/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.62 - (show annotations) (download) (as text)
Wed May 12 12:48:09 2004 UTC (10 years, 6 months ago) by swift
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.61: +8 -3 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Add link to Gentoo Upgrading Guide in the upgrade FAQ

1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /home/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.61 2004/04/28 14:40:39 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 </abstract>
37
38 <license/>
39
40 <version>2.4</version>
41 <date>May 12, 2004</date>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>Featured Questions</title>
45 <section>
46 <title>Getting Started</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57 </ul>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>Installation</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 </ul>
97
98 </body>
99 </section>
100 <section>
101 <title>Package Management</title>
102 <body>
103
104 <ul>
105 <li>
106 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
107 </li>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
110 Can I?</uri>
111 </li>
112 <li>
113 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
117 firewall?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
121 system?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
125 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
126 </li>
127 <li>
128 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
129 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
130 delete there files?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
134 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
135 </li>
136 </ul>
137
138 </body>
139 </section>
140 <section>
141 <title>Usage</title>
142 <body>
143
144 <ul>
145 <li>
146 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
147 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
148 </li>
149 <li>
150 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
154 Layout?</uri>
155 </li>
156 <li>
157 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
167 out?</uri>
168 </li>
169 </ul>
170
171 </body>
172 </section>
173 <section>
174 <title>Maintenance</title>
175 <body>
176
177 <ul>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
180 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
181 </li>
182 <li>
183 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
184 </li>
185 </ul>
186
187 </body>
188 </section>
189 <section>
190 <title>Development</title>
191 <body>
192
193 <ul>
194 <li>
195 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
196 </li>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
202 FAQ?</uri>
203 </li>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
206 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
207 </li>
208 </ul>
209
210 </body>
211 </section>
212 <section>
213 <title>Resources</title>
214 <body>
215
216 <ul>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
219 Linux?</uri>
220 </li>
221 <li>
222 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
226 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
227 entire list?</uri>
228 </li>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 do now?</uri>
232 </li>
233 </ul>
234
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 </chapter>
238
239 <chapter>
240 <title>Getting Started</title>
241
242 <section id="pronunciation">
243 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
249 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section id="differences">
256 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
265 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
266 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
268 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
274 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
275 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
276 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
277 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
282 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
283 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
284 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
285 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
286 </p>
287
288 </body>
289 </section>
290 </chapter>
291
292 <chapter>
293 <title>Installation</title>
294 <section id="optimizations">
295 <title>
296 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
297 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
298 </title>
299 <body>
300
301 <p>
302 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
303 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
304 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
305 do the same thing anymore.
306 </p>
307
308 <p>
309 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
310 bug.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section id="password">
316 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
321 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
322 completed the install.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section id="useradd">
328 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
333 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
334 </p>
335
336 <p>
337 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
338 </p>
339
340 <pre caption="Using useradd">
341 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
342 </pre>
343
344 <p>
345 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
346 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
347 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
348 </p>
349
350 <p>
351 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
352 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
353 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
354 </p>
355
356 </body>
357 </section>
358 <section id="su">
359 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
360 <body>
361
362 <p>
363 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
364 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
365 the following command as root:
366 </p>
367
368 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
369 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
370 </pre>
371
372 </body>
373 </section>
374 <section id="devfs">
375 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
376 <body>
377
378 <p>
379 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
380 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
381 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
382 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
383 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
384 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
385 </p>
386
387 </body>
388 </section>
389 <section id="upgrade">
390 <title>
391 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
392 </title>
393 <body>
394
395 <p>
396 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
397 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
398 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
399 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
400 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
401 </p>
402
403 <p>
404 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
405 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
406 </p>
407
408 </body>
409 </section>
410 <section id="bootrescue">
411 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
412 <body>
413
414 <p>
415 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
416 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
417 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
418 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
419 </p>
420
421 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
422 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
423 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
424 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
425 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
426 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
427 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
428 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
429 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
430 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
431 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
432 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
433 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
434 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
435 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
436 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
437 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
438 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
439 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
440 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
441 # <i>exit</i>
442 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
443 # <i>reboot</i>
444 </pre>
445
446 <p>
447 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
448 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
449 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
450 </p>
451
452 </body>
453 </section>
454 <section id="proxy">
455 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
456 <body>
457
458 <p>
459 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
460 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
461 </p>
462
463 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
464 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
465 </pre>
466
467 <p>
468 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
469 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
470 </p>
471
472 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
473 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
474 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
475 </pre>
476
477 <p>
478 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
479 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
480 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
481 handle this situation.
482 </p>
483
484 </body>
485 </section>
486 </chapter>
487
488 <chapter>
489 <title>Package Management</title>
490 <section id="ebuilds">
491 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
492 <body>
493
494 <p>
495 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
496 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
497 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
498 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
499 The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
500 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
501 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
502 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
503 file).
504 </p>
505
506 </body>
507 </section>
508 <section id="configure">
509 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
510 <body>
511
512 <p>
513 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
514 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
515 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
516 </p>
517
518 <p>
519 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
520 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
521 </p>
522
523 <p>
524 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
525 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
526 perform to configure and compile the package.
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 When finished, execute <c>touch
531 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
532 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
533 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
534 merge</c>.
535 </p>
536
537 </body>
538 </section>
539 <section id="norync">
540 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
541 <body>
542
543 <p>
544 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
545 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
546 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
547 proxy is fully supported.
548 </p>
549
550 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
551 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
552 </pre>
553
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 <section id="firewall">
557 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
558 <body>
559
560 <p>
561 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
562 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
563 appropriately.
