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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.82 2005/04/16 21:20:42 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <license/>
42
43 <version>2.15</version>
44 <date>2005-04-16</date>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Featured Questions</title>
48 <section>
49 <title>Getting Started</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60 </ul>
61
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 <section>
65 <title>Installation</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <ul>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104 </li>
105 </ul>
106
107 </body>
108 </section>
109 <section>
110 <title>Package Management</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <ul>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 </li>
117 <li>
118 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 Can I?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
125 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 firewall?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#unison">Can I rsync from another operating
130 system?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
134 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
135 </li>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
138 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
139 delete there files?</uri>
140 </li>
141 <li>
142 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
143 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
144 </li>
145 </ul>
146
147 </body>
148 </section>
149 <section>
150 <title>Usage</title>
151 <body>
152
153 <ul>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#rootssh">I have installed openssh on my box, but can
156 only log in as root - my normal user account doesn't work.</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#rootX">I can start X applications as root only</uri>
160 </li>
161 <li>
162 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 Layout?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 out?</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180 su'ing</uri>
181 </li>
182 </ul>
183
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 <section>
187 <title>Maintenance</title>
188 <body>
189
190 <ul>
191 <li>
192 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 </li>
195 <li>
196 <uri link="#metalogd">Metalogd doesn't log in real time!</uri>
197 </li>
198 </ul>
199
200 </body>
201 </section>
202 <section>
203 <title>Development</title>
204 <body>
205
206 <ul>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
212 </li>
213 <li>
214 <uri link="#addfaq">How can I add a question or answer to this
215 FAQ?</uri>
216 </li>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
219 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
220 </li>
221 </ul>
222
223 </body>
224 </section>
225 <section>
226 <title>Resources</title>
227 <body>
228
229 <ul>
230 <li>
231 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
232 Linux?</uri>
233 </li>
234 <li>
235 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
236 </li>
237 <li>
238 <uri link="#mailinglist">Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo
239 mailinglist, does my answer only go to the original poster and not the
240 entire list?</uri>
241 </li>
242 <li>
243 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
244 do now?</uri>
245 </li>
246 </ul>
247
248 </body>
249 </section>
250 </chapter>
251
252 <chapter>
253 <title>Getting Started</title>
254
255 <section id="pronunciation">
256 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
261 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
262 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
263 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
264 </p>
265
266 </body>
267 </section>
268 <section id="differences">
269 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
270 <body>
271
272 <p>
273 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
274 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
275 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
276 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
277 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
278 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
279 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
280 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
281 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
282 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
283 </p>
284
285 <p>
286 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
287 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
288 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install Gentoo
289 to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
290 </p>
291
292 <p>
293 Gentoo is actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
294 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
295 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
296 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
297 added frequently, and releases succeed each other quickly.
298 </p>
299
300 </body>
301 </section>
302 </chapter>
303
304 <chapter>
305 <title>Installation</title>
306 <section id="optimizations">
307 <title>
308 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
309 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
310 </title>
311 <body>
312
313 <p>
314 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
315 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
316 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
317 do the same thing anymore.
318 </p>
319
320 <p>
321 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> before
322 reporting a bug.
323 </p>
324
325 </body>
326 </section>
327 <section id="password">
328 <title>How can I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
329 <body>
330
331 <p>
332 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
333 into. For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c> once you've
334 completed the install.
335 </p>
336
337 </body>
338 </section>
339 <section id="useradd">
340 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
341 <body>
342
343 <p>
344 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called "gentoo". The next
345 step is to give this user a password using <c>passwd gentoo</c>.
346 </p>
347
348 <p>
349 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
350 </p>
351
352 <pre caption="Using useradd">
353 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i>
354 </pre>
355
356 <p>
357 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
358 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
359 root (using <c>su</c>), and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
360 </p>
361
362 <p>
363 You can install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
364 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
365 the instructions which are then given.
