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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.68 2004/07/05 11:10:24 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31
32 <abstract>
33 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
34 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
35 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
36 </abstract>
37
38 <license/>
39
40 <version>2.8</version>
41 <date>July 04, 2004</date>
42
43 <chapter>
44 <title>Featured Questions</title>
45 <section>
46 <title>Getting Started</title>
47 <body>
48
49 <ul>
50 <li>
51 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
52 mean?</uri>
53 </li>
54 <li>
55 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
56 </li>
57 </ul>
58
59 </body>
60 </section>
61 <section>
62 <title>Installation</title>
63 <body>
64
65 <ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
68 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
69 gives?</uri>
70 </li>
71 <li>
72 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
73 password?</uri>
74 </li>
75 <li>
76 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
86 another without reinstalling?</uri>
87 </li>
88 <li>
89 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
90 I do now?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
94 have to do?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
98 </li>
99 </ul>
100
101 </body>
102 </section>
103 <section>
104 <title>Package Management</title>
105 <body>
106
107 <ul>
108 <li>
109 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
113 Can I?</uri>
114 </li>
115 <li>
116 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
117 </li>
118 <li>
119 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
120 firewall?</uri>
121 </li>
122 <li>
123 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
124 system?</uri>
125 </li>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
128 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
129 </li>
130 <li>
131 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
132 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
133 delete there files?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
137 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
138 </li>
139 </ul>
140
141 </body>
142 </section>
143 <section>
144 <title>Usage</title>
145 <body>
146
147 <ul>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
150 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
151 </li>
152 <li>
153 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
154 </li>
155 <li>
156 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
157 Layout?</uri>
158 </li>
159 <li>
160 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
161 </li>
162 <li>
163 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
170 out?</uri>
171 </li>
172 </ul>
173
174 </body>
175 </section>
176 <section>
177 <title>Maintenance</title>
178 <body>
179
180 <ul>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
183 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
184 </li>
185 <li>
186 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
187 </li>
188 </ul>
189
190 </body>
191 </section>
192 <section>
193 <title>Development</title>
194 <body>
195
196 <ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
199 </li>
200 <li>
201 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
202 </li>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
205 FAQ?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
209 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
210 </li>
211 </ul>
212
213 </body>
214 </section>
215 <section>
216 <title>Resources</title>
217 <body>
218
219 <ul>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
222 Linux?</uri>
223 </li>
224 <li>
225 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
229 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
230 entire list?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236 </ul>
237
238 </body>
239 </section>
240 </chapter>
241
242 <chapter>
243 <title>Getting Started</title>
244
245 <section id="pronunciation">
246 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
252 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
254 </p>
255
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section id="differences">
259 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">USE flags</uri>),
268 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
269 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=4#doc_chap1">configuration
271 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=3">features</uri>.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
277 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
278 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
279 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
280 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
285 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
286 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
287 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
288 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
289 </p>
290
291 </body>
292 </section>
293 </chapter>
294
295 <chapter>
296 <title>Installation</title>
297 <section id="optimizations">
298 <title>
299 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
300 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
301 </title>
302 <body>
303
304 <p>
305 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
306 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
307 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
308 do the same thing anymore.
309 </p>
310
311 <p>
312 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
313 bug.
314 </p>
315
316 </body>
317 </section>
318 <section id="password">
319 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
320 <body>
321
322 <p>
323 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
324 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
325 completed the install.
