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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.83 2005/06/04 17:05:39 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Previous Chief Architect">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34
35 <abstract>
36 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
37 mailing list and from IRC -- if you have any questions (or answers!) to add,
38 please contact either an author or a member of the documentation team.
39 </abstract>
40
41 <license/>
42
43 <version>2.16</version>
44 <date>2005-06-05</date>
45
46 <chapter>
47 <title>Featured Questions</title>
48 <section>
49 <title>Getting Started</title>
50 <body>
51
52 <ul>
53 <li>
54 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
55 mean?</uri>
56 </li>
57 <li>
58 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
59 </li>
60 </ul>
61
62 </body>
63 </section>
64 <section>
65 <title>Installation</title>
66 <body>
67
68 <ul>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#optimizations">I'm finding things to be really unstable and
71 I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What
72 gives?</uri>
73 </li>
74 <li>
75 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
76 password?</uri>
77 </li>
78 <li>
79 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
80 </li>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
83 </li>
84 <li>
85 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
86 </li>
87 <li>
88 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
89 another without reinstalling?</uri>
90 </li>
91 <li>
92 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
93 I do now?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
97 have to do?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
104 </li>
105 </ul>
106
107 </body>
108 </section>
109 <section>
110 <title>Package Management</title>
111 <body>
112
113 <ul>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
116 </li>
117 <li>
118 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
119 Can I?</uri>
120 </li>
121 <li>
122 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
123 </li>
124 <li>
125 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
126 firewall?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
130 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#distfiles">.tar.gz sources for installed software are
134 piling up in /usr/portage/distfiles using valuable space. Is it safe to
135 delete there files?</uri>
136 </li>
137 <li>
138 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
139 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
140 </li>
141 </ul>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section>
146 <title>Usage</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <ul>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
152 Layout?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
156 </li>
157 <li>
158 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
159 </li>
160 <li>
161 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
162 </li>
163 <li>
164 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
165 out?</uri>
166 </li>
167 <li>
168 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
169 su'ing</uri>
170 </li>
171 </ul>
172
173 </body>
174 </section>
175 <section>
176 <title>Maintenance</title>
177 <body>
178
179 <ul>
180 <li>
181 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
182 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
183 </li>
184 </ul>
185
186 </body>
187 </section>
188 <section>
189 <title>Development</title>
190 <body>
191
192 <ul>
193 <li>
194 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
195 </li>
196 <li>
197 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
198 </li>
199 <li>
200 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling
201 Mozilla. How do I disable console beeps?</uri>
202 </li>
203 </ul>
204
205 </body>
206 </section>
207 <section>
208 <title>Resources</title>
209 <body>
210
211 <ul>
212 <li>
213 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
214 Linux?</uri>
215 </li>
216 <li>
217 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
218 </li>
219 <li>
220 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
221 do now?</uri>
222 </li>
223 </ul>
224
225 </body>
226 </section>
227 </chapter>
228
229 <chapter>
230 <title>Getting Started</title>
231
232 <section id="pronunciation">
233 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
234 <body>
235
236 <p>
237 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
238 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
239 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
240 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
241 </p>
242
243 </body>
244 </section>
245 <section id="differences">
246 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
251 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
252 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
253 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
254 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
255 conditional dependencies, "fake" installs, safe installation (through
256 sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
257 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
258 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
259 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
260 </p>
261
262 <p>
263 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
264 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
265 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices so you can install Gentoo
266 to your own taste. This is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
267 </p>
268
269 <p>
270 Gentoo is actively developed. Not only the <e>ebuilds</e> themselves (the
271 package format Gentoo uses) but the entire distribution uses a rapid pace
272 development style. Patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
273 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
274 added frequently, and releases succeed each other quickly.
275 </p>
276
277 </body>
278 </section>
279 </chapter>
280
281 <chapter>
282 <title>Installation</title>
283 <section id="optimizations">
284 <title>
285 I'm finding things to be really unstable and I'm using "-O9 -ffast-math
286 -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?
287 </title>
288 <body>
289
290 <p>
291 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
292 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
293 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
294 do the same thing anymore.
295 </p>
296
297 <p>
298 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-march=&lt;your_arch&gt; -O2</c> before
299 reporting a bug.
300 </p>
301
302 </body>
303 </section>
304 <section id="password">
305 <title>How can I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
306 <body>
307
308 <p>
309 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
310 into. For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c> once you've
311 completed the install.
312 </p>
313
314 </body>
315 </section>
316 <section id="useradd">
317 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 The command <c>adduser gentoo</c> will add a user called "gentoo". The next
322 step is to give this user a password using <c>passwd gentoo</c>.