366 </p>
367
368 </body>
369 </section>
370 <section id="su">
371 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
372 <body>
373
374 <p>
375 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
376 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
377 as root:
378 </p>
379
380 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
381 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
382 </pre>
383
384 </body>
385 </section>
386 <section id="devfs">
387 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
388 <body>
389
390 <p>
391 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
392 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
393 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
394 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
395 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
396 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
397 </p>
398
399 </body>
400 </section>
401 <section id="upgrade">
402 <title>
403 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
404 </title>
405 <body>
406
407 <p>
408 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
409 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
410 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
411 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
412 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
413 </p>
414
415 <p>
416 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
417 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
418 </p>
419
420 </body>
421 </section>
422 <section id="bootrescue">
423 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
424 <body>
425
426 <p>
427 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
428 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
429 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
430 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
431 </p>
432
433 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
434 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
435 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
436 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
437 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
438 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
439 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
440 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
441 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
442 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
443 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
444 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
445 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
446 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
447 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
448 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
449 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
450 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
451 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
452 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
453 # <i>exit</i>
454 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
455 # <i>reboot</i>
456 </pre>
457
458 <p>
459 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
460 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
461 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
462 </p>
463
464 </body>
465 </section>
466 <section id="proxy">
467 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
468 <body>
469
470 <p>
471 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
472 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
473 </p>
474
475 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
476 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
477 </pre>
478
479 <p>
480 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
481 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
482 </p>
483
484 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
485 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
486 -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
487 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
488 -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
489 </pre>
490
491 <p>
492 To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
493 so:
494 </p>
495
496 <pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
497 RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
498 </pre>
499
500 </body>
501 </section>
502 <section id="isoburning">
503 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
504 <body>
505
506 <p>
507 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
508 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
509 </p>
510
511 <p>
512 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
513 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
514 </p>
515
516 <ul>
517 <li>
518 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
519 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
520 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
521 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
522 </li>
523 <li>
524 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
525 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
526 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
527 your brand new CD being burnt.
528 </li>
529 <li>
530 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
531 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
532 by the path to the ISO file :)
533 </li>
534 <li>
535 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
536 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
537 <c>Start</c>.
538 </li>
539 <li>
540 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
541 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
542 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
543 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
544 </li>
545 <li>
546 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
547 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
548 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
549 </li>
550 </ul>
551
552
553 </body>
554 </section>
555 <section id="cpus">
556 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
557 <body>
558
559 <p>
560 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
561 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
562 need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
563 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
564 </p>
565
566 <p>
567 For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
568 meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
569 systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
570 </p>
571
572 <p>
573 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
574 generic.
575 </p>
576
577 </body>
578 </section>
579 </chapter>
580
581 <chapter>
582 <title>Package Management</title>
583 <section id="ebuilds">
584 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
585 <body>
586
587 <p>
588 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
589 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c>
590 files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources.
591 We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri
592 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
593 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary
594 ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
595 <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached
596 to the end of the file).
597 </p>
598
599 </body>
600 </section>
601 <section id="configure">
602 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
603 <body>
604
605 <p>
606 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
607 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
608 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
609 </p>
610
611 <p>
612 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
613 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
614 </p>
615
616 <p>
617 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
618 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
619 perform to configure and compile the package.
620 </p>
621
622 <p>
623 When finished, execute <c>touch
624 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
625 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
626 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
627 merge</c>.
628 </p>
629
630 </body>
631 </section>
632 <section id="norsync">
633 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
634 <body>
635
636 <p>
637 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
638 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
639 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
640 proxy is fully supported.
641 </p>
642
643 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
644 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
645 </pre>
646
647 </body>
648 </section>
649 <section id="firewall">
650 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
651 <body>
652
653 <p>
654 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
655 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
656 appropriately.
657 </p>
658
659 </body>
660 </section>
661 <section id="unison">
662 <title>Can I rsync from another operating system?</title>
663 <body>
664
665 <p>
666 There's a program called unison that works under both UNIX and Win32, available
667 from <uri>http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bcpierce/unison/</uri>.
668 </p>
669
670 </body>
671 </section>
672 <section id="manualdownload">
673 <title>
674 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
675 else and add them to my system?
