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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/faq.xml,v 1.98 2005/09/09 08:29:49 fox2mike Exp $ -->
3 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4
5 <guide link="/doc/en/faq.xml">
6 <title>Gentoo Linux Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7 <author title="Author">
8 <mail link="drobbins@gentoo.org">Daniel Robbins</mail>
9 </author>
10 <author title="Reviewer">
11 Colin Morey
12 </author>
13 <author title="Editor"><!-- zhen@gentoo.org -->
14 John P. Davis
15 </author>
16 <author title="Editor">
17 <mail link="stocke2@gentoo.org">Eric Stockbridge</mail>
18 </author>
19 <author title="Editor">
20 <mail link="zhware@gentoo.org">Stoyan Zhekov</mail>
21 </author>
22 <author title="Editor">
23 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
24 </author>
25 <author title="Editor">
26 <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
27 </author>
28 <author title="Editor">
29 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
30 </author>
31 <author title="Editor">
32 <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
33 </author>
34 <author title="Editor">
35 <mail link="smithj@gentoo.org">Jonathan Smith</mail>
36 </author>
37
38 <abstract>
39 This FAQ is a collection of questions and answers collected from the gentoo-dev
40 mailing list and from IRC.
41 </abstract>
42
43 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
44 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
45 <license/>
46
47 <version>3.1</version>
48 <date>2005-11-11</date>
49
50 <chapter>
51 <title>Questions:</title>
52 <section>
53 <title>Getting Started</title>
54 <body>
55
56 <p>
57 Please note that many of these questions are answered within the official
58 Gentoo documents and guides. This is simply a list of common questions. Please
59 read the documentation and/or man pages to gain a greater understanding of how
60 Gentoo and GNU/Linux works, and for answers to questions which may not be
61 answered here.
62 </p>
63
64 <ul>
65 <li>
66 <uri link="#pronunciation">How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it
67 mean?</uri>
68 </li>
69 <li>
70 <uri link="#differences">What makes Gentoo different?</uri>
71 </li>
72 </ul>
73
74 </body>
75 </section>
76 <section>
77 <title>Installation</title>
78 <body>
79
80 <ul>
81 <li>
82 <uri link="#optimizations">Things are really unstable and I'm using "-O9
83 -ffast-math -fomit-frame-pointer" optimizations. What gives?</uri>
84 </li>
85 <li>
86 <uri link="#password">How can I change the root (or any other user's)
87 password?</uri>
88 </li>
89 <li>
90 <uri link="#useradd">How do I add a normal user?</uri>
91 </li>
92 <li>
93 <uri link="#su">Why can't a user su to root?</uri>
94 </li>
95 <li>
96 <uri link="#devfs">How do I disable devfs?</uri>
97 </li>
98 <li>
99 <uri link="#upgrade">Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to
100 another without reinstalling?</uri>
101 </li>
102 <li>
103 <uri link="#bootrescue">My kernel doesn't boot (properly), what should
104 I do now?</uri>
105 </li>
106 <li>
107 <uri link="#proxy">My proxy requires authentication, what do I
108 have to do?</uri>
109 </li>
110 <li>
111 <uri link="#isoburning">How do I burn an ISO file?</uri>
112 </li>
113 <li>
114 <uri link="#cpus">What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</uri>
115 </li>
116 <li>
117 <uri link="#dhcp">I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</uri>
118 </li>
119 <li>
120 <uri link="#dualboot">I want to boot Windows from GRUB or LILO but it shows
121 only black screen. What should I do?</uri>
122 </li>
123 <li>
124 <uri link="#stage12">How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2
125 Tarball?</uri>
126 </li>
127 </ul>
128
129 </body>
130 </section>
131 <section>
132 <title>Package Management</title>
133 <body>
134
135 <ul>
136 <li>
137 <uri link="#ebuilds">In what format are the packages stored?</uri>
138 </li>
139 <li>
140 <uri link="#configure">I want to perform the ./configure step myself.