326 </p>
327
328 </body>
329 </section>
330 <section id="useradd">
331 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
332 <body>
333
334 <p>
335 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
336 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
341 </p>
342
343 <pre caption="Using useradd">
344 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
345 </pre>
346
347 <p>
348 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him/her to use sound-related
349 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him/her to switch to
350 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
351 </p>
352
353 <p>
354 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
355 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
356 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
357 </p>
358
359 </body>
360 </section>
361 <section id="su">
362 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
363 <body>
364
365 <p>
366 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
367 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
368 the following command as root:
369 </p>
370
371 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
372 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
373 </pre>
374
375 </body>
376 </section>
377 <section id="devfs">
378 <title>How to I disable devfs?</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
383 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
384 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
385 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
386 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
387 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
388 </p>
389
390 </body>
391 </section>
392 <section id="upgrade">
393 <title>
394 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
395 </title>
396 <body>
397
398 <p>
399 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
400 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
401 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge sync; emerge -u world</c>
402 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
403 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
404 </p>
405
406 <p>
407 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
408 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
409 </p>
410
411 </body>
412 </section>
413 <section id="bootrescue">
414 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
415 <body>
416
417 <p>
418 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
419 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
420 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
421 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
422 </p>
423
424 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
425 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
426 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
427 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
428 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
429 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
430 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
431 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
432 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
433 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
434 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
435 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
436 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
437 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
438 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
439 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
440 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
441 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
442 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
443 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
444 # <i>exit</i>
445 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
446 # <i>reboot</i>
447 </pre>
448
449 <p>
450 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
451 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
452 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
453 </p>
454
455 </body>
456 </section>
457 <section id="proxy">
458 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
459 <body>
460
461 <p>
462 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
463 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
464 </p>
465
466 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
467 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
468 </pre>
469
470 <p>
471 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
472 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
476 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
477 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
478 </pre>
479
480 <p>
481 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
482 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
483 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
484 handle this situation.
485 </p>
486
487 </body>
488 </section>
489 <section id="isoburning">
490 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
491 <body>
492
493 <p>
494 You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
495 should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
496 entire CD.
497 </p>
498
499 <p>
500 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
501 Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
502 </p>
503
504 <ul>
505 <li>
506 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
507 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
508 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
509 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
513 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
514 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
515 your brand new CD being burnt.
516 </li>
517 <li>
518 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
519 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
520 by the path to the ISO file :)
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
524 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
525 <c>Start</c>.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
529 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
530 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
531 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
532 </li>
533 <li>
534 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
535 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
536 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
537 </li>
538 </ul>
539
540
541 </body>
542 </section>
543 </chapter>
544
545 <chapter>
546 <title>Package Management</title>
547 <section id="ebuilds">
548 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
549 <body>
550
551 <p>
552 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
553 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
554 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
555 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
556 The <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-howto.xml">Development HOWTO</uri> covers the
557 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
558 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
559 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
560 file).
561 </p>
562
563 </body>
564 </section>
565 <section id="configure">
566 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
567 <body>
568
569 <p>
570 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
571 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
572 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
573 </p>
574
575 <p>
576 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
577 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
578 </p>
579
580 <p>
581 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
582 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
583 perform to configure and compile the package.
584 </p>
585
586 <p>
587 When finished, execute <c>touch
588 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
589 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
590 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
591 merge</c>.
592 </p>
593
594 </body>
595 </section>
596 <section id="norsync">
597 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
598 <body>
599
600 <p>
601 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
602 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
603 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
604 proxy is fully supported.
605 </p>
606
607 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
608 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
609 </pre>
610
611 </body>
612 </section>
613 <section id="firewall">
614 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
615 <body>
616
617 <p>
618 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
619 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
620 appropriately.
621 </p>
622
623 </body>
624 </section>
625 <section id="unison">
626 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
627 <body>
628
629 <p>
630 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
631 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
632 </p>
633
634 </body>
635 </section>
636 <section id="manualdownload">
637 <title>
638 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
639 else and add them to my system?
640 </title>
641 <body>
642
643 <p>
644 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
645 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
646 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
647 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
648 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
649 picking up the sources you just brought in!
650 </p>
651
652 </body>
653 </section>
654 <section id="distfiles">
655 <title>
656 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
657 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
658 files?
659 </title>
660 <body>
661
662 <p>
663 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
664 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
665 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
666 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
667 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
668 again.
669 </p>
670
671 </body>
672 </section>
673 <section id="tmpportage">
674 <title>
675 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
676 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
677 </title>
678 <body>
679
680 <p>
681 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
682 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
683 directory.
684 </p>
685
686 </body>
687 </section>
688 </chapter>
689
690 <chapter>
691 <title>Usage</title>
692 <section id="rootssh">
693 <title>
694 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
695 user account doesn't work.
