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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.95 2005/07/14 10:30:20 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.0 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.0.7</version>
48 <date>2005-07-26</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64 <ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72 </ul>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>Installation</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <ul>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 </ul>
117
118 </body>
119 </section>
120 <section>
121 <title>Package Management</title>
122 <body>
123
124 <ul>
125 <li>
126 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
127 </li>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
130 Can I?</uri>
131 </li>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
134 firewall?</uri>
135 </li>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
141 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
145 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
146 </li>
147 <li>
148 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
149 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
150 </li>
151 </ul>
152
153 </body>
154 </section>
155 <section>
156 <title>Usage</title>
157 <body>
158
159 <ul>
160 <li>
161 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
162 Layout?</uri>
163 </li>
164 <li>
165 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
166 </li>
167 <li>
168 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
169 </li>
170 <li>
171 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
172 </li>
173 <li>
174 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
175 out?</uri>
176 </li>
177 <li>
178 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
179 su'ing</uri>
180 </li>
181 </ul>
182
183 </body>
184 </section>
185 <section>
186 <title>Maintenance</title>
187 <body>
188
189 <ul>
190 <li>
191 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
192 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
193 </li>
194 </ul>
195
196 </body>
197 </section>
198 <section>
199 <title>Development</title>
200 <body>
201
202 <ul>
203 <li>
204 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
205 </li>
206 <li>
207 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
211 beeps?</uri>
212 </li>
213 </ul>
214
215 </body>
216 </section>
217 <section>
218 <title>Resources</title>
219 <body>
220
221 <ul>
222 <li>
223 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
224 Linux?</uri>
225 </li>
226 <li>
227 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
228 </li>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
231 do now?</uri>
232 </li>
233 </ul>
234
235 </body>
236 </section>
237 </chapter>
238
239 <chapter>
240 <title>Getting Started</title>
241
242 <section id="pronunciation">
243 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
244 <body>
245
246 <p>
247 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
248 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
249 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
250 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
251 </p>
252
253 </body>
254 </section>
255 <section id="differences">
256 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
257 <body>
258
259 <p>
260 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
261 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
262 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
263 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
264 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
265 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
266 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
267 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
268 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
269 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
270 </p>
271
272 <p>
273 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
274 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
275 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
276 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
277 </p>
278
279 <p>
280 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
281 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
282 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
283 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
284 </p>
285
286 </body>
287 </section>
288 </chapter>
289
290 <chapter>
291 <title>Installation</title>
292 <section id="optimizations">
293 <title>
294 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
295 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
296 </title>
297 <body>
298
299 <p>
300 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
301 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
302 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
303 do the same thing anymore.
304 </p>
305
306 <p>
307 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
308 reporting a bug.
309 </p>
310
311 </body>
312 </section>
313 <section id="password">
314 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
315 <body>
316
317 <p>
318 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
319 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
320 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
321 </p>
322
323 </body>
324 </section>
325 <section id="useradd">
326 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
327 <body>
328
329 <p>
330 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
331 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
332 him, so the following command is preferred:
333 </p>
334
335 <pre caption="Using useradd">
336 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
337 </pre>
338
339 <p>
340 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
341 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
342 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
343 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
344 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
345 </p>
346
347 </body>
348 </section>
349 <section id="su">
350 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
351 <body>
352
353 <p>
354 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
355 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
356 as root:
357 </p>
358
359 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
360 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
361 </pre>
362
363 </body>
364 </section>
365 <section id="devfs">
366 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
367 <body>
368
369 <p>
370 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
371 function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
372 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
373 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
374 udev.
375 </p>
376
377 </body>
378 </section>
379 <section id="upgrade">
380 <title>
381 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
382 </title>
383 <body>
384
385 <p>
386 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
387 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
388 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
389 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
390 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
391 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
392 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
393 </p>
394
395 </body>
396 </section>
397 <section id="bootrescue">
398 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
399 <body>
400
401 <p>
402 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
403 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
404 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
405 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
406 </p>
407
408 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
409 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
410 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
411 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
412 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
413 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
414 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
415 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
416 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
417 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
418 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
419 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
420 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
421 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
422 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
423 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
424 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
425 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
426 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
427 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
428 # <i>exit</i>
429 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
430 # <i>reboot</i>
431 </pre>
432
433 <p>
434 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
435 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
436 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
437 </p>
438
439 </body>
440 </section>
441 <section id="proxy">
442 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
447 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
448 </p>
449
450 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
451 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
452 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
453 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
454 </pre>
455
456 </body>
457 </section>
458 <section id="isoburning">
459 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
460 <body>
461
462 <p>
463 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
464 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
465 </p>
466
467 <p>
468 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
469 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
470 </p>
471
472 <ul>
473 <li>
474 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
475 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
476 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
477 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
478 </li>
479 <li>
480 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
481 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
482 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
483 your brand new CD being burnt.
484 </li>
485 <li>
486 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
487 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
488 by the path to the ISO file :)
489 </li>
490 <li>
491 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
492 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
493 click <c>Start</c>.
