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1 <?xml version='1.0' encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml,v 1.19 2006/09/06 02:14:24 vapier Exp $ -->
3
4 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5
6 <guide link="/doc/en/gcc-upgrading.xml">
7 <title>Gentoo GCC Upgrade Guide</title>
8
9 <author title="Author">
10 <mail link="amne@gentoo.org">Wernfried Haas</mail>
11 </author>
12 <author title="Author">
13 <mail link="jkt@gentoo.org">Jan Kundrát</mail>
14 </author>
15 <author title="Editor">
16 <mail link="mark@halcy0n.com">Mark Loeser</mail>
17 </author>
18
19 <abstract>
20 This document will guide the user through the process of upgrading GCC on their
21 Gentoo machines.
22 </abstract>
23
24 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
25 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
26 <license/>
27
28 <version>18</version>
29 <date>2006-09-06</date>
30
31 <chapter id="intro">
32 <title>Introduction</title>
33 <section>
34 <title>GCC Upgrading</title>
35 <body>
36
37 <p>
38 Why should you upgrade? Well, GCC is quite similar to any other package on your
39 system, just a bit more critical. You should upgrade GCC whenever a new version
40 fixes some bug that annoys you, new functionality you need is introduced, or if
41 you want to keep your system up-to-date. If none of the previous cases apply to
42 you, you can safely postpone upgrade as long as your GCC version is supported by
43 Gentoo developers.
44 </p>
45
46 <p>
47 If you install a new major version of GCC (such as 3.3.6 to 3.4.5), the system
48 will not switch over to use it automatically. You'll have to explicitly request
49 the change because the migration process might require some additional steps.
50 If you decide not to switch, Portage will continue to use older version of your
51 compiler until you change your mind, or remove the old compiler from the system.
52 Non-major gcc upgrades are switched automatically for you (such as 3.4.5 to
53 3.4.6).
54 </p>
55
56 <p>
57 This guide will document the necessary steps required to perform a seamless
58 upgrade of the compiler used by your Gentoo box. A specific section is
59 dedicated to the <uri link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4">upgrade from GCC 3.3 to 3.4 or
60 greater versions</uri> and issues with <c>libstdc++</c>. A second specific
61 section is for users <uri link="#first-install">first installing</uri> Gentoo
62 using a stage3 tarball, after a new GCC major/minor version has been released.
63 </p>
64
65 <warn>
66 It should be noted that upgrading from GCC-3.4 to GCC-4.1 or greater still
67 requires you to follow the <uri link="#upgrade-general">general upgrading
68 instructions</uri>, as GCC-3.4 and GCC-4.1 use slightly different ABIs.
69 </warn>
70
71 </body>
72 </section>
73 </chapter>
74
75 <chapter id="upgrade-general">
76 <title>General Upgrade Instructions</title>
77 <section>
78 <title>Introduction</title>
79 <body>
80
81 <impo>
82 If you're looking for instructions specific to upgrades from GCC-3.3 to GCC-3.4
83 or greater, please consult the <uri link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4">dedicated
84 section</uri>.
85 </impo>
86
87 <impo>
88 If you're looking for instructions specific to upgrades in GCC for new
89 installs, please consult the <uri link="#first-install">dedicated
90 section</uri>.
91 </impo>
92
93 <p>
94 Generally speaking, upgrades to <e>bug fix releases</e>, like from 3.3.5 to
95 3.3.6, should be quite safe -- just emerge new version, switch your system to
96 use it and rebuild the only affected package, <c>libtool</c>. However, some GCC
97 upgrades break binary compatibility; in such cases a rebuild of the affected
98 packages (or even whole toolchain and system) might be required.
99 </p>
100
101 <p>
102 When we spoke about the need to switch your compiler to the newer version by
103 hand, we said it won't happen automatically. However, there is one exception --
104 upgrades to bug fix releases, like from 3.3.5 to 3.3.6 in case you don't use the
105 "multislot" feature allowing them to coexist on one system. Multislot is
106 disabled by default as the majority of users won't benefit from it.
107 </p>
108
109 <pre caption="Upgrading GCC">
110 # <i>emerge -uav gcc</i>
111
112 <comment>(Please substitute "i686-pc-linux-gnu-4.1.1" with the GCC
113 version and CHOST settings you've upgraded to:)</comment>
114 # <i>gcc-config i686-pc-linux-gnu-4.1.1</i>
115 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
116
117 <comment>If you upgraded from gcc 3 to 4 (e.g. from 3.4.6 to 4.1.1 in this
118 example) you will have to run fix_libtool_files.sh manually</comment>
119 # <i>fix_libtool_files.sh 3.4.6</i>
120
121 <comment>(Rebuilding libtool)</comment>
122 # <i>emerge --oneshot -av libtool</i>
123 </pre>
124
125 <p>
126 To be completely safe that your system is in a sane state, you <e>must</e>
127 rebuild the toolchain and then world to make use of the new compiler.
