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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.92 2005/07/03 11:40:49 yoswink Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.0.6</version>
48 <date>2005-07-14</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64
65 <ul>
66 <li>
67 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
68 mean?</uri>
69 </li>
70 <li>
71 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
72 </li>
73 </ul>
74
75 </body>
76 </section>
77 <section>
78 <title>Installation</title>
79 <body>
80
81 <ul>
82 <li>
83 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
84 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
85 </li>
86 <li>
87 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
88 password?</uri>
89 </li>
90 <li>
91 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
92 </li>
93 <li>
94 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
95 </li>
96 <li>
97 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
98 </li>
99 <li>
100 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
101 another without reinstalling?</uri>
102 </li>
103 <li>
104 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
105 I do now?</uri>
106 </li>
107 <li>
108 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
109 have to do?</uri>
110 </li>
111 <li>
112 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
113 </li>
114 <li>
115 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
116 </li>
117 </ul>
118
119 </body>
120 </section>
121 <section>
122 <title>Package Management</title>
123 <body>
124
125 <ul>
126 <li>
127 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
128 </li>
129 <li>
130 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
131 Can I?</uri>
132 </li>
133 <li>
134 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
135 firewall?</uri>
136 </li>
137 <li>
138 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
139 </li>
140 <li>
141 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
142 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
143 </li>
144 <li>
145 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
146 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
147 </li>
148 <li>
149 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
150 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
151 </li>
152 </ul>
153
154 </body>
155 </section>
156 <section>
157 <title>Usage</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <ul>
161 <li>
162 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
163 Layout?</uri>
164 </li>
165 <li>
166 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
167 </li>
168 <li>
169 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
176 out?</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
180 su'ing</uri>
181 </li>
182 </ul>
183
184 </body>
185 </section>
186 <section>
187 <title>Maintenance</title>
188 <body>
189
190 <ul>
191 <li>
192 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
193 how to fix'em, etc.</uri>
194 </li>
195 </ul>
196
197 </body>
198 </section>
199 <section>
200 <title>Development</title>
201 <body>
202
203 <ul>
204 <li>
205 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
206 </li>
207 <li>
208 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
209 </li>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
212 beeps?</uri>
213 </li>
214 </ul>
215
216 </body>
217 </section>
218 <section>
219 <title>Resources</title>
220 <body>
221
222 <ul>
223 <li>
224 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
225 Linux?</uri>
226 </li>
227 <li>
228 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
229 </li>
230 <li>
231 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
232 do now?</uri>
233 </li>
234 </ul>
235
236 </body>
237 </section>
238 </chapter>
239
240 <chapter>
241 <title>Getting Started</title>
242
243 <section id="pronunciation">
244 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
245 <body>
246
247 <p>
248 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
249 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
250 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
251 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
252 </p>
253
254 </body>
255 </section>
256 <section id="differences">
257 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
258 <body>
259
260 <p>
261 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
262 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
263 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
264 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
265 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
266 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
267 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
268 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
269 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
270 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
271 </p>
272
273 <p>
274 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
275 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
276 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
277 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
278 </p>
279
280 <p>
281 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
282 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
283 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, portage features are
284 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
285 </p>
286
287 </body>
288 </section>
289 </chapter>
290
291 <chapter>
292 <title>Installation</title>
293 <section id="optimizations">
294 <title>
295 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
296 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
297 </title>
298 <body>
299
300 <p>
301 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
302 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
303 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
304 do the same thing anymore.
305 </p>
306
307 <p>
308 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
309 reporting a bug.
310 </p>
311
312 </body>
313 </section>
314 <section id="password">
315 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
316 <body>
317
318 <p>
319 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
320 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
321 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
322 </p>
323
324 </body>
325 </section>
326 <section id="useradd">
327 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
328 <body>
329
330 <p>
331 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
332 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
333 him, so the following command is preferred:
334 </p>
335
336 <pre caption="Using useradd">
337 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
338 </pre>
339
340 <p>
341 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
342 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
343 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
344 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
345 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
346 </p>
347
348 </body>
349 </section>
350 <section id="su">
351 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
352 <body>
353
354 <p>
355 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
356 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
357 as root:
358 </p>
359
360 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
361 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
362 </pre>
363
364 </body>
365 </section>
366 <section id="devfs">
367 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
368 <body>
369
370 <p>
371 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
372 function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
373 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
374 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
375 udev.
376 </p>
377
378 </body>
379 </section>
380 <section id="upgrade">
381 <title>
382 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
383 </title>
384 <body>
385
386 <p>
387 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
388 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
389 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
390 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
391 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
392 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
393 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
394 </p>
395
396 </body>
397 </section>
398 <section id="bootrescue">
399 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
400 <body>
401
402 <p>
403 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
404 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
405 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
406 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
407 </p>
408
409 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
410 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
411 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
412 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
413 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
414 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
415 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
416 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
417 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
418 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
419 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
420 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
421 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
422 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
423 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
424 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
425 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
426 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
427 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
428 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
429 # <i>exit</i>
430 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
431 # <i>reboot</i>
432 </pre>
433
434 <p>
435 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
436 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
437 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
438 </p>
439
440 </body>
441 </section>
442 <section id="proxy">
443 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
444 <body>
445
446 <p>
447 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
448 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
449 </p>
450
451 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
452 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
453 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
454 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
455 </pre>
456
457 </body>
458 </section>
459 <section id="isoburning">
460 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
461 <body>
462
463 <p>
464 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
465 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
466 </p>
467
468 <p>
469 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
470 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
471 </p>
472
473 <ul>
474 <li>
475 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
476 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
477 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
478 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
479 </li>
480 <li>
481 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
482 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
483 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
484 your brand new CD being burnt.
