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1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
3 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-amd64-faq.xml,v 1.39 2012/03/28 23:20:12 nightmorph Exp $ -->
4
5 <guide>
6 <title>Gentoo Linux/AMD64 Frequently Asked Questions</title>
7
8 <author title="Editor">
9 <mail link="blubb@gentoo.org">Simon Stelling</mail>
10 </author>
11 <author title="Editor">
12 <mail link="metalgod@gentoo.org">Luis Medinas</mail>
13 </author>
14 <author title="Editor">
15 <mail link="gerrynjr@gentoo.org">Gerald J. Normandin Jr.</mail>
16 </author>
17 <author title="Editor">
18 <mail link="neysx@gentoo.org">Xavier Neys</mail>
19 </author>
20 <author title="Editor">
21 <mail link="nightmorph"/>
22 </author>
23
24 <abstract>
25 This is the Gentoo Linux/AMD64 Frequently Asked Questions
26 </abstract>
27
28 <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
29 <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
30 <license/>
31
32 <version>5</version>
33 <date>2013-01-13</date>
34
35 <faqindex>
36 <title>Questions</title>
37 <section>
38 <title>Introduction to Gentoo/AMD64 FAQ</title>
39 <body>
40
41 <p>
42 This document contains the most commonly asked questions about Gentoo/AMD64. We
43 intend to help and provide useful information about Gentoo/AMD64. Some of these
44 questions can be found in forums, IRC, or mailing lists. If you have
45 suggestions or questions about this FAQ, you are welcome to send an e-mail to
46 <mail>amd64@gentoo.org</mail>.
47 </p>
48
49 </body>
50 </section>
51 </faqindex>
52
53 <chapter>
54 <title>Installation</title>
55 <section id="difference">
56 <title>What's the difference between AMD64 and EM64T?</title>
57 <body>
58
59 <p>
60 Both refer to 64-bit processors from AMD (AMD64) and Intel (EM64T). AMD's 64-bit
61 processors include the Athlon 64, Turion, Neo, Phenom, and Opteron families.
62 Intel's 64-bit processors include the Core2, Core i<e>X</e>, Celeron, Xeon, and
63 Pentium (all based on the Core2 architecture). The <uri
64 link="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Em64t#Intel_64">last few versions</uri> of
65 the old Pentium 4 and Xeon chips also support EM64T.
66 </p>
67
68 <p>
69 The AMD line of 64-bit processors were released well ahead of Intel's offering.
70 Therefore, for historical reasons the arch keyword for all x86-64 compatible
71 architectures is amd64. As such, <e>AMD64</e> is a generic reference to 64-bit
72 chips, whether AMD or Intel.
73 </p>
74
75 </body>
76 </section>
77 <section id="cflags">
78 <title>What CFLAGS should I use for AMD64/EM64T?</title>
79 <body>
80
81 <p>
82 You should use simple <c>CFLAGS</c> to avoid future problems with your system.
83 Supported <c>CFLAGS</c> are <c>-O2 -march=k8 -pipe</c> for AMD systems. Intel
84 Core2-based systems (EM64T) should use <c>-O2 -march=core2 -pipe</c>. If you're
85 on an old Intel Pentium 4 that supports EM64T, then use <c>-O2 -march=nocona
86 -pipe</c>.
87 </p>
88
89 </body>
90 </section>
91 <section id="kernel">
92 <title>What kernel should I use for AMD64?</title>
93 <body>
94
95 <p>
96 You can use almost all kernel sources available in Portage. We recommend using
97 <c>gentoo-sources</c> because it is a special kernel designed for Gentoo Linux.
98 It contains lots of AMD64-specific patches and therefore is the only kernel
99 officially supported by Gentoo/AMD64.
100 </p>
101
102 <warn>
103 You should watch out for some kernel features which are not well tested, such
104 as <c>PREEMPT</c>.