128 </p>
129
130 <pre caption="Rebuilding system">
131 # <i>emerge -eav system</i>
132 # <i>emerge -eav world</i>
133 </pre>
134
135 <p>
136 It is safe to remove the older GCC version at this time. If you feel the need,
137 please issue the following command (as usual, substitute
138 <c>=sys-devel/gcc-3.4*</c> with the version you want to uninstall):
139 </p>
140
141 <pre caption="Removing older GCC version">
142 # <i>emerge -aC =sys-devel/gcc-3.4*</i>
143 </pre>
144
145 <impo>
146 Please note that the GCC 4.1 and newer can't compile a 2.4 kernel. Don't remove
147 your old GCC version if you want to use an older kernel.
148 </impo>
149
150 </body>
151 </section>
152 </chapter>
153
154 <chapter id="upgrade-3.3-to-3.4">
155 <title>Upgrading from GCC-3.3 to 3.4 or greater</title>
156 <section>
157 <title>Introduction</title>
158 <body>
159
160 <p>
161 The upgrade from GCC-3.3 to 3.4 or greater is not seamless as the C++ ABI
162 changed between these two versions. There is an issue with the <c>libstdc++</c>
163 library which must be taken care of, as well.
164 </p>
165
166 </body>
167 </section>
168 <section id="upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-choices">
169 <title>The Choices</title>
170 <body>
171
172 <impo>
173 If you upgrade from gcc 3.4 to 4.1, please consult the <uri
174 link="#upgrade-general">General Update instructions</uri>.
175 </impo>
176
177 <impo>
178 If you're upgrading on a SPARC machine, you will have to take the way of
179 <uri link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-emerge-e">complete system rebuild</uri> due to
180 some internal <uri link="http://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-3.4/sparc-abi.html">ABI
181 changes</uri> in GCC's parameter passing.
182 </impo>
183
184 <p>
185 If you upgrade from gcc 3.3 to 3.4, you have two possibilities on how to
186 upgrade your system. The <uri link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-revdep-rebuild">first
187 method</uri> is faster and requires use of the <c>revdep-rebuild</c> tool from
188 package <c>gentoolkit</c> while the <uri
189 link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-emerge-e">second one</uri> rebuilds the entire
190 system from scratch so it will make use of new GCC features. It's up to you to decide which of these two ways you will choose. In most cases, the first
191 method is sufficient.</p>
192 <p>If you upgrade from gcc 3.3 to 4.1, do not use the method based on
193 revdep-rebuild, but do a <uri link="#upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-emerge-e">complete
194 system rebuild</uri>.
195 </p>
196
197 </body>
198 </section>
199 <section id="upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-revdep-rebuild">
200 <title>Using revdep-rebuild</title>
201 <body>
202
203 <p>
204 This method requires that you first install <c>gentoolkit</c> if you have not
205 already done so. Then we will upgrade GCC and switch to the new compiler. We
206 will also rebuild the <c>libtool</c> package to ensure that toolchain is in
207 healthy state.
208 </p>
209
210 <pre caption="Installing gentoolkit and upgrading GCC">
211 # <i>emerge -an gentoolkit</i>
212 # <i>emerge -uav gcc</i>
213 <comment>(Please substitute "i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5" with the GCC
214 version and CHOST settings you've upgraded to:)</comment>
215 # <i>gcc-config i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5</i>
216 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
217
218 <comment>(Rebuilding libtool)</comment>
219 # <i>emerge --oneshot -av libtool</i>
220 </pre>
221
222 <p>
223 Now, we want to see which packages that revdep-rebuild will want to rebuild.
224 Then we will tell revdep-rebuild to actually rebuild the packages. This may take
225 some time, so have some patience.
226 </p>
227
228 <pre caption="Using revdep-rebuild">
229 # <i>revdep-rebuild --library libstdc++.so.5 -- -p -v</i>
230 # <i>revdep-rebuild --library libstdc++.so.5</i>
231 </pre>
232
233 <note>
234 It is possible that you might have problems with non-existing package versions
235 due to them being outdated or masked. If this is the case, you will want to use
236 the <c>--package-names</c> option to <c>revdep-rebuild</c>. This causes packages
237 to be recompiled based on the package name, rather than the exact name and
238 version.
239 </note>
240
241 <p>
242 To provide compatibility with older binary C++ applications and any packages
243 that revdep-rebuild might have missed, <c>sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</c> needs to be
244 merged before you unmerge GCC 3.3 from your system.
