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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.76 2004/11/28 15:08:40 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <license/>
42
43 <version>2.12</version>
44 <date>2004-12-22</date>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Featured Questions</title>
48 <section>
49 <title>Getting Started</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60 </ul>
61
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 <section>
65 <title>Installation</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <ul>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104 </li>
105 </ul>
106
107 </body>
108 </section>
109 <section>
110 <title>Package Management</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <ul>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 </li>
117 <li>
118 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 Can I?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
125 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 firewall?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 system?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 </li>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 delete there files?</uri>
140 </li>
141 <li>
142 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144 </li>
145 </ul>
146
147 </body>
148 </section>
149 <section>
150 <title>Usage</title>
151 <body>
152
153 <ul>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 </li>
161 <li>
162 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 Layout?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 out?</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180 su'ing</uri>
181 </li>
182 </ul>
183
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 <section>
187 <title>Maintenance</title>
188 <body>
189
190 <ul>
191 <li>
192 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 </li>
195 <li>
196 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 </li>
198 </ul>
199
200 </body>
201 </section>
202 <section>
203 <title>Development</title>
204 <body>
205
206 <ul>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 </li>
213 <li>
214 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 FAQ?</uri>
216 </li>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 </li>
221 </ul>
222
223 </body>
224 </section>
225 <section>
226 <title>Resources</title>
227 <body>
228
229 <ul>
230 <li>
231 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 Linux?</uri>
233 </li>
234 <li>
235 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 </li>
237 <li>
238 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 entire list?</uri>
241 </li>
242 <li>
243 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 do now?</uri>
245 </li>
246 </ul>
247
248 </body>
249 </section>
250 </chapter>
251
252 <chapter>
253 <title>Getting Started</title>
254
255 <section id="pronunciation">
256 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 "g" in "gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The latin name of the Gentoo
262 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands.
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </section>
268 <section id="differences">
269 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source completely using your
287 choice of optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or
288 aren't installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install
289 Gentoo to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a
290 <e>meta-distribution</e>.
291 </p>
292
293 <p>
294 Gentoo is very actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
295 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
296 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
297 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
298 added frequently, releases succeed each other quickly, ...
299 </p>
300
301 </body>
302 </section>
303 </chapter>
304
305 <chapter>
306 <title>Installation</title>
307 <section id="optimizations">
308 <title>
309 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
310 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
311 </title>
312 <body>
313
314 <p>
315 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
316 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
317 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
318 do the same thing anymore.
319 </p>
320
321 <p>
322 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march= -O2</c> first before reporting a
323 bug.
324 </p>
325
326 </body>
327 </section>
328 <section id="password">
329 <title>How can i change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
334 into. For extra options and setting, please see <c>man passwd</c> once you've
335 completed the install.
336 </p>
337
338 </body>
339 </section>
340 <section id="useradd">
341 <title>How do i add a normal user?</title>
342 <body>
343
344 <p>
345 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called gentoo. The next step
346 is to give this user a password and <c>passwd</c> will do exactly that.
347 </p>
348
349 <p>
350 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
351 </p>
352
353 <pre caption="Using useradd">
354 # <i>useradd gentoo -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash</i>
355 </pre>
356
357 <p>
358 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
359 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
360 root (using <c>su</c>) and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his/her login shell.
361 </p>
362
363 <p>
364 You can also install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
365 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
366 the instructions given to you by <c>superadduser</c>.
367 </p>
368
369 </body>
370 </section>
371 <section id="su">
372 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
373 <body>
374
375 <p>
376 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
377 <e>wheel</e> group. To add a <e>username</e> to the <e>wheel</e> group, issue
378 the following command as root:
379 </p>
380
381 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
382 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
383 </pre>
384
385 </body>
386 </section>
387 <section id="devfs">
388 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
389 <body>
390
391 <p>
392 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
393 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
394 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
395 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
396 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
397 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
398 </p>
399
400 </body>
401 </section>
402 <section id="upgrade">
403 <title>
404 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
405 </title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
410 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
411 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
412 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
413 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
414 </p>
415
416 <p>
417 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
418 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
419 </p>
420
421 </body>
422 </section>
423 <section id="bootrescue">
424 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
425 <body>
426
427 <p>
428 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
429 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
430 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
431 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
432 </p>
433
434 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
435 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
436 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
437 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
438 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
439 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
440 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
441 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
442 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
443 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
444 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
445 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
446 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
447 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
448 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
449 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
450 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
451 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
452 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
453 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
454 # <i>exit</i>
455 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
456 # <i>reboot</i>
457 </pre>
458
459 <p>
460 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
461 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
462 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
463 </p>
464
465 </body>
466 </section>
467 <section id="proxy">
468 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
469 <body>
470
471 <p>
472 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
473 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
474 </p>
475
476 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
477 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
478 </pre>
479
480 <p>
481 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
482 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
483 </p>
484
485 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
486 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
487 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
488 </pre>
489
490 <p>
491 Sadly, <c>rsync</c> doesn't seem to support username/password
492 authentication for proxies. See <uri link="#doc_chap4_sect3">What
493 if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri> for more information on how to
494 handle this situation.