141 Can I?</uri>
142 </li>
143 <li>
144 <uri link="#firewall">How do I use emerge from behind a
145 firewall?</uri>
146 </li>
147 <li>
148 <uri link="#norsync">What if rsync doesn't work for me?</uri>
149 </li>
150 <li>
151 <uri link="#manualdownload">I have only slow modem connection at home. Can
152 I download sources somewhere else and add them to my system?</uri>
153 </li>
154 <li>
155 <uri link="#distfiles">Source tarballs are collecting in
156 /usr/portage/distfiles. Is it safe to delete these files?</uri>
157 </li>
158 <li>
159 <uri link="#tmpportage">What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to
160 delete the files and directories in /var/tmp/portage?</uri>
161 </li>
162 </ul>
163
164 </body>
165 </section>
166 <section>
167 <title>Usage</title>
168 <body>
169
170 <ul>
171 <li>
172 <uri link="#intkeyboard">How do I set up an International Keyboard
173 Layout?</uri>
174 </li>
175 <li>
176 <uri link="#rootdns">DNS name resolution works for root only.</uri>
177 </li>
178 <li>
179 <uri link="#crontab">Why can't my user use their own crontab?</uri>
180 </li>
181 <li>
182 <uri link="#numlock">How do I get numlock to start on boot?</uri>
183 </li>
184 <li>
185 <uri link="#clear">How do I have my terminal cleared when I log
186 out?</uri>
187 </li>
188 <li>
189 <uri link="#suinx">I'm not able to run X applications as root after
190 su'ing</uri>
191 </li>
192 </ul>
193
194 </body>
195 </section>
196 <section>
197 <title>Maintenance</title>
198 <body>
199
200 <ul>
201 <li>
202 <uri link="#filecorruption">ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues --
203 how to fix them, etc.</uri>
204 </li>
205 </ul>
206
207 </body>
208 </section>
209 <section>
210 <title>Development</title>
211 <body>
212
213 <ul>
214 <li>
215 <uri link="#reportbugs">Where can I report bugs?</uri>
216 </li>
217 <li>
218 <uri link="#releases">How often are new releases made?</uri>
219 </li>
220 <li>
221 <uri link="#beeping">My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console
222 beeps?</uri>
223 </li>
224 </ul>
225
226 </body>
227 </section>
228 <section>
229 <title>Resources</title>
230 <body>
231
232 <ul>
233 <li>
234 <uri link="#resources">Where can I find more information about Gentoo
235 Linux?</uri>
236 </li>
237 <li>
238 <uri link="#buycd">Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</uri>
239 </li>
240 <li>
241 <uri link="#help">This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I
242 do now?</uri>
243 </li>
244 </ul>
245
246 </body>
247 </section>
248 </chapter>
249
250 <chapter>
251 <title>Getting Started</title>
252
253 <section id="pronunciation">
254 <title>How is Gentoo pronounced, and what does it mean?</title>
255 <body>
256
257 <p>
258 A <e>Gentoo</e> is a species of a small, fast penguin, pronounced "gen-too" (the
259 "g" in "Gentoo" is a soft "g", as in "gentle"). The scientific name of the Gentoo
260 penguin is <e>Pygoscelis papua</e>. The name <e>Gentoo</e> has been given to the
261 penguin by the inhabitants of the Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas).
262 </p>
263
264 </body>
265 </section>
266 <section id="differences">
267 <title>What makes Gentoo different?</title>
268 <body>
269
270 <p>
271 Gentoo uses a BSD ports-like system called <uri
272 link="/proj/en/portage">Portage</uri>. Portage is a package management system
273 that allows great flexibility while installing and maintaining software on a
274 Gentoo system. It provides compile-time option support (through <uri
275 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=2">USE flags</uri>),
276 conditional dependencies, pre-package installation summary, safe installation
277 (through sandboxing) and uninstallation of software, system profiles, <uri
278 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=3&amp;chap=2#doc_chap3">configuration
279 file protection</uri> amongst several other <uri
280 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">features</uri>.
281 </p>
282
283 <p>
284 With Gentoo you can build your entire system from source, using your choice of
285 optimizations. You have complete control over what packages are or aren't
286 installed. Gentoo provides you with numerous choices, so you can install Gentoo
287 to your own preferences, which is why Gentoo is called a <e>meta-distribution</e>.
288 </p>
289
290 <p>
291 Gentoo is actively developed. The entire distribution uses a rapid pace
292 development style: patches to the packages are quickly integrated in the
293 mainline tree, documentation is updated on daily basis, Portage features are
294 added frequently, and official releases occur twice per year.