245 </p>
246
247 <pre caption="Installing libstdc++-v3 and cleaning up">
248 # <i>emerge --oneshot sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</i>
249 # <i>emerge -aC =sys-devel/gcc-3.3*</i>
250 </pre>
251
252 </body>
253 </section>
254 <section id="upgrade-3.3-to-3.4-emerge-e">
255 <title>Using emerge -e</title>
256 <body>
257
258 <p>
259 This method, while much slower, will rebuild your whole system to ensure that
260 everything has been rebuilt with your new compiler, and therefore safer. At
261 first, you will upgrade GCC and libtool and switch to your new compiler.
262 </p>
263
264 <pre caption="Upgrading GCC">
265 # <i>emerge -uav gcc</i>
266 <comment>(Please substitute "i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5" with the GCC
267 version and CHOST settings you've upgraded to:)</comment>
268 # <i>gcc-config i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5</i>
269 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
270
271 <comment>If you upgraded from gcc 3 to 4 (e.g. from 3.3.6 to 4.1.1 in this
272 example) you will have to run fix_libtool_files.sh manually</comment>
273 # <i>fix_libtool_files.sh 3.3.6</i>
274
275 <comment>(Rebuilding libtool)</comment>
276 # <i>emerge --oneshot -av libtool</i>
277 </pre>
278
279 <p>
280 To provide compatibility with older binary C++ applications,
281 <c>sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</c> needs to be merged onto your system.
282 </p>
283
284 <pre caption="Installing libstdc++-v3">
285 # <i>emerge --oneshot sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</i>
286 </pre>
287
288 <p>
289 Now we will go about first rebuilding the system target, then the world target.
290 This will take a very long time, depending on the number of packages that you
291 have installed, as it will rebuild your entire toolchain and supporting system
292 files, followed by every package on your system, including the toolchain. This
293 is necessary to ensure that all packages have been compiled with the new
294 toolchain, including the toolchain itself.
295 </p>
296
297 <pre caption="Rebuilding system and world">
298 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
299 # <i>emerge -e world</i>
300 </pre>
301
302 <p>
303 It is also safe to remove older GCC versions at this time:
304 </p>
305
306 <pre caption="Cleaning up">
307 # <i>emerge -aC =sys-devel/gcc-3.3*</i>
308 </pre>
309
310 </body>
311 </section>
312 </chapter>
313
314 <chapter id="first-install">
315 <title>Upgrading to GCC on a First Install</title>
316 <section>
317 <title>Introduction</title>
318 <body>
319
320 <p>
321 A GCC upgrade on a system after installation from a stage3 tarball is a simple
322 affair. One advantage users of new installations have is they do not have a
323 plethora of software installed that links against the older version of GCC.
324 The following example is for a GCC-3.3 to 3.4 or greater upgrade. Certain parts
325 will be different if upgrading from other versions of GCC. For example, the
326 library names used for <c>revdep-rebuild</c> below are GCC 3.3 specific, as
327 well as the need to install <c>libstdc++-v3</c>.
328 </p>
329
330 <p>
331 If a user has not made any customizations to their system yet, then there are
332 very few steps to get their system upgraded to a new GCC version. As with the
333 GCC-3.3 to 3.4 upgrade, the user has a couple options. However, unlike the
334 GCC-3.3 to 3.4 upgrade, this one is less complicated as there are fewer
335 differences between the methods. The <uri
336 link="#first-install-revdep-rebuild">first method</uri> is faster and makes use
337 of the <c>revdep-rebuild</c> tool from <c>gentoolkit</c>, similar to the above
338 procedure. Using revdep-rebuild causes only packages which actually link
339 against GCC libraries to be rebuilt, while the <uri
340 link="#first-install-emerge-e">second method</uri> causes your entire new
341 install to be recompiled with the new GCC version and takes much longer. This
342 second method is never required and only documented for completeness.
343 </p>
344
345 <p>
346 These first steps are common between both methods, and should be completed by
347 everyone.
348 </p>
349
350 <pre caption="Upgrading GCC">
351 # <i>emerge -uav gcc</i>
352 <comment>(Please substitute "i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5" with the GCC
353 version and CHOST settings you've upgraded to:)</comment>
354 # <i>gcc-config i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.4.5</i>
355 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
356
357 <comment>(Rebuilding libtool)</comment>
358 # <i>emerge --oneshot -av libtool</i>
359 </pre>
360
361 <p>
362 To provide compatibility with older binary C++ applications,
363 <c>sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</c> needs to be merged onto your system.
364 </p>
365
366 <pre caption="Installing libstdc++-v3">
367 # <i>emerge --oneshot sys-libs/libstdc++-v3</i>
368 </pre>
369
370 </body>
371 </section>
372
373 <section id="first-install-revdep-rebuild">
374 <title>Using revdep-rebuild</title>
375 <body>
376
377 <p>
378 This method requires that you first install <c>gentoolkit</c> if you have not
379 already done so. We will then run <c>revdep-rebuild</c> to actually scan the
380 installed packages for ones we need to rebuild, then rebuild them.
