 </ul>
97
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Package Management</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <ul>
105 <li>
106 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect1">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect2">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
110 Can I?</uri>
111 </li>
112 <li>
113 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect4">How do I use emerge from behind a
117 firewall?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect5">Can I rsync from another operating
121 system?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect6">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
125 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
126 </li>
127 <li>
128 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect7">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
129 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
130 delete there files?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect8">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
134 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
135 </li>
136 </ul>
137
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>Usage</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <ul>
145 <li>
146 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect1">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
147 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
148 </li>
149 <li>
150 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect2">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect3">How do I set up an International Keyboard
154 Layout?</uri>
155 </li>
156 <li>
157 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect4">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect5">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect6">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#doc_chap5_sect7">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
167 out?</uri>
168 </li>
169 </ul>
170
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Maintenance</title>
175 <body>
176
177 <ul>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect1">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
180 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
181 </li>
182 <li>
183 <uri link="#doc_chap6_sect2">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
184 </li>
185 </ul>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Development</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <ul>
194 <li>
195 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect1">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 </li>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect2">How often are new releases made?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect3">How can I add a question or answer to this
202 FAQ?</uri>
203 </li>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#doc_chap7_sect4">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
206 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
207 </li>
208 </ul>
209
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 <section>
213 <title>Resources</title>
214 <body>
215
216 <ul>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect1">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
219 Linux?</uri>
220 </li>
221 <li>
222 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect2">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect3">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
226 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
227 entire list?</uri>
228 </li>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#doc_chap8_sect4">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 do now?</uri>
232 </li>
233 </ul>
234
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 </chapter>
238
239 <chapter>
240 <title>Getting Started</title>
241
242 <section>
243 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
249 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section>
256 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
265 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
266 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 </chapter>
291
292 <chapter>
293 <title>Installation</title>
294 <section>
295 <title>
296 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
297 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
298 </title>
299 <body>
300
301 <p>
302 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
303 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
304 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
305 do the same thing anymore.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
310 bug.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section>
316 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
321 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
322 completed the install.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section>
328 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
333 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Using useradd">
341 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
346 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
347 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
348 </p>
349
350 <p>
351 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
352 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
353 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
354 </p>
355
356 </body>
357 </section>
358 <section>
359 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
364 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
365 the following command as root:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
369 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 </body>
373 </section>
374 <section>
375 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
376 <body>
377
378 <p>
379 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
380 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
381 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
382 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
383 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
384 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </section>
389 <section>
390 <title>
391 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
392 </title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
397 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
398 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
399 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
400 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
401 </p>
402
403 </body>
404 </section>
405 <section>
406 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
407 <body>
408
409 <p>
410 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
411 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
412 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
413 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
414 </p>
415
416 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
417 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
418 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
419 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
420 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
421 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
422 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
423 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
424 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
425 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
426 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
427 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
428 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
429 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
430 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
431 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
432 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
433 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
434 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
435 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
436 # <i>exit</i>
437 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
438 # <i>reboot</i>
439 </pre>
440
441 <p>
442 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
443 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
444 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
445 </p>
446
447 </body>
448 </section>
449 <section>
450 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
451 <body>
452
453 <p>
454 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
455 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
456 </p>
457
458 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
459 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
460 </pre>
461
462 <p>
463 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
464 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
465 </p>
466
467 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
468 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
469 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
470 </pre>
471
472 <p>
473 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
474 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
475 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
476 handle this situation.
477 </p>
478
479 </body>
480 </section>
481 </chapter>
482
483 <chapter>
484 <title>Package Management</title>
485 <section>
486 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
487 <body>
488
489 <p>
490 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
491 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
492 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
493 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
494 The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
495 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
496 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
497 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
498 file).
499 </p>
500
501 </body>
502 </section>
503 <section>
504 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
505 <body>
506
507 <p>
508 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
509 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
510 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
511 </p>
512
513 <p>
514 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
515 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
516 </p>
517
518 <p>
519 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
520 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
521 perform to configure and compile the package.
522 </p>
523
524 <p>
525 When finished, execute <c>touch
526 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
527 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
528 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
529 merge</c>.
530 </p>
531
532 </body>
533 </section>
534 <section>
535 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
536 <body>
537
538 <p>
539 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
540 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
541 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
542 proxy is fully supported.
543 </p>
544
545 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
546 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
547 </pre>
548
549 </body>
550 </section>
551 <section>
552 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
553 <body>
554
555 <p>
556 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
557 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
558 appropriately.
559 </p>
560
561 </body>
562 </section>
563 <section>
564 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
565 <body>
566
567 <p>
568 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
569 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
570 </p>
571
572 </body>
573 </section>
574 <section>
575 <title>
576 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
577 else and add them to my system?