105 </warn>
106
107 <p>
108 Make sure you have the <c>IA32_EMULATION</c> option activated in the kernel.
109 </p>
110
111 <pre caption="Activating IA32 Emulation in Kernel source">
112 # <i>cd /usr/src/linux</i>
113 # <i>make menuconfig</i>
114
115 Executable file formats / Emulations ---&gt;
116 [*] IA32 Emulation
117 </pre>
118
119 <warn>
120 You may experience build failures on multilib-systems if you deactivate this
121 option.
122 </warn>
123
124 </body>
125 </section>
126 <section id="perfup">
127 <title>Will I have a performance upgrade if I use a 64bit system instead of 32bit?</title>
128 <body>
129
130 <p>
131 That is a difficult question to answer. In some cases, you will experience a
132 performance improvement, in other cases you will not. For everyday use, there is
133 nearly no difference between 64bit and 32bit. 64bit is generally faster when it
134 comes to floating point computing which is normally the case in multimedia
135 applications and 3D rendering. This <uri
136 link="http://www.linux.com/articles/114024?tid=121">article</uri> (and a <uri
137 link="http://www.linux.com/feature/43873">related</uri> article) may interest
138 you. There's also a nice <uri
139 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewtopic-t-349691.html">thread</uri> in our <uri
140 link="http://forums.gentoo.org">forums</uri>.
141 </p>
142
143 </body>
144 </section>
145 <section id="multilib">
146 <title>What is multilib and how can I use it?</title>
147 <body>
148
149 <p>
150 Every AMD64 processor is able to run 32bit code as well as 64bit code.
151 However, when you have a 32bit application, you are unable to mix it with
152 64bit libraries or vice versa. You can, however, natively run 32bit
153 applications if all shared libraries it needs are available as 32bit objects.
154 You can choose whether you want multilib support or not by selecting the
155 according profile. The default is a multilib-enabled profile.
156 </p>
157
158 <warn>
159 Currently you cannot switch from a no-multilib to a multilib-enabled profile,
160 so think over your decision twice before you use the no-multilib profile.
161 </warn>
162
163 </body>
164 </section>
165 <section id="chroot32">
166 <title>How do I create a 32bit chroot?</title>
167 <body>
168
169 <p>
170 Please read the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/howtos/chroot.xml">32bit chroot
171 guide</uri>.
172 </p>
173
174 </body>
175 </section>
176 <section id="upgradex86">
177 <title>Can I upgrade from my x86 system to amd64 by doing emerge -e world?</title>
178 <body>
179
180 <p>
181 Due to several differences between an <c>x86</c> and an <c>amd64</c>
182 installation, it is impossible to upgrade. Please perform a fresh install. The
183 installation is slightly different than an x86 one, so please use the
184 <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml">AMD64 Handbook</uri>.
185 </p>
186
187 <p>
188 Also, binary files created on an x86 system most likely cannot be read by
189 packages on an amd64 system. In particular, databases such as MySQL, innoDB,
190 Berkeley DB, SQLite, OpenLDAP, etc. cannot simply be copied as-is. You will need
191 to dump the database into an architecture-independent format, such as a text
192 file, before attempting to restore it on an amd64 system.
193 </p>
194
195 </body>
196 </section>
197 <section id="reiser4">
198 <title>Can I use Reiser4?</title>
199 <body>
200
201 <p>
202 Reiser4 is not available from any kernel offered by the Gentoo Kernel project,
203 thus the AMD64 team doesn't support it. The answer is no.
204 </p>
205
206 </body>
207 </section>
208 </chapter>
209
210 <chapter>
211 <title>Hardware</title>
212 <section id="videobindrivers">
213 <title>Will my binary NVIDIA/ATI drivers work?</title>
214 <body>
215
216 <p>
217 Yes, NVIDIA and ATI provide drivers that work on AMD64. You can install them by
218 executing <c>emerge nvidia-drivers</c> or <c>emerge ati-drivers</c>. If you have
219 more questions about these drivers, you should read the <uri
220 link="/doc/en/nvidia-guide.xml">Nvidia guide</uri> or the <uri
221 link="/doc/en/ati-faq.xml">ATI FAQ</uri>.