381 </p>
382
383 <pre caption="Installing gentoolkit and running revdep-rebuild">
384 # <i>emerge -an gentoolkit</i>
385 # <i>revdep-rebuild --library libstdc++.so.5 -- -p -v</i>
386 # <i>revdep-rebuild --library libstdc++.so.5</i>
387 </pre>
388
389 <note>
390 It is possible that you might have problems with non-existing package versions
391 due to them being outdated or masked. If this is the case, you will want to use
392 the <c>--package-names</c> option to <c>revdep-rebuild</c>. This causes packages
393 to be recompiled based on the package name, rather than the exact name and
394 version.
395 </note>
396
397 </body>
398 </section>
399 <section id="first-install-emerge-e">
400 <title>Using emerge -e</title>
401 <body>
402
403 <p>
404 This method, while much slower, will rebuild the system target to ensure that
405 everything has been rebuilt with your new compiler. This is not necessary, but
406 is valid if you are also making changes to CFLAGS or other make.conf variables
407 that will affect the system compile.
408 </p>
409
410 <p>
411 Since we are performing these actions after an initial installation, we do not
412 need to recompile the <c>world</c> target as we would when doing an upgrade on
413 an already installed system. However, you may choose to perform a world update
414 in place of the system update, to ensure that all packages are updated.
415 </p>
416
417 <pre caption="Rebuilding system">
418 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
419 </pre>
420
421 </body>
422 </section>
423 <section id="first-install-cleaning-up">
424 <title>Cleaning up</title>
425 <body>
426
427 <p>
428 It is also safe to remove older GCC versions at this time. Please substitute
429 <c>YOUR-NEW-GCC-VERSION</c> with the actual version you've upgraded to:
430 </p>
431
432 <pre caption="Cleaning up">
433 # <i>emerge -aC "&lt;sys-devel/gcc-YOUR-NEW-GCC-VERSION"</i>
434 </pre>
435
436 </body>
437 </section>
438 </chapter>
439
440 <chapter id="common-pitfalls">
441 <title>Common Pitfalls</title>
442 <section>
443 <body>
444
445 <p>
446 It's important to disable <c>distcc</c> during upgrade. Mixing compiler versions
447 on your nodes <e>will</e> cause build issues. This is not required for ccache,
448 as the cache objects will be invalidated anyway.
449 </p>
450
451 <p>
452 Always use same GCC version for your kernel and additional kernel modules. Once
453 you rebuild your world with new GCC, external modules (like
454 <c>app-emulation/qemu-softmmu</c>) will fail to load. Please rebuild your
455 kernel with the new GCC to fix that.
456 </p>
457
458 <p>
459 If you're upgrading on a SPARC machine, make sure to rerun <c>silo -f</c> after
460 re-emerging world to avoid possible issues.
461 </p>
462
463 </body>
464 </section>
465 <section>
466 <title>Frequent Error Messages</title>
467 <body>
468
469 <p>
470 If your system complains about something like <e>libtool: link:
471 `/usr/lib/gcc-lib/i686-pc-linux-gnu/3.3.6/libstdc++.la' is not a valid libtool
472 archive</e>, please run <c>/sbin/fix_libtool_files.sh 3.3.6</c> (substitute
473 "3.3.6" with the version numbers from the error message).
474 </p>
475
476 <p>
477 If you see <e>error: /usr/bin/gcc-config: line 632:
478 /etc/env.d/gcc/i686-pc-linux-gnu-3.3.5: No such file or directory</e>, then try
479 deleting <path>/etc/env.d/gcc/config-i686-pc-linux-gnu</path> and running
480 <c>gcc-config</c> again, followed by <c>source /etc/profile</c>. Only do this
481 if you do not have any cross-compilers set up, though.
482 </p>
483
484 <p>
485 If a package fails during <c>emerge -e system</c> or <c>emerge -e world</c>,
486 you can resume operation with <c>emerge --resume</c>. If a package fails
487 repeatedly, skip it with <c>emerge --resume --skipfirst</c>. Don't run any
488 other instances of emerge in between or you will lose the resume information.
489 </p>
490
491 <p>
492 If you get an error message <e>spec failure: unrecognized spec option</e> while
493 upgrading your compiler, try to switch back to your default compiler, unset the
494 <c>GCC_SPECS</c> variable and upgrade GCC again:
495 </p>
496
497 <pre caption="Restoring primary specs">
498 # <i>gcc-config 1</i>
499 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
500 # <i>unset GCC_SPECS</i>
501 # <i>emerge -uav gcc</i>
502 </pre>
503
504 </body>
505 </section>
506 </chapter>
507 </guide>

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