495 </p>
496
497 </body>
498 </section>
499 <section id="isoburning">
500 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
501 <body>
502
503 <p>
504 You need to burn the file in so-called <e>raw</e> mode. This means that you
505 should <e>not</e> just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an
506 entire CD.
507 </p>
508
509 <p>
510 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
511 Sisyphean problem. Describing a few popular tools however doesn't hurt :)
512 </p>
513
514 <ul>
515 <li>
516 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
517 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
518 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
519 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
520 </li>
521 <li>
522 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
523 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
524 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
525 your brand new CD being burnt.
526 </li>
527 <li>
528 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
529 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
530 by the path to the ISO file :)
531 </li>
532 <li>
533 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
534 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
535 <c>Start</c>.
536 </li>
537 <li>
538 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
539 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
540 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
541 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
542 </li>
543 <li>
544 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
545 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
546 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
547 </li>
548 </ul>
549
550
551 </body>
552 </section>
553 <section id="cpus">
554 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
555 <body>
556
557 <p>
558 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
559 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You need to
560 consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
561 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
562 </p>
563
564 <p>
565 For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
566 meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
567 systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
568 </p>
569
570 <p>
571 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
572 generic.
573 </p>
574
575 </body>
576 </section>
577 </chapter>
578
579 <chapter>
580 <title>Package Management</title>
581 <section id="ebuilds">
582 <title>In what format are the packages stored?</title>
583 <body>
584
585 <p>
586 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
587 primarily a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts
588 (<c>.ebuild</c> files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build
589 apps from sources. We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots.
590 The <uri link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
591 Ebuild HOWTO</uri> covers the
592 contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary ISO releases, we
593 create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced <c>.tbz2</c> format
594 (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached to the end of the
595 file).
596 </p>
597
598 </body>
599 </section>
600 <section id="configure">
601 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
602 <body>
603
604 <p>
605 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
606 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
607 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
608 </p>
609
610 <p>
611 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
612 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
613 </p>
614
615 <p>
616 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
617 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
618 perform to configure and compile the package.
619 </p>
620
621 <p>
622 When finished, execute <c>touch
623 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
624 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
625 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
626 merge</c>.
627 </p>
628
629 </body>
630 </section>
631 <section id="norsync">
632 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
633 <body>
634
635 <p>
636 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
637 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
638 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
639 proxy is fully supported.
640 </p>
641
642 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
643 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
644 </pre>
645
646 </body>
647 </section>
648 <section id="firewall">
649 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
650 <body>
651
652 <p>
653 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
654 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
655 appropriately.
656 </p>
657
658 </body>
659 </section>
660 <section id="unison">
661 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
662 <body>
663
664 <p>
665 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
666 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
667 </p>
668
669 </body>
670 </section>
671 <section id="manualdownload">
672 <title>
673 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
674 else and add them to my system?
675 </title>
676 <body>
677
678 <p>
679 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
680 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
681 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
682 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
683 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
684 picking up the sources you just brought in!
685 </p>
686
687 </body>
688 </section>
689 <section id="distfiles">
690 <title>
691 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
692 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
693 files?
694 </title>
695 <body>
696
697 <p>
698 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
699 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
700 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
701 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
702 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
703 again.
704 </p>
705
706 </body>
707 </section>
708 <section id="tmpportage">
709 <title>
710 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
711 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
712 </title>
713 <body>
714
715 <p>
716 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
717 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
718 directory.
719 </p>
720
721 </body>
722 </section>
723 </chapter>
724
725 <chapter>
726 <title>Usage</title>
727 <section id="rootssh">
728 <title>
729 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
730 user account doesn't work.