696 </title>
697 <body>
698
699 <p>
700 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
701 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
702 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
703 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
704 </p>
705
706 <pre caption="Using usermod">
707 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
708 </pre>
709
710 </body>
711 </section>
712 <section id="rootX">
713 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
714 <body>
715
716 <p>
717 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
718 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
719 </p>
720
721 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
722 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
723 </pre>
724
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 <section id="intkeyboard">
728 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
729 <body>
730
731 <p>
732 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
733 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
734 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
735 </p>
736
737 </body>
738 </section>
739 <section id="rootdns">
740 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
741 <body>
742
743 <p>
744 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
745 follows:
746 </p>
747
748 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
749 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
750 </pre>
751
752 </body>
753 </section>
754 <section id="crontab">
755 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
756 <body>
757
758 <p>
759 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
760 </p>
761
762 </body>
763 </section>
764 <section id="numlock">
765 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
766 <body>
767
768 <p>
769 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
770 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
771 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
772 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
773 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
774 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
775 </p>
776
777 <p>
778 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
779 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
780 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
781 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
782 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
783 </p>
784
785 <p>
786 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
787 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
788 reboot.
789 </p>
790
791 </body>
792 </section>
793 <section id="clear">
794 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
795 <body>
796
797 <p>
798 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
799 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
800 </p>
801
802 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
803 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
804 </pre>
805
806 <p>
807 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
808 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
809 </p>
810
811 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
812 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
813 </body>
814
815 </section>
816 </chapter>
817
818 <chapter>
819 <title>Maintenance</title>
820 <section id="filecorruption">
821 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
822 <body>
823
824 <p>
825 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
826 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
827 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
828 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
829 to the corruption.
830 </p>
831
832 </body>
833 </section>
834 <section id="metalogd">
835 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
836 <body>
837
838 <p>
839 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
840 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
841 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
842 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
843 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
844 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
845 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
846 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
847 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
848 </p>
849
850 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
851 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
852 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
853 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
854 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
855 </pre>
856
857 </body>
858 </section>
859 </chapter>
860
861 <chapter>
862 <title>Development</title>
863 <section id="reportbugs">
864 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
865 <body>
866
867 <p>
868 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
869 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
870 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
871 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
872 </p>
873
874 </body>
875 </section>
876 <section id="releases">
877 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
878 <body>
879
880 <p>
881 New releases are announced on the <uri
882 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
883 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
884 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
885 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
886 </p>
887
888 </body>
889 </section>
890 <section id="addfaq">
891 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
892 <body>
893
894 <p>
895 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
896 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
897 </p>
898
899 </body>
900 </section>
901 <section id="beeping">
902 <title>
903 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
904 beeps?
905 </title>
906 <body>
907
908 <p>
909 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
910 </p>
911
912 <pre caption="Using setterm">
913 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
914 </pre>
915
916 <p>
917 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
918 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
919 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
920 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
921 target terminal, like this:
922 </p>
923
924 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
925 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
926 </pre>
927
928 <p>
929 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
930 console beeps for.
931 </p>
932
933 </body>
934 </section>
935 </chapter>
936
937 <chapter>
938 <title>Resources</title>
939 <section id="resources">
940 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
941 <body>
942
943 <p>
944 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
945 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
946 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
947 </p>
948
949 </body>
950 </section>
951 <section id="buycd">
952 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
953 <body>
954
955 <p>
956 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
957 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
958 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
959 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
960 </p>
961
962 <p>
963 You can also find fresh CDs from
964 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
965 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
966 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
967 </p>
968
969 </body>
970 </section>
971 <section id="mailinglist">
972 <title>
973 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
974 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
975 </title>
976 <body>
977
978 <p>
979 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
980 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
981 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
982 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
983 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
984 </p>
985
986 <p>
987 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
988 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
989 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
990 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
991 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
992 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
993 </p>
994
995 <p>
996 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
997 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
998 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
999 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1000 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1001 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1002 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1003 reasons, many of these covered
1004 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1005 </p>
1006
1007 <p>
1008 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1009 administrators have seen them).
1010 </p>
1011
1012 </body>
1013 </section>
1014 <section id="help">
1015 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1016 <body>
1017
1018 <p>
1019 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1020 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1021 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1022 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1023 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1024 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1025 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1026 </p>
1027
1028 </body>
1029 </section>
1030 </chapter>
1031
1032 </guide>

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