323 </p>
324
325 <p>
326 Instead of <c>adduser</c> you can also use:
327 </p>
328
329 <pre caption="Using useradd">
330 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel -s /bin/bash gentoo</i>
331 </pre>
332
333 <p>
334 This will add a user gentoo, will make possible for him to use sound-related
335 devices (<path>/dev/sound/*</path>), will make possible for him to switch to
336 root (using <c>su</c>), and will make <path>/bin/bash</path> his login shell.
337 </p>
338
339 <p>
340 You can install <c>superadduser</c> using <c>emerge superadduser</c> and
341 then issue <c>superadduser gentoo</c> to add a user called gentoo. Just follow
342 the instructions which are then given.
343 </p>
344
345 </body>
346 </section>
347 <section id="su">
348 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
349 <body>
350
351 <p>
352 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
353 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
354 as root:
355 </p>
356
357 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
358 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 </body>
362 </section>
363 <section id="devfs">
364 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
365 <body>
366
367 <p>
368 If you plan on using Gentoo with the "old-style" <path>/dev</path> approach, you
369 can disable devfs by passing the <c>gentoo=nodevfs</c> to the kernel. If on the
370 other hand you want to use <uri link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev</uri> (2.6
371 kernels only), you can disable devfs by passing the <c>devfs=nomount</c> option
372 to the kernel. Don't forget to read up on our <uri
373 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> too.
374 </p>
375
376 </body>
377 </section>
378 <section id="upgrade">
379 <title>
380 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
381 </title>
382 <body>
383
384 <p>
385 In fact there is no difference between the various releases
386 <b>after they have been installed</b>. Gentoo 1.4 and later are
387 <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such running <c>emerge --sync; emerge -u world</c>
388 will bring your entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo".
389 The true differences between individual releases lie in the installation.
390 </p>
391
392 <p>
393 More information can be found in our <uri link="gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo
394 Upgrading Guide</uri>.
395 </p>
396
397 </body>
398 </section>
399 <section id="bootrescue">
400 <title>My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should I do now?</title>
401 <body>
402
403 <p>
404 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but only the
405 kernel-stuff and all associated steps. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
406 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
407 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
408 </p>
409
410 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
411 <comment>Boot from the LiveCD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
412 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
413 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
414 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
415 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
416 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
417 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
418 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
419 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
420 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
421 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
422 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
423 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
424 # <i>make dep &amp;&amp; make bzImage modules modules_install</i>
425 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
426 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
427 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
428 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
429 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
430 # <i>exit</i>
431 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
432 # <i>reboot</i>
433 </pre>
434
435 <p>
436 If on the other hand the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
437 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel you
438 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
439 </p>
440
441 </body>
442 </section>
443 <section id="proxy">
444 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
445 <body>
446
447 <p>
448 When you have to download something using <c>wget</c>, use the
449 following syntax to authenticate yourself:
450 </p>
451
452 <pre caption = "Proxy-authentication using wget">
453 # <i>wget --proxy-user=</i><comment>username</comment><i> --proxy-passwd=</i><comment>password</comment><i> &lt;url&gt;</i>
454 </pre>
455
456 <p>
457 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
458 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
462 FETCHCOMMAND="wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
463 -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
464 RESUMECOMMAND="/usr/bin/wget --proxy-user=<comment>username</comment> --proxy-passwd=<comment>password</comment> \
465 -c -t 5 --passive-ftp -P \${DISTDIR} \${URI}"
466 </pre>
467
468 <p>
469 To have <c>rsync</c> use a proxy, set the RSYNC_PROXY environment variable as
470 so:
471 </p>
472
473 <pre caption="/etc/make.conf's setting for RSYNC">
474 RSYNC_PROXY="<comment>username</comment>:<comment>password</comment>@<comment>proxy-server</comment>:<comment>port</comment>"
475 </pre>
476
477 </body>
478 </section>
479 <section id="isoburning">
480 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
481 <body>
482
483 <p>
484 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
485 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
486 </p>
487
488 <p>
489 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
490 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
491 </p>
492
493 <ul>
494 <li>
495 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
496 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
497 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
498 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
499 </li>
500 <li>
501 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
502 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
503 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
504 your brand new CD being burnt.
505 </li>
506 <li>
507 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
508 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
509 by the path to the ISO file :)
510 </li>
511 <li>
512 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn Image</c>. Then
513 you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally click
514 <c>Start</c>.