731 </title>
732 <body>
733
734 <p>
735 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
736 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
737 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
738 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
739 </p>
740
741 <pre caption="Using usermod">
742 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
743 </pre>
744
745 </body>
746 </section>
747 <section id="rootX">
748 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
749 <body>
750
751 <p>
752 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
753 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
754 </p>
755
756 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
757 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
758 </pre>
759
760 </body>
761 </section>
762 <section id="intkeyboard">
763 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
764 <body>
765
766 <p>
767 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
768 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
769 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
770 </p>
771
772 </body>
773 </section>
774 <section id="rootdns">
775 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
776 <body>
777
778 <p>
779 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
780 follows:
781 </p>
782
783 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
784 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
785 </pre>
786
787 </body>
788 </section>
789 <section id="crontab">
790 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
791 <body>
792
793 <p>
794 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
795 </p>
796
797 </body>
798 </section>
799 <section id="numlock">
800 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
801 <body>
802
803 <p>
804 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
805 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
806 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
807 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
808 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
809 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
810 </p>
811
812 <p>
813 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
814 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
815 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
816 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
817 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
818 </p>
819
820 <p>
821 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
822 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
823 reboot.
824 </p>
825
826 </body>
827 </section>
828 <section id="clear">
829 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
830 <body>
831
832 <p>
833 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
834 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
835 </p>
836
837 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
838 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
839 </pre>
840
841 <p>
842 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
843 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
844 </p>
845
846 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
847 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
848 </body>
849
850 </section>
851 <section id="suinx">
852 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
853 <body>
854
855 <p>
856 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
857 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
858 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
859 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
860 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
861 </p>
862
863 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
864 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
865 </pre>
866
867 </body>
868 </section>
869
870 </chapter>
871
872 <chapter>
873 <title>Maintenance</title>
874 <section id="filecorruption">
875 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
876 <body>
877
878 <p>
879 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
880 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
881 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
882 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
883 to the corruption.
884 </p>
885
886 </body>
887 </section>
888 <section id="metalogd">
889 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</title>
890 <body>
891
892 <p>
893 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
894 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
895 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
896 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
897 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
898 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
899 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
900 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
901 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
902 </p>
903
904 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
905 <codenote>To turn the buffering off:</codenote>
906 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
907 <codenote>To turn the buffering back on:</codenote>
908 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
909 </pre>
910
911 </body>
912 </section>
913 </chapter>
914
915 <chapter>
916 <title>Development</title>
917 <section id="reportbugs">
918 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
919 <body>
920
921 <p>
922 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
923 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
924 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
925 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
926 </p>
927
928 </body>
929 </section>
930 <section id="releases">
931 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
932 <body>
933
934 <p>
935 New releases are announced on the <uri
936 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
937 mailing list. In reality the packages themselves are updated shortly after the
938 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
939 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
940 </p>
941
942 </body>
943 </section>
944 <section id="addfaq">
945 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
946 <body>
947
948 <p>
949 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
950 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
951 </p>
952
953 </body>
954 </section>
955 <section id="beeping">
956 <title>
957 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
958 beeps?
959 </title>
960 <body>
961
962 <p>
963 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
964 </p>
965
966 <pre caption="Using setterm">
967 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
968 </pre>
969
970 <p>
971 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
972 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
973 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
974 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
975 target terminal, like this:
976 </p>
977
978 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
979 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
980 </pre>
981
982 <p>
983 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
984 console beeps for.
985 </p>
986
987 </body>
988 </section>
989 </chapter>
990
991 <chapter>
992 <title>Resources</title>
993 <section id="resources">
994 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
995 <body>
996
997 <p>
998 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
999 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1000 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1001 </p>
1002
1003 </body>
1004 </section>
1005 <section id="buycd">
1006 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1007 <body>
1008
1009 <p>
1010 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1011 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1012 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1013 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1014 </p>
1015
1016 <p>
1017 You can also find fresh CDs from
1018 <uri link = "http://www.tuxcds.com/section.php?section=42">
1019 tuxcds</uri> for a very good price. These people also bounce back a
1020 portion of the profits to the Gentoo project, so buy them while they are hot!
1021 </p>
1022
1023 </body>
1024 </section>
1025 <section id="mailinglist">
1026 <title>
1027 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1028 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1029 </title>
1030 <body>
1031
1032 <p>
1033 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1034 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1035 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1036 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1037 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1038 </p>
1039
1040 <p>
1041 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1042 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1043 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1044 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1045 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1046 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1047 </p>
1048
1049 <p>
1050 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1051 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1052 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1053 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1054 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1055 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1056 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1057 reasons, many of these covered
1058 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1059 </p>
1060
1061 <p>
1062 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1063 administrators have seen them).
1064 </p>
1065
1066 </body>
1067 </section>
1068 <section id="help">
1069 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1070 <body>
1071
1072 <p>
1073 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1074 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1075 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1076 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1077 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1078 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1079 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1080 </p>
1081
1082 </body>
1083 </section>
1084 </chapter>
1085
1086 </guide>

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