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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.97 2005/08/06 11:43:49 swift Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.0.9</version>
48 <date>2005-09-09</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64 <ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72 </ul>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>Installation</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <ul>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123 </ul>
124
125 </body>
126 </section>
127 <section>
128 <title>Package Management</title>
129 <body>
130
131 <ul>
132 <li>
133 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
134 </li>
135 <li>
136 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
137 Can I?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
141 firewall?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
145 </li>
146 <li>
147 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
148 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
152 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
156 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
157 </li>
158 </ul>
159
160 </body>
161 </section>
162 <section>
163 <title>Usage</title>
164 <body>
165
166 <ul>
167 <li>
168 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
169 Layout?</uri>
170 </li>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
173 </li>
174 <li>
175 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
176 </li>
177 <li>
178 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
179 </li>
180 <li>
181 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
182 out?</uri>
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
186 su'ing</uri>
187 </li>
188 </ul>
189
190 </body>
191 </section>
192 <section>
193 <title>Maintenance</title>
194 <body>
195
196 <ul>
197 <li>
198 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
199 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
200 </li>
201 </ul>
202
203 </body>
204 </section>
205 <section>
206 <title>Development</title>
207 <body>
208
209 <ul>
210 <li>
211 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
212 </li>
213 <li>
214 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
215 </li>
216 <li>
217 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
218 beeps?</uri>
219 </li>
220 </ul>
221
222 </body>
223 </section>
224 <section>
225 <title>Resources</title>
226 <body>
227
228 <ul>
229 <li>
230 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
231 Linux?</uri>
232 </li>
233 <li>
234 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
235 </li>
236 <li>
237 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
238 do now?</uri>
239 </li>
240 </ul>
241
242 </body>
243 </section>
244 </chapter>
245
246 <chapter>
247 <title>Getting Started</title>
248
249 <section id="pronunciation">
250 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
251 <body>
252
253 <p>
254 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
255 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
256 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
257 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
258 </p>
259
260 </body>
261 </section>
262 <section id="differences">
263 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
264 <body>
265
266 <p>
267 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
268 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
269 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
270 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
271 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
272 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
273 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
274 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
275 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
276 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
277 </p>
278
279 <p>
280 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
281 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
282 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
283 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
284 </p>
285
286 <p>
287 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
288 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
289 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
290 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
291 </p>
292
293 </body>
294 </section>
295 </chapter>
296
297 <chapter>
298 <title>Installation</title>
299 <section id="optimizations">
300 <title>
301 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
302 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
303 </title>
304 <body>
305
306 <p>
307 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
308 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
309 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
310 do the same thing anymore.
311 </p>
312
313 <p>
314 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
315 reporting a bug.
316 </p>
317
318 </body>
319 </section>
320 <section id="password">
321 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
322 <body>
323
324 <p>
325 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
326 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
327 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
328 </p>
329
330 </body>
331 </section>
332 <section id="useradd">
333 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
334 <body>
335
336 <p>
337 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
338 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
339 him, so the following command is preferred:
340 </p>
341
342 <pre caption="Using useradd">
343 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
344 </pre>
345
346 <p>
347 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
348 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
349 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
350 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
351 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
352 </p>
353
354 </body>
355 </section>
356 <section id="su">
357 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
358 <body>
359
360 <p>
361 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
362 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
363 as root:
364 </p>
365
366 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
367 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
368 </pre>
369
370 </body>
371 </section>
372 <section id="devfs">
373 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
374 <body>
375
376 <p>
377 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
378 function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
379 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
380 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
381 udev.
382 </p>
383
384 </body>
385 </section>
386 <section id="upgrade">
387 <title>
388 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
389 </title>
390 <body>
391
392 <p>
393 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
394 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
395 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
396 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
397 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
398 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
399 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
400 </p>
401
402 </body>
403 </section>
404 <section id="bootrescue">
405 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
406 <body>
407
408 <p>
409 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
410 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
411 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
412 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
413 </p>
414
415 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
416 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
417 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
418 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
419 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
420 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
421 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
422 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
423 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
424 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
425 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
426 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
427 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
428 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
429 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
430 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
431 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
432 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
433 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
434 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
435 # <i>exit</i>
436 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
437 # <i>reboot</i>
438 </pre>
439
440 <p>
441 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
442 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
443 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
444 </p>
445
446 </body>
447 </section>
448 <section id="proxy">
449 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
450 <body>
451
452 <p>
453 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
454 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
455 </p>
456
457 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
458 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
459 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
460 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
461 </pre>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section id="isoburning">
466 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
471 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
472 </p>
473
474 <p>
475 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
476 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
477 </p>
478
479 <ul>
480 <li>
481 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
482 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
483 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
484 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
485 </li>
486 <li>
487 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
488 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
489 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
490 your brand new CD being burnt.
491 </li>
492 <li>
493 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
494 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
495 by the path to the ISO file :)
496 </li>
497 <li>
498 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
499 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
500 click <c>Start</c>.
501 </li>
502 <li>
503 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
504 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
505 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
506 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
507 </li>
508 <li>
509 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
510 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
511 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
512 </li>
513 </ul>
514
515
516 </body>
517 </section>
518 <section id="cpus">
519 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
520 <body>
521
522 <p>
523 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
524 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
525 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
526 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
527 </p>
528
529 <p>
530 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
531 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
532 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
533 </p>
534
535 <p>
536 If you are building from a Stage 1, please note that many more options exist
537 than those for which Gentoo builds binary stages. Please see the <uri
538 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
539 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
540 </p>
541
542 </body>
543 </section>
544 <section id="dhcp">
545 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
546 <body>
547
548 <p>
549 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
550 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
551 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
552 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
553 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
554 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
555 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
556 </p>
557
558 <p>
559 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
560 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
561 </p>
562
563 <p>
564 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
565 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
566 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
567 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
568 </p>
569
570 <p>
571 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
572 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
573 </p>
574
575 </body>
576 </section>
577 <section id="dualboot">
578 <title>
579 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
580 should I do?