515 </li>
516 <li>
517 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
518 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
519 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
520 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
521 </li>
522 <li>
523 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
524 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
525 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
526 </li>
527 </ul>
528
529
530 </body>
531 </section>
532 <section id="cpus">
533 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
534 <body>
535
536 <p>
537 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
538 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
539 need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
540 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
541 </p>
542
543 <p>
544 For the Pentium-M, you'll find out that it is a Pentium-3 with SSE instructions,
545 meaning it is instruction-compatible with the Pentium-4. So, for Pentium-M
546 systems, you can choose the Pentium-4 CD/stage files.
547 </p>
548
549 <p>
550 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
551 generic.
552 </p>
553
554 </body>
555 </section>
556 </chapter>
557
558 <chapter>
559 <title>Package Management</title>
560 <section id="ebuilds">
561 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
562 <body>
563
564 <p>
565 They exist in our portage tree as <e>ebuild</e> autobuild scripts; Gentoo is
566 a ports-based distribution, meaning that we provide scripts (<c>.ebuild</c>
567 files) and a special system (Portage) so that you can build apps from sources.
568 We generally only build binaries for releases and snapshots. The <uri
569 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
570 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail. For full binary
571 ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
572 <c>.tbz2</c> format (<c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information attached
573 to the end of the file).
574 </p>
575
576 </body>
577 </section>
578 <section id="configure">
579 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
580 <body>
581
582 <p>
583 Yes, but it is not trivial, and the next method only works when it is a simple
584 ebuild (i.e. just <c>./configure</c> and <c>make &amp;&amp; make install</c>).
585 Be sure to read the ebuild itself to see how Gentoo handles it.
586 </p>
587
588 <p>
589 Start with unpacking the ebuild: <c>ebuild
590 /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt; unpack</c>.
591 </p>
592
593 <p>
594 Next, go to <path>/var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/work</path>.
595 Inside it you'll find the unpacked sources. Execute the steps you need to
596 perform to configure and compile the package.
597 </p>
598
599 <p>
600 When finished, execute <c>touch
601 /var/tmp/portage/&lt;package&gt;-&lt;version&gt;/.compiled</c> to trick Portage
602 into thinking it configured and compiled the package. Then finish up with
603 <c>ebuild /usr/portage/&lt;category&gt;/&lt;package&gt;/&lt;ebuild&gt;
604 merge</c>.
605 </p>
606
607 </body>
608 </section>
609 <section id="norsync">
610 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
611 <body>
612
613 <p>
614 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
615 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
616 through regular HTTP. <c>emerge-webrsync</c> uses <c>wget</c> to download, so
617 proxy is fully supported.
618 </p>
619
620 <pre caption="Using emerge-webrsync">
621 # <i>emerge-webrsync</i>
622 </pre>
623
624 </body>
625 </section>
626 <section id="firewall">
627 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
628 <body>
629
630 <p>
631 Edit the PROXY settings in <path>/etc/make.conf</path>. If that doesn't work,
632 edit <path>/etc/wget/wgetrc</path> and edit http_proxy and ftp_proxy
633 appropriately.
634 </p>
635
636 </body>
637 </section>
638 <section id="manualdownload">
639 <title>
640 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
641 else and add them to my system?
642 </title>
643 <body>
644
645 <p>
646 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
647 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
648 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
649 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
650 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles</path> and run <c>emerge package</c> to see it
651 picking up the sources you just brought in!
652 </p>
653
654 </body>
655 </section>
656 <section id="distfiles">
657 <title>
658 .tar.gz sources for installed software are piling up in
659 /usr/portage/distfiles/ using valuable space. Is it safe to delete these
660 files?
661 </title>
662 <body>
663
664 <p>
665 Yes, you can safely delete these files. But if you are on a slow
666 connection, such as a modem, you might want to keep the archives if
667 possible; often several ebuilds will be released for the same version of
668 a specific piece of software - if you have deleted the archive and you
669 upgrade the software it will have to be downloaded from the internet
670 again.
671 </p>
672
673 </body>
674 </section>
675 <section id="tmpportage">
676 <title>
677 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
678 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
679 </title>
680 <body>
681
682 <p>
683 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
684 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. It is safe to clean out all contents of this
685 directory.
686 </p>
687
688 </body>
689 </section>
690 </chapter>
691
692 <chapter>
693 <title>Usage</title>
694 <section id="intkeyboard">
695 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
696 <body>
697
698 <p>
699 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/rc.conf</path>.
700 Then either reboot or restart the keymaps script:
701 <c>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</c>.