676 </title>
677 <body>
678
679 <p>
680 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
681 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
682 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
683 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
684 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
685 picking up the sources you just brought in!
686 </p>
687
688 </body>
689 </section>
690 <section id="distfiles">
691 <title>
692 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
693 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
694 files?
695 </title>
696 <body>
697
698 <p>
699 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
700 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
701 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
702 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
703 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
704 again.
705 </p>
706
707 </body>
708 </section>
709 <section id="tmpportage">
710 <title>
711 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
712 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
713 </title>
714 <body>
715
716 <p>
717 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
718 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
719 directory.
720 </p>
721
722 </body>
723 </section>
724 </chapter>
725
726 <chapter>
727 <title>Usage</title>
728 <section id="rootssh">
729 <title>
730 I have installed openssh on my box, but can only log in as root - my normal
731 user account doesn't work.
732 </title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 This is most probably because your user account doesn't have a valid shell
737 specified. Check for your user entry in <path>/etc/passwd</path> and see if it
738 ends in /bin/bash (or any other shell). If it doesn't, you must set a shell for
739 the user. This is done using the usermod command, like this:
740 </p>
741
742 <pre caption="Using usermod">
743 # <i>usermod -s /bin/bash myuser</i>
744 </pre>
745
746 </body>
747 </section>
748 <section id="rootX">
749 <title>I can start X applications as root only.</title>
750 <body>
751
752 <p>
753 Your <path>/tmp</path> directory has the wrong permissions (it needs the
754 sticky bit set). Type the following as root:
755 </p>
756
757 <pre caption="Changing /tmp permissions">
758 # <i>chmod 1777 /tmp</i>
759 </pre>
760
761 </body>
762 </section>
763 <section id="intkeyboard">
764 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
765 <body>
766
767 <p>
768 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
769 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
770 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
771 </p>
772
773 </body>
774 </section>
775 <section id="rootdns">
776 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
777 <body>
778
779 <p>
780 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
781 follows:
782 </p>
783
784 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
785 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
786 </pre>
787
788 </body>
789 </section>
790 <section id="crontab">
791 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
792 <body>
793
794 <p>
795 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
796 </p>
797
798 </body>
799 </section>
800 <section id="numlock">
801 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
802 <body>
803
804 <p>
805 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
806 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
807 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
808 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
809 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
810 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
811 </p>
812
813 <p>
814 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
815 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
816 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
817 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
818 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
819 </p>
820
821 <p>
822 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
823 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
824 reboot.
825 </p>
826
827 </body>
828 </section>
829 <section id="clear">
830 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
831 <body>
832
833 <p>
834 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
835 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
836 </p>
837
838 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
839 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
840 </pre>
841
842 <p>
843 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
844 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
845 </p>
846
847 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
848 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
849 </body>
850
851 </section>
852 <section id="suinx">
853 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
854 <body>
855
856 <p>
857 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
858 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
859 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
860 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
861 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
862 </p>
863
864 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
865 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
866 </pre>
867
868 </body>
869 </section>
870
871 </chapter>
872
873 <chapter>
874 <title>Maintenance</title>
875 <section id="filecorruption">
876 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
877 <body>
878
879 <p>
880 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
881 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
882 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
883 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
884 to the corruption.