581 </title>
582 <body>
583
584 <p>
585 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
586 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
587 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
588 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
589 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
590 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
591 </p>
592
593 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
594 title Windows XP
595 map (hd1) (hd0)
596 map (hd0) (hd1)
597 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
598 chainloader +1
599 </pre>
600
601 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
602 other=/dev/hdb1
603 label=WindowsXP
604 table=/dev/hdb
605 map-drive = 0x80
606 to = 0x81
607 map-drive = 0x81
608 to = 0x80
609 </pre>
610
611 <p>
612 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
613 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
614 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
615 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
616 you're using.
617 </p>
618
619 </body>
620 </section>
621 </chapter>
622
623 <chapter>
624 <title>Package Management</title>
625 <section id="ebuilds">
626 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
627 <body>
628
629 <p>
630 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
631 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
632 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
633 releases and snapshots. The <uri
634 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
635 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
636 </p>
637
638 <p>
639 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
640 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
641 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
642 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
643 </p>
644
645 <p>
646 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
647 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
648 install packages.
649 </p>
650
651 </body>
652 </section>
653 <section id="configure">
654 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
655 <body>
656
657 <p>
658 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
659 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
660 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
661 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
662 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
663 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
664 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
665 </p>
666
667 </body>
668 </section>
669 <section id="firewall">
670 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
671 <body>
672
673 <p>
674 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
675 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
676 files manually</uri>.
677 </p>
678
679 </body>
680 </section>
681 <section id="norsync">
682 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
683 <body>
684
685 <p>
686 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
687 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
688 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
689 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
690 a proxy.
691 </p>
692
693 </body>
694 </section>
695 <section id="manualdownload">
696 <title>
697 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
698 else and add them to my system?
699 </title>
700 <body>
701
702 <p>
703 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
704 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
705 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
706 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
707 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
708 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
709 </p>
710
711 </body>
712 </section>
713 <section id="distfiles">
714 <title>
715 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
716 delete these files?
717 </title>
718 <body>
719
720 <p>
721 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
722 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
723 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
724 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
725 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
726 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
727 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
728 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
729 at your own risk.
730 </p>
731
732 </body>
733 </section>
734 <section id="tmpportage">
735 <title>
736 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
737 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
738 </title>
739 <body>
740
741 <p>
742 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
743 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
744 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
745 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
746 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
747 </p>
748
749 </body>
750 </section>
751 </chapter>
752
753 <chapter>
754 <title>Usage</title>
755 <section id="intkeyboard">
756 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
757 <body>
758
759 <p>
760 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
761 either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
762 </p>
763
764 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
765 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
766 </pre>
767
768 </body>
769 </section>
770 <section id="rootdns">
771 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
772 <body>
773
774 <p>
775 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
776 follows:
777 </p>
778
779 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
780 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
781 </pre>
782
783 </body>
784 </section>
785 <section id="crontab">
786 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
787 <body>
788
789 <p>
790 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
791 </p>
792
793 </body>
794 </section>
795 <section id="numlock">
796 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
797 <body>
798
799 <p>
800 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
801 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
802 </p>
803
804 <p>
805 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
806 section or online manuals for assistance.
807 </p>
808
809 </body>
810 </section>
811 <section id="clear">
812 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
813 <body>
814
815 <p>
816 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
817 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
818 </p>
819
820 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
821 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
822 </pre>
823
824 <p>
825 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
826 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
827 </p>
828
829 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
830 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
831 </body>
832
833 </section>
834 <section id="suinx">
835 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
836 <body>
837
838 <p>
839 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
840 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
841 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
842 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
843 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
844 </p>
845
846 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
847 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
848 </pre>
849
850 </body>
851 </section>
852 </chapter>
853
854 <chapter>
855 <title>Maintenance</title>
856 <section id="filecorruption">
857 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
858 <body>
859
860 <p>
861 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
862 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
863 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
864 directories due to the corruption.
865 </p>
866
867 </body>
868 </section>
869 </chapter>
870
871 <chapter>
872 <title>Development</title>
873 <section id="reportbugs">
874 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
875 <body>
876
877 <p>
878 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
879 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
880 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
881 </p>
882
883 </body>
884 </section>
885 <section id="releases">
886 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
887 <body>
888
889 <p>
890 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
891 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
892 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
893 releases are announced on the <uri
894 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
895 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
896 </p>
897
898 </body>
899 </section>
900 <section id="beeping">
901 <title>
902 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
903 </title>
904 <body>
905
906 <p>
907 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
908 </p>
909
910 <pre caption="Using setterm">
911 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
912 </pre>
913
914 <p>
915 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
916 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
917 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
918 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
919
920 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
921 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
922 </pre>
923
924 <p>
925 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
926 console beeps for.
927 </p>
928
929 </body>
930 </section>
931 </chapter>
932
933 <chapter>
934 <title>Resources</title>
935 <section id="resources">
936 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
937 <body>
938
939 <p>
940 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
941 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
942 </p>
943
944 </body>
945 </section>
946 <section id="buycd">
947 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
948 <body>
949
950 <p>
951 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
952 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
953 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
954 please consider buying from our store if possible.
955 </p>
956
957 <p>
958 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
959 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
960 </p>
961
962 </body>
963 </section>
964 <section id="help">
965 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
966 <body>
967
968 <p>
969 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
970 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
971 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
972 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
973 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
974 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
975 </p>
976
977 </body>
978 </section>
979 </chapter>
980
981 </guide>

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