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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.96 2005/07/26 14:22:01 neysx Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.0.8</version>
48 <date>2005-08-06</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64 <ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72 </ul>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>Installation</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <ul>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 </ul>
120
121 </body>
122 </section>
123 <section>
124 <title>Package Management</title>
125 <body>
126
127 <ul>
128 <li>
129 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
130 </li>
131 <li>
132 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
133 Can I?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
137 firewall?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
141 </li>
142 <li>
143 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
144 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
148 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
152 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
153 </li>
154 </ul>
155
156 </body>
157 </section>
158 <section>
159 <title>Usage</title>
160 <body>
161
162 <ul>
163 <li>
164 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
165 Layout?</uri>
166 </li>
167 <li>
168 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
169 </li>
170 <li>
171 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
172 </li>
173 <li>
174 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
175 </li>
176 <li>
177 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
178 out?</uri>
179 </li>
180 <li>
181 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
182 su'ing</uri>
183 </li>
184 </ul>
185
186 </body>
187 </section>
188 <section>
189 <title>Maintenance</title>
190 <body>
191
192 <ul>
193 <li>
194 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
195 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
196 </li>
197 </ul>
198
199 </body>
200 </section>
201 <section>
202 <title>Development</title>
203 <body>
204
205 <ul>
206 <li>
207 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
208 </li>
209 <li>
210 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
211 </li>
212 <li>
213 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
214 beeps?</uri>
215 </li>
216 </ul>
217
218 </body>
219 </section>
220 <section>
221 <title>Resources</title>
222 <body>
223
224 <ul>
225 <li>
226 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
227 Linux?</uri>
228 </li>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
231 </li>
232 <li>
233 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
234 do now?</uri>
235 </li>
236 </ul>
237
238 </body>
239 </section>
240 </chapter>
241
242 <chapter>
243 <title>Getting Started</title>
244
245 <section id="pronunciation">
246 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
247 <body>
248
249 <p>
250 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
251 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
252 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
253 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
254 </p>
255
256 </body>
257 </section>
258 <section id="differences">
259 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
260 <body>
261
262 <p>
263 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
264 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
265 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
266 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
267 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
268 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
269 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
270 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
271 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
272 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
273 </p>
274
275 <p>
276 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
277 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
278 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
279 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
280 </p>
281
282 <p>
283 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
284 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
285 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
286 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
287 </p>
288
289 </body>
290 </section>
291 </chapter>
292
293 <chapter>
294 <title>Installation</title>
295 <section id="optimizations">
296 <title>
297 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
298 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
299 </title>
300 <body>
301
302 <p>
303 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
304 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
305 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
306 do the same thing anymore.
307 </p>
308
309 <p>
310 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
311 reporting a bug.
312 </p>
313
314 </body>
315 </section>
316 <section id="password">
317 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
322 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
323 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
324 </p>
325
326 </body>
327 </section>
328 <section id="useradd">
329 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
330 <body>
331
332 <p>
333 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
334 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
335 him, so the following command is preferred:
336 </p>
337
338 <pre caption="Using useradd">
339 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
340 </pre>
341
342 <p>
343 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
344 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
345 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
346 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
347 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
348 </p>
349
350 </body>
351 </section>
352 <section id="su">
353 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
354 <body>
355
356 <p>
357 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
358 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
359 as root:
360 </p>
361
362 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
363 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
364 </pre>
365
366 </body>
367 </section>
368 <section id="devfs">
369 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
370 <body>
371
372 <p>
373 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
374 function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
375 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
376 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
377 udev.
378 </p>
379
380 </body>
381 </section>
382 <section id="upgrade">
383 <title>
384 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
385 </title>
386 <body>
387
388 <p>
389 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
390 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
391 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
392 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
393 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
394 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
395 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
396 </p>
397
398 </body>
399 </section>
400 <section id="bootrescue">
401 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
402 <body>
403
404 <p>
405 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
406 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
407 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
408 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
409 </p>
410
411 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
412 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
413 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
414 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
415 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
416 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
417 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
418 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
419 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
420 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
421 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
422 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
423 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
424 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
425 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
426 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
427 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
428 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
429 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
430 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
431 # <i>exit</i>
432 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
433 # <i>reboot</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 <p>
437 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
438 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
439 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
440 </p>
441
442 </body>
443 </section>
444 <section id="proxy">
445 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
446 <body>
447
448 <p>
449 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
450 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
451 </p>
452
453 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
454 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
455 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
456 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
457 </pre>
458
459 </body>
460 </section>
461 <section id="isoburning">
462 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
463 <body>
464
465 <p>
466 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
467 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
468 </p>
469
470 <p>
471 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
472 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
473 </p>
474
475 <ul>
476 <li>
477 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
478 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
479 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
480 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
481 </li>
482 <li>
483 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
484 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
485 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
486 your brand new CD being burnt.
487 </li>
488 <li>
489 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
490 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
491 by the path to the ISO file :)
492 </li>
493 <li>
494 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
495 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
496 click <c>Start</c>.