564 </p>
565
566 </body>
567 </section>
568 <section id="unison">
569 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
570 <body>
571
572 <p>
573 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
574 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
575 </p>
576
577 </body>
578 </section>
579 <section id="manualdownload">
580 <title>
581 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
582 else and add them to my system?
583 </title>
584 <body>
585
586 <p>
587 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
588 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
589 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
590 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
591 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
592 picking up the sources you just brought in!
593 </p>
594
595 </body>
596 </section>
597 <section id="distfiles">
598 <title>
599 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
600 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
601 files?
602 </title>
603 <body>
604
605 <p>
606 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
607 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
608 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
609 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
610 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
611 again.
612 </p>
613
614 </body>
615 </section>
616 <section id="tmpportage">
617 <title>
618 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
619 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
620 </title>
621 <body>
622
623 <p>
624 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
625 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
626 directory.
627 </p>
628
629 </body>
630 </section>
631 </chapter>
632
633 <chapter>
634 <title>Usage</title>
635 <section id="rootssh">
636 <title>
637 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
638 user account doesn't work.
639 </title>
640 <body>
641
642 <p>
643 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
644 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
645 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
646 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
647 </p>
648
649 <pre caption="Using usermod">
650 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
651 </pre>
652
653 </body>
654 </section>
655 <section id="rootX">
656 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
657 <body>
658
659 <p>
660 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
661 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
662 </p>
663
664 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
665 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
666 </pre>
667
668 </body>
669 </section>
670 <section id="intkeyboard">
671 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
672 <body>
673
674 <p>
675 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
676 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
677 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
678 </p>
679
680 </body>
681 </section>
682 <section id="rootdns">
683 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
684 <body>
685
686 <p>
687 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
688 follows:
689 </p>
690
691 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
692 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
693 </pre>
694
695 </body>
696 </section>
697 <section id="crontab">
698 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
699 <body>
700
701 <p>
702 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
703 </p>
704
705 </body>
706 </section>
707 <section id="numlock">
708 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
709 <body>
710
711 <p>
712 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
713 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
714 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
715 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
716 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
717 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
718 </p>
719
720 <p>
721 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
722 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
723 reboot.
724 </p>
725
726 </body>
727 </section>
728 <section id="clear">
729 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
730 <body>
731
732 <p>
733 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
734 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
735 </p>
736
737 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
738 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
739 </pre>
740
741 <p>
742 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
743 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
744 </p>
745
746 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
747 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
748 </body>
749
750 </section>
751 </chapter>
752
753 <chapter>
754 <title>Maintenance</title>
755 <section id="filecorruption">
756 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
757 <body>
758
759 <p>
760 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
761 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
762 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
763 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
764 to the corruption.
765 </p>
766
767 </body>
768 </section>
769 <section id="metalogd">
770 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
771 <body>
772
773 <p>
774 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
775 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
776 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
777 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
778 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
779 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
780 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
781 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
782 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
783 </p>
784
785 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
786 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
787 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
788 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
789 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
790 </pre>
791
792 </body>
793 </section>
794 </chapter>
795
796 <chapter>
797 <title>Development</title>
798 <section id="reportbugs">
799 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
800 <body>
801
802 <p>
803 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
804 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
805 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
806 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
807 </p>
808
809 </body>
810 </section>
811 <section id="releases">
812 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
813 <body>
814
815 <p>
816 New releases are announced on the <uri
817 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
818 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
819 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
820 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
821 </p>
822
823 </body>
824 </section>
825 <section id="addfaq">
826 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
827 <body>
828
829 <p>
830 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
831 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
832 </p>
833
834 </body>
835 </section>
836 <section id="beeping">
837 <title>
838 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
839 beeps?
840 </title>
841 <body>
842
843 <p>
844 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
845 </p>
846
847 <pre caption="Using setterm">
848 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
849 </pre>
850
851 <p>
852 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
853 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
854 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
855 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
856 target terminal, like this:
857 </p>
858
859 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
860 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
861 </pre>
862
863 <p>
864 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
865 console beeps for.
866 </p>
867
868 </body>
869 </section>
870 </chapter>
871
872 <chapter>
873 <title>Resources</title>
874 <section id="resources">
875 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
876 <body>
877
878 <p>
879 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
880 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
881 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
882 </p>
883
884 </body>
885 </section>
886 <section id="buycd">
887 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
888 <body>
889
890 <p>
891 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
892 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
893 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
894 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
895 </p>
896
897 <p>
898 You can also find fresh CDs from
899 <uri link = "http://cart.cheapbytes.com/cgi-bin/cart/0070010933">Cheapbytes
900 </uri> and <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
901 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
902 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
903 </p>
904
905 </body>
906 </section>
907 <section id="mailinglist">
908 <title>
909 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
910 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
911 </title>
912 <body>
913
914 <p>
915 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
916 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
917 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
918 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
919 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
920 </p>
921
922 <p>
923 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
924 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
925 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
926 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
927 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
928 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
929 </p>
930
931 <p>
932 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
933 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
934 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
935 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
936 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
937 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
938 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
939 reasons, many of these covered
940 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
941 </p>
942
943 <p>
944 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
945 administrators have seen them).
946 </p>
947
948 </body>
949 </section>
950 <section id="help">
951 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
952 <body>
953
954 <p>
955 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
956 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
957 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
958 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
959 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
960 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
961 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
962 </p>
963
964 </body>
965 </section>
966 </chapter>
967
968 </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20