702 </p>
703
704 </body>
705 </section>
706 <section id="rootdns">
707 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only.</title>
708 <body>
709
710 <p>
711 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
712 follows:
713 </p>
714
715 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
716 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
717 </pre>
718
719 </body>
720 </section>
721 <section id="crontab">
722 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
723 <body>
724
725 <p>
726 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
727 </p>
728
729 </body>
730 </section>
731 <section id="numlock">
732 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
733 <body>
734
735 <p>
736 If you log on graphically, or want numlock to be activated when
737 you issue <c>startx</c>, then you must <c>emerge numlockx</c> and
738 add <c>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</c> to
739 <path>/etc/X11/xinit/xinitrc</path> (for <c>startx</c>) or
740 <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/</path> (for any graphical login manager) such
741 as <path>/etc/X11/Sessions/Gnome</path> for GDM.
742 </p>
743
744 <p>
745 GNOME 2.6 users however will notice that this doesn't work. Instead, they will
746 need to start the <c>gnome-session-properties</c> tool. At the top of the
747 Window, select <c>Startup Programs</c> and click the <c>Add</c> button. Now
748 insert the location of the <c>numlockx</c> tool (for instance
749 <path>/usr/X11R6/bin/numlockx</path>) and exit.
750 </p>
751
752 <p>
753 If you work in commandline, you only need to <c>rc-update add
754 numlock default</c> and numlock will be activated on the next
755 reboot.
756 </p>
757
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 <section id="clear">
761 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
762 <body>
763
764 <p>
765 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
766 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
767 </p>
768
769 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
770 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
771 </pre>
772
773 <p>
774 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
775 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
776 </p>
777
778 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
779 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
780 </body>
781
782 </section>
783 <section id="suinx">
784 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
785 <body>
786
787 <p>
788 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
789 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
790 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
791 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
792 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
793 </p>
794
795 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
796 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
797 </pre>
798
799 </body>
800 </section>
801
802 </chapter>
803
804 <chapter>
805 <title>Maintenance</title>
806 <section id="filecorruption">
807 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
808 <body>
809
810 <p>
811 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo
812 Linux boot CD and run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on
813 the corrupted filesystem. This should make the filesystem consistent
814 again, although you may have lost some files or directories due
815 to the corruption.
816 </p>
817
818 </body>
819 </section>
820 </chapter>
821 <chapter>
822 <title>Development</title>
823 <section id="reportbugs">
824 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
825 <body>
826
827 <p>
828 For bugs within a specific program, contact the program's author. Otherwise,
829 use our Bugzilla bug tracker at <uri>http://bugs.gentoo.org</uri>. You can
830 also visit us in <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
831 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
832 </p>
833
834 </body>
835 </section>
836 <section id="releases">
837 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
838 <body>
839
840 <p>
841 New releases are announced on the <uri
842 link="http://www.gentoo.org/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri>
843 mailing list. The packages themselves are usually updated shortly after the
844 main authors release new code. As for when Gentoo makes new releases, check our
845 <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page.
846 </p>
847
848 </body>
849 </section>
850 <section id="beeping">
851 <title>
852 My speaker beeps like crazy while compiling Mozilla. How do I disable console
853 beeps?
854 </title>
855 <body>
856
857 <p>
858 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
859 </p>
860
861 <pre caption="Using setterm">
862 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
863 </pre>
864
865 <p>
866 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot
867 you need to put this command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However,
868 this only disables beeps for the current terminal. To disable
869 beeps for other terminals, pipe the command output to the
870 target terminal, like this:
871 </p>
872
873 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
874 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
875 </pre>
876
877 <p>
878 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
879 console beeps for.
880 </p>
881
882 </body>
883 </section>
884 </chapter>
885
886 <chapter>
887 <title>Resources</title>
888 <section id="resources">
889 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
890 <body>
891
892 <p>
893 The official Gentoo documentation can be found on
894 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org</uri>; general Linux information is at
895 <uri>http://www.tldp.org</uri>.
896 </p>
897
898 </body>
899 </section>
900 <section id="buycd">
901 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
902 <body>
903
904 <p>
905 Yes! LiveCDs for all supported architecture are available on
906 our <uri link="http://store.gentoo.org/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
907 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development.
908 So, please consider buying from our store if possible :-)
909 </p>
910
911 <p>
912 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
913 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
914 </p>
915
916 </body>
917 </section>
918 <section id="help">
919 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
920 <body>
921
922 <p>
923 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
924 link="http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that,
925 the various Gentoo Linux mailing lists listed on <uri
926 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>. To search through the Gentoo
927 mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo" to search for "foo". If all
928 else fails, or you just want to hang out with Gentoo folks, visit us on irc:
929 <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
930 </p>
931
932 </body>
933 </section>
934 </chapter>
935
936 </guide>

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