295 </p>
296
297 </body>
298 </section>
299 </chapter>
300
301 <chapter>
302 <title>Installation</title>
303 <section id="optimizations">
304 <title>
305 Things are really unstable and I'm using -O9 -ffast-math
306 -fomit-frame-pointer optimizations. What gives?
307 </title>
308 <body>
309
310 <p>
311 Don't bother using anything higher than <c>-O3</c> since it isn't supported by
312 current versions of gcc. Very aggressive optimizations sometimes cause the
313 compiler to streamline the assembly code to the point where it doesn't quite
314 do the same thing anymore.
315 </p>
316
317 <p>
318 Please try to compile with CFLAGS <c>-O2 -march=&lt;your_arch&gt;</c> before
319 reporting a bug.
320 </p>
321
322 </body>
323 </section>
324 <section id="password">
325 <title>How do I change the root (or any other user's) password?</title>
326 <body>
327
328 <p>
329 You can use <c>passwd</c> to change the password for the user you are logged
330 into. As root, you can change any user password by issuing the command
331 <c>passwd username</c> For extra options and setting, please <c>man passwd</c>.
332 </p>
333
334 </body>
335 </section>
336 <section id="useradd">
337 <title>How do I add a normal user?</title>
338 <body>
339
340 <p>
341 The command <c>adduser username</c> will add a user called "username". However,
342 this method does not give the user many of the rights you might want to grant
343 him, so the following command is preferred:
344 </p>
345
346 <pre caption="Using useradd">
347 # <i>useradd -m -G users,audio,wheel username</i>
348 </pre>
349
350 <p>
351 This will add a user named "username". The option <c>audio</c> adds them to the
352 <c>audio</c> group and allows the user to access sound devices. The option
353 <c>wheel</c> adds the user to the <c>wheel</c> group, which allows the user to
354 execute the command <c>su</c>, which in turn allows them to gain the
355 privileges of the <c>root</c> user.
356 </p>
357
358 </body>
359 </section>
360 <section id="su">
361 <title>Why can't a user su to root?</title>
362 <body>
363
364 <p>
365 For security reasons, users may only <c>su</c> to root if they belong to the
366 wheel group. To add a username to the wheel group, issue the following command
367 as root:
368 </p>
369
370 <pre caption="Adding a user to the wheel group">
371 # <i>gpasswd -a username wheel</i>
372 </pre>
373
374 </body>
375 </section>
376 <section id="devfs">
377 <title>How do I disable devfs?</title>
378 <body>
379
380 <p>
381 Gentoo requires either devfs kernel support or udev userland support to
382 function correctly. With the advent of the 2.6 kernel being stable on most
383 archs, udev is recommended. Please see the <uri
384 link="/doc/en/udev-guide.xml">udev guide</uri> for information on configuring
385 udev.
386 </p>
387
388 </body>
389 </section>
390 <section id="upgrade">
391 <title>
392 Can I upgrade Gentoo from one release to another without reinstalling?
393 </title>
394 <body>
395
396 <p>
397 In fact, there is no difference between the various releases after they have
398 been installed. Gentoo 1.4 and later are <c>glibc-2.3.x</c> based. As such,
399 running <c>emerge --sync &amp;&amp; emerge -uDN world</c> will bring your
400 entire system up to speed with the "latest Gentoo". The differences between
401 individual releases lie in the installation medium and pre-compiled packages.
402 See the <uri link="/doc/en/gentoo-upgrading.xml">Gentoo Upgrading Guide</uri>
403 for more information about profiles and their role in upgrading.