497 </li>
498 <li>
499 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
500 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
501 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
502 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
503 </li>
504 <li>
505 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
506 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
507 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
508 </li>
509 </ul>
510
511
512 </body>
513 </section>
514 <section id="cpus">
515 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
516 <body>
517
518 <p>
519 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
520 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
521 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
522 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
523 </p>
524
525 <p>
526 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
527 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
528 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
529 </p>
530
531 <p>
532 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
533 than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
534 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
535 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
536 </p>
537
538 </body>
539 </section>
540 <section id="dhcp">
541 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
542 <body>
543
544 <p>
545 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
546 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
547 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
548 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
549 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
550 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
551 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
552 </p>
553
554 <p>
555 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
556 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
557 </p>
558
559 <p>
560 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
561 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
562 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
563 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
564 </p>
565
566 <p>
567 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
568 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
569 </p>
570
571 </body>
572 </section>
573 </chapter>
574
575 <chapter>
576 <title>Package Management</title>
577 <section id="ebuilds">
578 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
579 <body>
580
581 <p>
582 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
583 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
584 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
585 releases and snapshots. The <uri
586 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
587 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
588 </p>
589
590 <p>
591 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
592 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
593 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
594 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
595 </p>
596
597 <p>
598 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
599 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
600 install packages.
601 </p>
602
603 </body>
604 </section>
605 <section id="configure">
606 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
607 <body>
608
609 <p>
610 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
611 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
612 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
613 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
614 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
615 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
616 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
617 </p>
618
619 </body>
620 </section>
621 <section id="firewall">
622 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
623 <body>
624
625 <p>
626 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
627 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
628 files manually</uri>.
629 </p>
630
631 </body>
632 </section>
633 <section id="norsync">
634 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
635 <body>
636
637 <p>
638 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
639 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
640 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
641 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
642 a proxy.
643 </p>
644
645 </body>
646 </section>
647 <section id="manualdownload">
648 <title>
649 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
650 else and add them to my system?
651 </title>
652 <body>
653
654 <p>
655 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
656 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
657 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
658 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
659 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
660 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
661 </p>
662
663 </body>
664 </section>
665 <section id="distfiles">
666 <title>
667 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
668 delete these files?
669 </title>
670 <body>
671
672 <p>
673 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
674 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
675 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
676 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
677 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
678 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
679 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
680 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
681 at your own risk.
682 </p>
683
684 </body>
685 </section>
686 <section id="tmpportage">
687 <title>
688 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
689 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
690 </title>
691 <body>
692
693 <p>
694 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
695 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
696 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
697 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
698 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
699 </p>
700
701 </body>
702 </section>
703 </chapter>
704
705 <chapter>
706 <title>Usage</title>
707 <section id="intkeyboard">
708 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
709 <body>
710
711 <p>
712 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
713 either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
714 </p>
715
716 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
717 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
718 </pre>
719
720 </body>
721 </section>
722 <section id="rootdns">
723 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
724 <body>
725
726 <p>
727 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
728 follows:
729 </p>
730
731 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
732 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
733 </pre>
734
735 </body>
736 </section>
737 <section id="crontab">
738 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
739 <body>
740
741 <p>
742 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
743 </p>
744
745 </body>
746 </section>
747 <section id="numlock">
748 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
749 <body>
750
751 <p>
752 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
753 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
754 </p>
755
756 <p>
757 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
758 section or online manuals for assistance.
759 </p>
760
761 </body>
762 </section>
763 <section id="clear">
764 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
765 <body>
766
767 <p>
768 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
769 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
770 </p>
771
772 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
773 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
774 </pre>
775
776 <p>
777 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
778 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
779 </p>
780
781 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
782 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
783 </body>
784
785 </section>
786 <section id="suinx">
787 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
788 <body>
789
790 <p>
791 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
792 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
793 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
794 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
795 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
796 </p>
797
798 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
799 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
800 </pre>
801
802 </body>
803 </section>
804
805 </chapter>
806
807 <chapter>
808 <title>Maintenance</title>
809 <section id="filecorruption">
810 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
811 <body>
812
813 <p>
814 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
815 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
816 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
817 directories due to the corruption.
818 </p>
819
820 </body>
821 </section>
822 </chapter>
823
824 <chapter>
825 <title>Development</title>
826 <section id="reportbugs">
827 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
828 <body>
829
830 <p>
831 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
832 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
833 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
834 </p>
835
836 </body>
837 </section>
838 <section id="releases">
839 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
840 <body>
841
842 <p>
843 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
844 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
845 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
846 releases are announced on the <uri
847 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
848 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
849 </p>
850
851 </body>
852 </section>
853 <section id="beeping">
854 <title>
855 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
856 </title>
857 <body>
858
859 <p>
860 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
861 </p>
862
863 <pre caption="Using setterm">
864 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
865 </pre>
866
867 <p>
868 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
869 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
870 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
871 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
872
873 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
874 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
875 </pre>
876
877 <p>
878 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
879 console beeps for.
880 </p>
881
882 </body>
883 </section>
884 </chapter>
885
886 <chapter>
887 <title>Resources</title>
888 <section id="resources">
889 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
890 <body>
891
892 <p>
893 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
894 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
895 </p>
896
897 </body>
898 </section>
899 <section id="buycd">
900 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
901 <body>
902
903 <p>
904 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
905 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
906 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
907 please consider buying from our store if possible.
908 </p>
909
910 <p>
911 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
912 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
913 </p>
914
915 </body>
916 </section>
917 <section id="help">
918 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
919 <body>
920
921 <p>
922 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
923 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
924 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
925 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
926 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
927 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
928 </p>
929
930 </body>
931 </section>
932 </chapter>
933
934 </guide>

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