885 </p>
886
887 </body>
888 </section>
889 <section id="metalogd">
890 <title>Metalogd doesn't log in real time</title>
891 <body>
892
893 <p>
894 Metalog flushes output to the disk in blocks, so messages aren't immediately
895 recorded into the system logs. If you are trying to debug a daemon, this
896 performance-enhancing behavior is less than helpful. When your Gentoo Linux
897 system is up and running, you can send metalog a USR1 signal to temporarily
898 turn off this message buffering (meaning that <c>tail -f
899 <path>/var/log/everything/current</path></c> will now work in real time, as
900 expected) and a USR2 signal to turn buffering back on again. If you want to
901 disable buffering permanently, you can change METALOG_OPTS="-B" to
902 METALOG_OPTS="-B -s" in <path>/etc/conf.d/metalog</path>.
903 </p>
904
905 <pre caption="Turning metalog buffering on/off">
906 <comment>(To turn the buffering off)</comment>
907 # <i>killall -USR1 metalog</i>
908 <comment>(To turn the buffering back on)</comment>
909 # <i>killall -USR2 metalog</i>
910 </pre>
911
912 </body>
913 </section>
914 </chapter>
915
916 <chapter>
917 <title>Development</title>
918 <section id="reportbugs">
919 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
920 <body>
921
922 <p>
923 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
924 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
925 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
926 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
927 </p>
928
929 </body>
930 </section>
931 <section id="releases">
932 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
933 <body>
934
935 <p>
936 New releases are announced on the <uri
937 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
938 mailing list. The packages themselves are usually updated shortly after the
939 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
940 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
941 </p>
942
943 </body>
944 </section>
945 <section id="addfaq">
946 <title>How can I add a question or answer to this FAQ?</title>
947 <body>
948
949 <p>
950 Submit a new bug over at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri> and add it to the
951 "Docs-user" product, "Gentoo Linux FAQ" component.
952 </p>
953
954 </body>
955 </section>
956 <section id="beeping">
957 <title>
958 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
959 beeps?
960 </title>
961 <body>
962
963 <p>
964 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
965 </p>
966
967 <pre caption="Using setterm">
968 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
969 </pre>
970
971 <p>
972 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
973 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
974 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
975 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
976 target terminal, like this:
977 </p>
978
979 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
980 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
981 </pre>
982
983 <p>
984 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
985 console beeps for.
986 </p>
987
988 </body>
989 </section>
990 </chapter>
991
992 <chapter>
993 <title>Resources</title>
994 <section id="resources">
995 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
996 <body>
997
998 <p>
999 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
1000 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
1001 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
1002 </p>
1003
1004 </body>
1005 </section>
1006 <section id="buycd">
1007 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
1008 <body>
1009
1010 <p>
1011 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
1012 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1013 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
1014 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
1015 </p>
1016
1017 <p>
1018 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1019 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1020 </p>
1021
1022 </body>
1023 </section>
1024 <section id="mailinglist">
1025 <title>
1026 Why, when I hit reply to a post on a Gentoo mailing list, does my answer
1027 only go to the original poster and not the entire list?
1028 </title>
1029 <body>
1030
1031 <p>
1032 The mailing list administrators have decided to go with minimal munging
1033 (altering of mail headers), which means that they have decided against
1034 altering headers to have replies go to the mailing list. There are various
1035 reasons for this. For example, if a subscriber has a full mailbox, the
1036 entire list receives notice of this every time that something is posted.
1037 </p>
1038
1039 <p>
1040 Most GUI based mailers have a "reply to all" function. This will ensure that
1041 your reply goes to the mailing list as well as the original poster. Most
1042 users of text based emailers already know the methods to use, but if you
1043 don't, in Pine, there is a "reply to group" option. Setting Mutt to reply to
1044 the list is covered in the unofficial documentation at
1045 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic.php?t=1085">forums.gentoo.org</uri>.
1046 </p>
1047
1048 <p>
1049 Some list members do not like this method, but it was very heavily
1050 discussed when it went into effect, with arguments on both sides.
1051 Eventually the list administrators decided to keep it this way. Discussing
1052 it on the mailing list will sometimes bring a polite explanation and other
1053 times a rather brusque comment to check the archives. Although the
1054 administrators regret the inconvenience that it may cause some users, it is
1055 felt that at present it is preferable to the alternative for several
1056 reasons, many of these covered
1057 <uri link="http://www.unicom.com/pw/reply-to-harmful.html">here</uri>.
1058 </p>
1059
1060 <p>
1061 (There are other eloquent arguments in favor of munging, and yes, the list
1062 administrators have seen them).
1063 </p>
1064
1065 </body>
1066 </section>
1067 <section id="help">
1068 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1069 <body>
1070
1071 <p>
1072 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1073 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
1074 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
1075 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
1076 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
1077 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
1078 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1079 </p>
1080
1081 </body>
1082 </section>
1083 </chapter>
1084
1085 </guide>

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