404 </p>
405
406 </body>
407 </section>
408 <section id="bootrescue">
409 <title>My kernel doesn't boot, what should I do now?</title>
410 <body>
411
412 <p>
413 You don't need to redo every step of the installation, but investigating the
414 kernel and all associated steps is necessary. Suppose you have installed Gentoo
415 on <path>/dev/hda1</path> (/boot) and <path>/dev/hda3</path> (/) with
416 <path>/dev/hda2</path> being the swap space:
417 </p>
418
419 <pre caption = "Reconfiguring the kernel">
420 <comment>Boot from the Install CD and wait until you receive a prompt</comment>
421 <comment>We first mount all partitions:</comment>
422 # <i>mount /dev/hda3 /mnt/gentoo</i>
423 # <i>mount /dev/hda1 /mnt/gentoo/boot</i>
424 # <i>swapon /dev/hda2</i>
425 # <i>mount -t proc none /mnt/gentoo/proc</i>
426 <comment>Then we chroot into our Gentoo environment and configure the kernel:</comment>
427 # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
428 # <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
429 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
430 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
431 <comment>Now (de)select anything you have (de)selected wrongly at your</comment>
432 <comment>previous attempt. Then quit and compile your kernel:</comment>
433 # <i>make &amp;&amp; make modules_install</i>
434 <comment>Now copy over your bzImage file, overwriting your previous one:</comment>
435 # <i>cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot</i>
436 <comment>If you use LILO, rerun lilo -- GRUB users should skip this:</comment>
437 # <i>/sbin/lilo</i>
438 <comment>Now exit the chroot and reboot.</comment>
439 # <i>exit</i>
440 # <i>umount /mnt/gentoo/proc /mnt/gentoo/boot /mnt/gentoo</i>
441 # <i>reboot</i>
442 </pre>
443
444 <p>
445 If, on the other hand, the problem lays with your bootloader configuration,
446 follow the same steps, but instead of configuring/compiling your kernel, you
447 should reconfigure your bootloader (recompilation isn't necessary).
448 </p>
449
450 </body>
451 </section>
452 <section id="proxy">
453 <title>My proxy requires authentication, what do I have to do?</title>
454 <body>
455
456 <p>
457 To have Portage automatically use this scheme, define it in
458 <path>/etc/make.conf</path>:
459 </p>
460
461 <pre caption = "/etc/make.conf">
462 HTTP_PROXY="http://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
463 FTP_PROXY="ftp://username:password@yourproxybox.org:portnumber"
464 RSYNC_PROXY="rsync://username:password@yourproxybox.server:portnumber"
465 </pre>
466
467 </body>
468 </section>
469 <section id="isoburning">
470 <title>How do I burn an ISO file?</title>
471 <body>
472
473 <p>
474 You need to burn the file in raw mode. This means that you should <e>not</e>
475 just place the file on the CD, but interpret the file as an entire CD.
476 </p>
477
478 <p>
479 There are lots of CD burning tools available; covering them all would be a
480 Sisyphean problem. However, describing a few popular tools never hurts:
481 </p>
482
483 <ul>
484 <li>
485 With EasyCD Creator you select <c>File</c>, <c>Record CD
486 from CD image</c>. Then you change the <c>Files of type</c> to <c>ISO image
487 file</c>. Then locate the ISO file and click <c>Open</c>. When you click on
488 <c>Start recording</c> the ISO image will be burned correctly onto the CD-R.
489 </li>
490 <li>
491 With Nero Burning ROM, cancel the wizard which automatically pops up and
492 select <c>Burn Image</c> from the <c>File</c> menu. Select the image you
493 want to burn and click <c>Open</c>. Now hit the <c>Burn</c> button and watch
494 your brand new CD being burnt.
495 </li>
496 <li>
497 With cdrecord, you simply type <c>cdrecord dev=/dev/hdc</c> (replace
498 <path>/dev/hdc</path> with your CD-RW drive's device path) followed
499 by the path to the ISO file :)
500 </li>
501 <li>
502 With K3B, select <c>Tools</c> &gt; <c>CD</c> &gt; <c>Burn CD Image</c>.
503 Then you can locate your ISO file within the 'Image to Burn' area. Finally
504 click <c>Start</c>.
505 </li>
506 <li>
507 With Mac OS X Panther, launch <c>Disk Utility</c> from
508 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Open</c> from the
509 <c>Images</c> menu, select the mounted disk image in the main window and
510 select <c>Burn</c> in the <c>Images</c> menu.
511 </li>
512 <li>
513 With Mac OS X Jaguar, launch <c>Disk Copy</c> from
514 <path>Applications/Utilities</path>, select <c>Burn Image</c> from the
515 <c>File</c> menu, select the ISO and click the <c>Burn</c> button.