578 </title>
579 <body>
580
581 <p>
582 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
583 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
584 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
585 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
586 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
587 picking up the sources you just brought in!
588 </p>
589
590 </body>
591 </section>
592 <section>
593 <title>
594 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
595 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
596 files?
597 </title>
598 <body>
599
600 <p>
601 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
602 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
603 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
604 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
605 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
606 again.
607 </p>
608
609 </body>
610 </section>
611 <section>
612 <title>
613 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
614 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
615 </title>
616 <body>
617
618 <p>
619 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
620 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
621 directory.
622 </p>
623
624 </body>
625 </section>
626 </chapter>
627
628 <chapter>
629 <title>Usage</title>
630 <section>
631 <title>
632 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
633 user account doesn't work.
634 </title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
639 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
640 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
641 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
642 </p>
643
644 <pre caption="Using usermod">
645 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
646 </pre>
647
648 </body>
649 </section>
650 <section>
651 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
656 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
657 </p>
658
659 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
660 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
661 </pre>
662
663 </body>
664 </section>
665 <section>
666 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
667 <body>
668
669 <p>
670 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
671 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
672 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
673 </p>
674
675 </body>
676 </section>
677 <section>
678 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
679 <body>
680
681 <p>
682 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
683 follows:
684 </p>
685
686 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
687 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
688 </pre>
689
690 </body>
691 </section>
692 <section>
693 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
694 <body>
695
696 <p>
697 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
698 </p>
699
700 </body>
701 </section>
702 <section>
703 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
704 <body>
705
706 <p>
707 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
708 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
709 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
710 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
711 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
712 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
713 </p>
714
715 <p>
716 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
717 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
718 reboot.
719 </p>
720
721 </body>
722 </section>
723 <section>
724 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
725 <body>
726
727 <p>
728 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
729 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
730 </p>
731
732 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
733 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
734 </pre>
735
736 <p>
737 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
738 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
739 </p>
740
741 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
742 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
743 </body>
744
745 </section>
746 </chapter>
747
748 <chapter>
749 <title>Maintenance</title>
750 <section>
751 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
756 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
757 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
758 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
759 to the corruption.
760 </p>
761
762 </body>
763 </section>
764 <section>
765 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
766 <body>
767
768 <p>
769 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
770 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
771 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
772 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
773 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
774 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
775 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
776 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
777 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
778 </p>
779
780 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
781 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
782 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
783 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
784 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
785 </pre>
786
787 </body>
788 </section>
789 </chapter>
790
791 <chapter>
792 <title>Development</title>
793 <section>
794 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
795 <body>
796
797 <p>
798 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
799 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
800 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
801 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
802 </p>
803
804 </body>
805 </section>
806 <section>
807 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
808 <body>
809
810 <p>
811 New releases are announced on the <uri
812 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
813 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
814 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
815 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
816 </p>
817
818 </body>
819 </section>
820 <section>
821 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
822 <body>
823
824 <p>
825 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
826 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
827 </p>
828
829 </body>
830 </section>
831 <section>
832 <title>
833 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
834 beeps?
835 </title>
836 <body>
837
838 <p>
839 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
840 </p>
841
842 <pre caption="Using setterm">
843 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
844 </pre>
845
846 <p>
847 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
848 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
849 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
850 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
851 target terminal, like this:
852 </p>
853
854 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
855 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
856 </pre>
857
858 <p>
859 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
860 console beeps for.
861 </p>
862
863 </body>
864 </section>
865 </chapter>
866
867 <chapter>
868 <title>Resources</title>
869 <section>
870 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
871 <body>
872
873 <p>
874 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
875 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
876 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
877 </p>
878
879 </body>
880 </section>
881 <section>
882 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
883 <body>
884
885 <p>
886 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
887 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
888 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
889 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
890 </p>
891
892 <p>
893 You can also find fresh CDs from
894 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
895 </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
896 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
897 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
898 </p>
899
900 </body>
901 </section>
902 <section>
903 <title>
904 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
905 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
906 </title>
907 <body>
908
909 <p>
910 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
911 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
912 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
913 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
914 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
915 </p>
916
917 <p>
918 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
919 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
920 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
921 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
922 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
923 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
924 </p>
925
926 <p>
927 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
928 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
929 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
930 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
931 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
932 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
933 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
934 reasons, many of these covered
935 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
936 </p>
937
938 <p>
939 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
940 administrators have seen them).
941 </p>
942
943 </body>
944 </section>
945 <section>
946 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
947 <body>
948
949 <p>
950 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
951 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
952 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
953 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
954 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
955 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
956 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
957 </p>
958
959 </body>
960 </section>
961 </chapter>
962
963 </guide>

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