485 </li>
486 <li>
487 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
488 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
489 by the path to the ISO file :)
490 </li>
491 <li>
492 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
493 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
494 click <c>Start</c>.
495 </li>
496 <li>
497 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
498 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
499 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
500 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
501 </li>
502 <li>
503 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
504 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
505 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
506 </li>
507 </ul>
508
509
510 </body>
511 </section>
512 <section id="cpus">
513 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
514 <body>
515
516 <p>
517 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
518 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
519 need to consult the CPUs vendor website for this, although <uri
520 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
521 </p>
522
523 <p>
524 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
525 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
526 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
531 than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
532 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
533 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
534 </p>
535
536 </body>
537 </section>
538 </chapter>
539
540 <chapter>
541 <title>Package Management</title>
542 <section id="ebuilds">
543 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
544 <body>
545
546 <p>
547 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
548 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
549 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
550 releases and snapshots. The <uri
551 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
552 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
553 </p>
554
555 <p>
556 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
557 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
558 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
559 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
560 </p>
561
562 <p>
563 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
564 portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
565 install packages.
566 </p>
567
568 </body>
569 </section>
570 <section id="configure">
571 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
572 <body>
573
574 <p>
575 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
576 requires a good understanding of portage internals and commands, it is instead
577 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
578 place it in the portage overlay (thats why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
579 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
580 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
581 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
582 </p>
583
584 </body>
585 </section>
586 <section id="firewall">
587 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
588 <body>
589
590 <p>
591 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
592 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
593 files manually</uri>.
594 </p>
595
596 </body>
597 </section>
598 <section id="norsync">
599 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
600 <body>
601
602 <p>
603 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
604 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
605 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
606 document for information on downloading source files and portage snapshots via
607 a proxy.
608 </p>
609
610 </body>
611 </section>
612 <section id="manualdownload">
613 <title>
614 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
615 else and add them to my system?
616 </title>
617 <body>
618
619 <p>
620 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
621 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
622 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
623 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
624 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
625 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
626 </p>
627
628 </body>
629 </section>
630 <section id="distfiles">
631 <title>
632 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
633 delete these files?
634 </title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
639 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
640 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
641 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
642 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
643 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
644 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
645 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
646 at your own risk.
647 </p>
648
649 </body>
650 </section>
651 <section id="tmpportage">
652 <title>
653 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
654 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
655 </title>
656 <body>
657
658 <p>
659 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
660 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
661 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
662 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
663 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
664 </p>
665
666 </body>
667 </section>
668 </chapter>
669
670 <chapter>
671 <title>Usage</title>
672 <section id="intkeyboard">
673 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
674 <body>
675
676 <p>
677 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
678 either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
679 </p>
680
681 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
682 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
683 </pre>
684
685 </body>
686 </section>
687 <section id="rootdns">
688 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
689 <body>
690
691 <p>
692 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
693 follows:
694 </p>
695
696 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
697 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
698 </pre>
699
700 </body>
701 </section>
702 <section id="crontab">
703 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
704 <body>
705
706 <p>
707 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
708 </p>
709
710 </body>
711 </section>
712 <section id="numlock">
713 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
714 <body>
715
716 <p>
717 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
718 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
719 </p>
720
721 <p>
722 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
723 section or online manuals for assistance.
724 </p>
725
726 </body>
727 </section>
728 <section id="clear">
729 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
730 <body>
731
732 <p>
733 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
734 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
735 </p>
736
737 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
738 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
739 </pre>
740
741 <p>
742 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
743 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
744 </p>
745
746 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
747 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
748 </body>
749
750 </section>
751 <section id="suinx">
752 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
753 <body>
754
755 <p>
756 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
757 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
758 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
759 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
760 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
761 </p>
762
763 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
764 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
765 </pre>
766
767 </body>
768 </section>
769
770 </chapter>
771
772 <chapter>
773 <title>Maintenance</title>
774 <section id="filecorruption">
775 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix'em, etc</title>
776 <body>
777
778 <p>
779 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
780 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
781 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
782 directories due to the corruption.
783 </p>
784
785 </body>
786 </section>
787 </chapter>
788
789 <chapter>
790 <title>Development</title>
791 <section id="reportbugs">
792 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
793 <body>
794
795 <p>
796 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
797 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
798 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
799 </p>
800
801 </body>
802 </section>
803 <section id="releases">
804 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
805 <body>
806
807 <p>
808 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
809 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
810 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
811 releases are announced on the <uri
812 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
813 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
814 </p>
815
816 </body>
817 </section>
818 <section id="beeping">
819 <title>
820 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
821 </title>
822 <body>
823
824 <p>
825 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
826 </p>
827
828 <pre caption="Using setterm">
829 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
830 </pre>
831
832 <p>
833 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
834 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
835 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
836 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
837
838 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
839 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
840 </pre>
841
842 <p>
843 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
844 console beeps for.
845 </p>
846
847 </body>
848 </section>
849 </chapter>
850
851 <chapter>
852 <title>Resources</title>
853 <section id="resources">
854 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
855 <body>
856
857 <p>
858 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
859 <uri>http://docs.gentoo.org</uri>.
860 </p>
861
862 </body>
863 </section>
864 <section id="buycd">
865 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
866 <body>
867
868 <p>
869 Install CDs for all supported architecture are available on our <uri
870 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
871 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
872 please consider buying from our store if possible.
873 </p>
874
875 <p>
876 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
877 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
878 </p>
879
880 </body>
881 </section>
882 <section id="help">
883 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
884 <body>
885
886 <p>
887 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
888 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
889 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
890 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
891 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
892 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
893 </p>
894
895 </body>
896 </section>
897 </chapter>
898
899 </guide>

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