516 </li>
517 </ul>
518
519
520 </body>
521 </section>
522 <section id="cpus">
523 <title>What CD/stage should I use for my CPU?</title>
524 <body>
525
526 <p>
527 First you need to find our what CPU you use. Suppose it's a Pentium-M. Then you
528 need to find out what CPU it is, instruction-wise, compatible with. You may
529 need to consult the CPU's vendor website for this, although <uri
530 link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri> is at least as efficient :-).
531 </p>
532
533 <p>
534 If you are uncertain, take a "lower" CD/stage file, for instance a i686 or even
535 generic x86 (or the equivalent in your arch). This will ensure that your system
536 will work, but may not be as fast as further optimizations.
537 </p>
538
539 <p>
540 Please note that many more options exist than those for which Gentoo builds
541 binary stages. Please see the <uri
542 link="http://gcc.gnu.org/onlinedocs/gcc-3.4.4/gcc/i386-and-x86_002d64-Options.html#i386-and-x86_002d64-Options">gcc
543 guide</uri> for setting <c>-march</c>.
544 </p>
545
546 </body>
547 </section>
548 <section id="dhcp">
549 <title>I can't get online after rebooting. What is wrong?</title>
550 <body>
551
552 <p>
553 First you need to check if your network card is discovered properly by the
554 kernel. Run <c>ifconfig&nbsp;-a</c> and look for eth0 or wlan0 (in case of
555 certain wireless network cards). You might need to load specific kernel modules
556 for the kernel to properly detect the network card. If that is the case, make
557 sure that these kernel modules are listed in
558 <path>/etc/modules.autoload.d/kernel-2.6</path> (or <path>kernel-2.4</path> if
559 you are still using a 2.4 kernel).
560 </p>
561
562 <p>
563 If you have forgotten to include support for your network card in your kernel,
564 you will need to reconfigure your kernel.
565 </p>
566
567 <p>
568 If your network card is found by your kernel, but you have set your networking
569 configuration to use DHCP, you might have forgotten to
570 <c>emerge&nbsp;dhcpcd</c>. You will need to reboot with your installation CD to
571 install <c>dhcpcd</c>.
572 </p>
573
574 <p>
575 Information on how to rescue your system using the installation CD is <uri
576 link="#bootrescue">available</uri> as well.
577 </p>
578
579 </body>
580 </section>
581 <section id="dualboot">
582 <title>
583 I want to boot Windows from grub or lilo but it shows only black screen. What
584 should I do?
585 </title>
586 <body>
587
588 <p>
589 This is a known problem. Windows refuses to boot when it isn't installed on the
590 first hard drive and shows a black/blank screen. To handle this, you will have
591 to "fool" Windows into believing that it is installed on the first hard drive
592 with a little tweak in your boot loader configuration. Please note that in the
593 below example, Gentoo is installed on <path>hda</path> (first disk) and Windows
594 on <path>hdb</path> (second one). Adjust your config as needed.
595 </p>
596
597 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in grub.conf">
598 title Windows XP
599 map (hd1) (hd0)
600 map (hd0) (hd1)
601 rootnoverify (hd1,0)
602 chainloader +1
603 </pre>
604
605 <pre caption="Example dual boot entry for Windows in lilo.conf">
606 other=/dev/hdb1
607 label=WindowsXP
608 table=/dev/hdb
609 map-drive = 0x80
610 to = 0x81
611 map-drive = 0x81
612 to = 0x80
613 </pre>
614
615 <p>
616 This will make Windows believe it is installed on the first hard drive and boot
617 without problems. More information can be found in the <uri
618 link="http://www.gnu.org/software/grub/manual/html_node/DOS_002fWindows.html">GRUB
619 documentation</uri> and in <c>man lilo.conf</c>, depending on the boot loader
620 you're using.
621 </p>
622
623 </body>
624 </section>
625 <section id="stage12">
626 <title>How do I Install Gentoo Using a Stage1 or Stage2 Tarball?</title>
627 <body>
628
629 <p>
630 The Gentoo Handbook only describes a Gentoo installation using a stage3 tarball.
631 However, Gentoo still provides stage1 and stage2 tarballs. This is for
632 development purposes (the Release Engineering team starts from a stage1 tarball
633 to obtain a stage3) but shouldn't be used by users: a stage3 tarball can very
634 well be used to bootstrap the system. You do need a working Internet connection.