494 </li>
495 <li>
496 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
497 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
498 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
499 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
500 </li>
501 <li>
502 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
503 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
504 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
505 </li>
506 </ul>
507
508
509 </body>
510 </section>
511 <section id="cpus">
512 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
513 <body>
514
515 <p>
516 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
517 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
518 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
519 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
520 </p>
521
522 <p>
523 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
524 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
525 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
526 </p>
527
528 <p>
529 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
530 than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
531 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
532 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
533 </p>
534
535 </body>
536 </section>
537 </chapter>
538
539 <chapter>
540 <title>Package Management</title>
541 <section id="ebuilds">
542 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
543 <body>
544
545 <p>
546 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
547 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
548 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
549 releases and snapshots. The <uri
550 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
551 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
556 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
557 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
558 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
559 </p>
560
561 <p>
562 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
563 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
564 install packages.
565 </p>
566
567 </body>
568 </section>
569 <section id="configure">
570 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
571 <body>
572
573 <p>
574 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
575 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
576 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
577 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
578 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
579 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
580 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
581 </p>
582
583 </body>
584 </section>
585 <section id="firewall">
586 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
587 <body>
588
589 <p>
590 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
591 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
592 files manually</uri>.
593 </p>
594
595 </body>
596 </section>
597 <section id="norsync">
598 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
599 <body>
600
601 <p>
602 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
603 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
604 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
605 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
606 a proxy.
607 </p>
608
609 </body>
610 </section>
611 <section id="manualdownload">
612 <title>
613 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
614 else and add them to my system?
615 </title>
616 <body>
617
618 <p>
619 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
620 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
621 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
622 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
623 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
624 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
625 </p>
626
627 </body>
628 </section>
629 <section id="distfiles">
630 <title>
631 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
632 delete these files?
633 </title>
634 <body>
635
636 <p>
637 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
638 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
639 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
640 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
641 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
642 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
643 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
644 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
645 at your own risk.
646 </p>
647
648 </body>
649 </section>
650 <section id="tmpportage">
651 <title>
652 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
653 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
654 </title>
655 <body>
656
657 <p>
658 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
659 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
660 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
661 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
662 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
663 </p>
664
665 </body>
666 </section>
667 </chapter>
668
669 <chapter>
670 <title>Usage</title>
671 <section id="intkeyboard">
672 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
673 <body>
674
675 <p>
676 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
677 either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
678 </p>
679
680 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
681 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
682 </pre>
683
684 </body>
685 </section>
686 <section id="rootdns">
687 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
688 <body>
689
690 <p>
691 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
692 follows:
693 </p>
694
695 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
696 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
697 </pre>
698
699 </body>
700 </section>
701 <section id="crontab">
702 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
703 <body>
704
705 <p>
706 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
707 </p>
708
709 </body>
710 </section>
711 <section id="numlock">
712 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
713 <body>
714
715 <p>
716 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
717 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
718 </p>
719
720 <p>
721 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
722 section or online manuals for assistance.
723 </p>
724
725 </body>
726 </section>
727 <section id="clear">
728 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
729 <body>
730
731 <p>
732 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
733 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
734 </p>
735
736 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
737 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
738 </pre>
739
740 <p>
741 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
742 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
743 </p>
744
745 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
746 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
747 </body>
748
749 </section>
750 <section id="suinx">
751 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
752 <body>
753
754 <p>
755 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
756 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
757 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
758 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
759 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
760 </p>
761
762 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
763 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
764 </pre>
765
766 </body>
767 </section>
768
769 </chapter>
770
771 <chapter>
772 <title>Maintenance</title>
773 <section id="filecorruption">
774 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
775 <body>
776
777 <p>
778 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
779 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
780 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
781 directories due to the corruption.
782 </p>
783
784 </body>
785 </section>
786 </chapter>
787
788 <chapter>
789 <title>Development</title>
790 <section id="reportbugs">
791 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
792 <body>
793
794 <p>
795 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
796 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
797 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
798 </p>
799
800 </body>
801 </section>
802 <section id="releases">
803 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
804 <body>
805
806 <p>
807 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
808 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
809 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
810 releases are announced on the <uri
811 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
812 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
813 </p>
814
815 </body>
816 </section>
817 <section id="beeping">
818 <title>
819 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
820 </title>
821 <body>
822
823 <p>
824 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
825 </p>
826
827 <pre caption="Using setterm">
828 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
829 </pre>
830
831 <p>
832 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
833 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
834 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
835 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
836
837 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
838 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
839 </pre>
840
841 <p>
842 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
843 console beeps for.
844 </p>
845
846 </body>
847 </section>
848 </chapter>
849
850 <chapter>
851 <title>Resources</title>
852 <section id="resources">
853 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
854 <body>
855
856 <p>
857 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
858 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
859 </p>
860
861 </body>
862 </section>
863 <section id="buycd">
864 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
865 <body>
866
867 <p>
868 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
869 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
870 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
871 please consider buying from our store if possible.
872 </p>
873
874 <p>
875 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
876 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
877 </p>
878
879 </body>
880 </section>
881 <section id="help">
882 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
883 <body>
884
885 <p>
886 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
887 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
888 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
889 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
890 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
891 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
892 </p>
893
894 </body>
895 </section>
896 </chapter>
897
898 </guide>

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