635 </p>
636
637 <p>
638 Bootstrapping means building the toolchain (the C library and compiler) for
639 your system after which you install all core system packages. To bootstrap the
640 system, perform a stage3 installation. Before you start the chapter on
641 <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>, modify the <path>bootstrap.sh</path> script to
642 suit your needs and then run it:
643 </p>
644
645 <pre caption="Bootstrapping the system">
646 # <i>cd /usr/portage/scripts</i>
647 # <i>vi bootstrap.sh</i>
648
649 # <i>./bootstrap.sh</i>
650 </pre>
651
652 <p>
653 Next, rebuild all core system packages with the newly built toolchain. We need
654 to rebuild them since the stage3 tarball already offers them:
655 </p>
656
657 <pre caption="Rebuilding the core system packages">
658 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
659 </pre>
660
661 <p>
662 Now you can continue with <e>Configuring the Kernel</e>. You can not use the
663 prebuilt GRP packages anymore though.
664 </p>
665
666 </body>
667 </section>
668 </chapter>
669
670 <chapter>
671 <title>Package Management</title>
672 <section id="ebuilds">
673 <title>In what form are the packages stored?</title>
674 <body>
675
676 <p>
677 Packages aren't "stored" per se. Instead, Gentoo provides a set of scripts
678 which can resolve dependencies, fetch source code, and compile a version of the
679 package specifically for your needs. We generally only build binaries for
680 releases and snapshots. The <uri
681 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Gentoo Ebuild
682 HOWTO</uri> covers the contents of an ebuild script in detail.
683 </p>
684
685 <p>
686 For full ISO releases, we create a full suite of binary packages in an enhanced
687 <c>.tbz2</c> format, which is <c>.tar.bz2</c> compatible with meta-information
688 attached to the end of the file. These can be used to install a working (though
689 not fully optimized) version of the package quickly and efficiently.
690 </p>
691
692 <p>
693 It is possible to create RPMs (Redhat package manager files) using Gentoo's
694 Portage, but it is not currently possible to use already existing RPMs to
695 install packages.
696 </p>
697
698 </body>
699 </section>
700 <section id="configure">
701 <title>I want to perform the ./configure step myself. Can I?</title>
702 <body>
703
704 <p>
705 Yes, but it is not trivial, nor is it recommended. Since the method to do this
706 requires a good understanding of Portage internals and commands, it is instead
707 recommended that you patch the ebuild to do whatever it is that you want and
708 place it in the Portage overlay (that's why it exists). This is <e>much</e>
709 better for maintainability, and usually easier. See the <uri
710 link="/proj/en/devrel/handbook/handbook.xml?part=2&amp;chap=1">Ebuild
711 HOWTO</uri> for more information.
712 </p>
713
714 </body>
715 </section>
716 <section id="firewall">
717 <title>How do I use emerge from behind a firewall?</title>
718 <body>
719
720 <p>
721 See the questions on <uri link="#proxy">proxies</uri>, <uri
722 link="#norsync">rsync</uri>, and <uri link="#manualdownload">downloading source
723 files manually</uri>.
724 </p>
725
726 </body>
727 </section>
728 <section id="norsync">
729 <title>What if rsync doesn't work for me?</title>
730 <body>
731
732 <p>
733 If you're behind a firewall that doesn't permit rsync traffic, then you can use
734 <c>emerge-webrsync</c> which will fetch and install a Portage snapshot for you
735 through regular HTTP. See the <uri link="#proxy">proxy section</uri> of this
736 document for information on downloading source files and Portage snapshots via
737 a proxy.
738 </p>
739
740 </body>
741 </section>
742 <section id="manualdownload">
743 <title>
744 I have only slow modem connection at home. Can I download sources somewhere
745 else and add them to my system?
746 </title>
747 <body>
748
749 <p>
750 Definitely. You can run <c>emerge --pretend package</c> to see what programs
751 are going to be installed. To find out the sources for those packages and where
752 to download the sources from, you can run <c>emerge -fp package</c>. Download
753 sources and bring them on any media home. Put the sources into
754 <path>/usr/portage/distfiles/</path> and then simply run <c>emerge package</c>.
755 Be warned, however, that this is a tedious process.
756 </p>
757
758 </body>
759 </section>
760 <section id="distfiles">
761 <title>
762 Source tarballs are collecting in /usr/portage/distfiles/. Is it safe to
763 delete these files?
764 </title>
765 <body>
766
767 <p>
768 Deleting these files will have no negative impact on day-to-day performance.
769 However, it might be wise to keep the most recent version of the files; often
770 several ebuilds will be released for the same version of a specific piece of
771 software. If you have deleted the archive and you upgrade the software it will
772 be necessary to download them from the internet again. There are programs which
773 <uri link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-337074.html">users have
774 developed</uri> to clean out all but the most recent version of sourcefiles.
775 Note that while this seems to work, it is <e>not</e> officially maintained. Use
776 at your own risk.
777 </p>
778
779 </body>
780 </section>
781 <section id="tmpportage">
782 <title>
783 What's in /var/tmp/portage? Is it safe to delete the files and
784 directories in /var/tmp/portage?
785 </title>
786 <body>
787
788 <p>
789 During compilation, Gentoo saves the sources of the package in
790 <path>/var/tmp/portage</path>. These files and folder are usually deleted upon
791 a successful merge, but this sometimes fails. It is safe to clean out all
792 contents of this directory <e>if</e> emerge is not running. Just to be sure,
793 always <c>pgrep emerge</c> before cleaning out this directory.
794 </p>
795
796 </body>
797 </section>
798 </chapter>
799
800 <chapter>
801 <title>Usage</title>
802 <section id="intkeyboard">
803 <title>How do I set up an International Keyboard Layout?</title>
804 <body>
805
806 <p>
807 Edit the <c>KEYMAP</c> variable in <path>/etc/conf.d/keymaps</path>. Then,
808 either <c>reboot</c> or restart the keymaps script:
809 </p>
810
811 <pre caption="Restarting keymaps">
812 # <i>/etc/init.d/keymaps restart</i>
813 </pre>
814
815 </body>
816 </section>
817 <section id="rootdns">
818 <title>DNS name resolution works for root only</title>
819 <body>
820
821 <p>
822 <path>/etc/resolv.conf</path> has the wrong permissions; <c>chmod</c> it as
823 follows:
824 </p>
825
826 <pre caption="Changing permissions on /etc/resolv.conf">
827 # <i>chmod 0644 /etc/resolv.conf</i>
828 </pre>
829
830 </body>
831 </section>
832 <section id="crontab">
833 <title>Why can't my user use their own crontab?</title>
834 <body>
835
836 <p>
837 You need to add that user to the <c>cron</c> group.
838 </p>
839
840 </body>
841 </section>
842 <section id="numlock">
843 <title>How do I get numlock to start on boot?</title>
844 <body>
845
846 <p>
847 If you work in command line, you only need to <c>rc-update add
848 numlock default &amp;&amp;/etc/init.d/numlock start</c>.
849 </p>
850
851 <p>
852 Each GUI provides different tools for this sort of thing; please check the help
853 section or online manuals for assistance.
854 </p>
855
856 </body>
857 </section>
858 <section id="clear">
859 <title>How do I have my terminal cleared when I log out?</title>
860 <body>
861
862 <p>
863 To have your terminal cleared, add <c>clear</c> to your
864 <path>~/.bash_logout</path> script:
865 </p>
866
867 <pre caption = "Clearing the terminal during logout">
868 $ <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; ~/.bash_logout</i>
869 </pre>
870
871 <p>
872 If you want this to happen automatically when you add a new
873 user, do the same for the <path>/etc/skel/.bash_logout</path>:
874 </p>
875
876 <pre caption = "Making new users their terminal clear on logout">
877 # <i>echo clear &gt;&gt; /etc/skel/.bash_logout</i></pre>
878 </body>
879
880 </section>
881 <section id="suinx">
882 <title>I'm not able to run X applications as root after su'ing</title>
883 <body>
884
885 <p>
886 This issue seems only to occur when you log on graphically. <c>startx</c> users
887 don't have this behaviour. The problem is a <uri
888 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/show_bug.cgi?id=14560">bug</uri> in Gentoo's PAM,
889 the solution however is quite simple: add the following line to
890 <path>/etc/profile</path>.
891 </p>
892
893 <pre caption="Export the XAUTHORITY">
894 export XAUTHORITY="${HOME}/.Xauthority"
895 </pre>
896
897 </body>
898 </section>
899 </chapter>
900
901 <chapter>
902 <title>Maintenance</title>
903 <section id="filecorruption">
904 <title>ReiserFS and filesystem corruption issues -- how to fix them, etc</title>
905 <body>
906
907 <p>
908 If your ReiserFS partition is corrupt, try booting the Gentoo Install CD and
909 run <c>reiserfsck --rebuild-tree</c> on the corrupted filesystem. This should
910 make the filesystem consistent again, although you may have lost some files or
911 directories due to the corruption.
912 </p>
913
914 </body>
915 </section>
916 </chapter>
917
918 <chapter>
919 <title>Development</title>
920 <section id="reportbugs">
921 <title>Where can I report bugs?</title>
922 <body>
923
924 <p>
925 Use our <uri link="https://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri>. If you are unsure if
926 your problem is an actual bug, you can visit <c>#gentoo</c> on the <uri
927 link="http://www.freenode.net">FreeNode</uri> IRC network.
928 </p>
929
930 </body>
931 </section>
932 <section id="releases">
933 <title>How often are new releases made?</title>
934 <body>
935
936 <p>
937 Gentoo's packages are usually updated shortly after the main authors release
938 new code. As for when Gentoo itself makes new stage/profile/ISO releases, check
939 our <uri link="/proj/en/releng">Release Engineering Project</uri> page. New
940 releases are announced on the <uri
941 link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-announce</uri> mailing list. See the question
942 on <uri link="#upgrade">upgrading</uri> for more information.
943 </p>
944
945 </body>
946 </section>
947 <section id="beeping">
948 <title>
949 My speaker beeps like crazy. How do I disable console beeps?
950 </title>
951 <body>
952
953 <p>
954 Console beeps can be turned off using setterm, like this:
955 </p>
956
957 <pre caption="Using setterm">
958 # <i>setterm -blength 0</i>
959 </pre>
960
961 <p>
962 If you would like to turn off the console beeps on boot, you need to put this
963 command in <path>/etc/conf.d/local.start</path>. However, this only disables
964 beeps for the current terminal. To disable beeps for other terminals, pipe the
965 command output to the target terminal, like this: </p>
966
967 <pre caption="Using setterm (bis)">
968 # <i>setterm -blength 0 >/dev/vc/1</i>
969 </pre>
970
971 <p>
972 You need to replace /dev/vc/1 with the terminal you would like to disable
973 console beeps for.
974 </p>
975
976 </body>
977 </section>
978 </chapter>
979
980 <chapter>
981 <title>Resources</title>
982 <section id="resources">
983 <title>Where can I find more information about Gentoo Linux?</title>
984 <body>
985
986 <p>
987 The official Gentoo documentation can be found at
988 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/doc/en/</uri>.
989 </p>
990
991 </body>
992 </section>
993 <section id="buycd">
994 <title>Can I buy a CD of Gentoo Linux?</title>
995 <body>
996
997 <p>
998 Install CDs for all supported architectures are available on our <uri
999 link="http://www.cafepress.com/officialgentoo/">Gentoo Store</uri>. When you
1000 purchase a CD from our store, you are also supporting our development. So,
1001 please consider buying from our store if possible.
1002 </p>
1003
1004 <p>
1005 You can also find fresh CDs from various resellers listed on our <uri
1006 link="/main/en/where.xml">Get Gentoo!</uri> page.
1007 </p>
1008
1009 </body>
1010 </section>
1011 <section id="help">
1012 <title>This FAQ hasn't answered my question. What do I do now?</title>
1013 <body>
1014
1015 <p>
1016 A good first step is to browse through the relevant <uri
1017 link="/doc/en/index.xml">documentation</uri>, failing that, the various Gentoo
1018 Linux mailing lists listed on <uri link="http://www.google.com">Google</uri>.
1019 To search through the Gentoo mailing lists, just enter "lists.gentoo.org foo"
1020 to search for "foo". If all else fails, or you just want to hang out with
1021 Gentoo folks, visit us on irc: <c>#gentoo</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>.
1022 </p>
1023
1024 </body>
1025 </section>
1026 </chapter>
1027
1028 </guide>

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