222 </p>
223
224 </body>
225 </section>
226 <section id="coolnquiet">
227 <title>How do I use Cool'n'Quiet/PowerNow/SpeedStep features?</title>
228 <body>
229
230 <p>
231 You have to compile your kernel with support for these features. You just need
232 to enable the features below:
233 </p>
234
235 <pre caption="Kernel options for Cool'n'Quiet/PowerNow/SpeedStep">
236 Power management options ---&gt;
237 [*] Run-time PM core functionality
238 [*] ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface) Support ---&gt;
239 &lt;*&gt; Processor
240 &lt;*&gt; Thermal Zone
241 CPU Frequency scaling ---&gt;
242 [*] CPU Frequency scaling
243 Default CPUFreq governor (ondemand) ---&gt;
244 -*- 'performance' governor
245 &lt;*&gt; 'userspace' governor for userspace frequency scaling
246 -*- 'ondemand' cpufreq policy governor
247 &lt;*&gt; ACPI Processor P-States driver
248 &lt;*&gt; AMD Opteron/Athlon64 PowerNow!
249 -*- CPU idle PM support
250 </pre>
251
252 <p>
253 Then <c>emerge cpufrequtils</c> and edit <path>/etc/conf.d/cpufrequtils</path>
254 with your favorite editor.
255 </p>
256
257 <pre caption="Example of /etc/conf.d/cpufrequtils">
258 # Options when starting cpufreq (given to the 'cpufreq-set' program)
259 START_OPTS="--governor ondemand"
260
261 # Options when stopping cpufreq (given to the 'cpufreq-set' program)
262 STOP_OPTS="--governor performance"
263 </pre>
264
265 <p>
266 Now you only have to run <c>rc-update add cpufrequtils boot</c> to make sure it is
267 started every time you boot.
268 </p>
269
270 <note>
271 You may want to read the <uri
272 link="/doc/en/power-management-guide.xml#doc_chap3">Power Management Guide</uri>
273 for more tips on CPU power management.
274 </note>
275
276 </body>
277 </section>
278 </chapter>
279
280 <chapter>
281 <title>Applications</title>
282 <section id="flash">
283 <title>Can I get Adobe Flash working?</title>
284 <body>
285
286 <p>
287 Yes. Just <c>emerge adobe-flash</c>. Be sure to read any messages displayed by
288 the ebuild once it has been emerged.
289 <!-- Adobe killed 10.0 for security reasons, and 10.1 is only 32-bit -->
290 <!--
291 Adobe has provided a 64-bit Flash plugin starting with version 10.0.22.87. If
292 you don't need the 32-bit plugin, then run <c>echo "www-plugins/adobe-flash
293 -32bit" >> /etc/portage/package.use</c>. This will install only the 64-bit Flash
294 plugin.
295 -->
296 </p>
297
298 </body>
299 </section>
300 <section id="masked">
301 <title>I want to install package foo, but emerge says: (masked by: ~amd64 keyword)</title>
302 <body>
303
304 <p>
305 This means that the package is still in the 'testing' tree. Please read <c>man
306 portage</c> or the <uri
307 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml?part=3&amp;chap=3">Mixing Software
308 Branches</uri> chapter of the <uri
309 link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-amd64.xml">AMD64 Handbook</uri> for more
310 information.
311 </p>
312
313 </body>
314 </section>
315 <section id="keyword">
316 <title>I want to install package foo, but emerge says: (masked by: missing keyword)</title>
317 <body>
318
319 <p>
320 This means that the package has not been tested yet. It does <e>not
321 necessarily</e> mean that the package does not work. You can unmask it by
322 accepting another architecture for the package. The following example shows you
323 can tell Portage to accept any keyword for a given package.
324 </p>
325
326 <pre caption="Example of adding package keywords">
327 # <i>echo "category/packagename **" >> /etc/portage/package.accept_keywords</i>
328 # <i>emerge packagename</i>
329 </pre>
330
331 <p>
332 If it works fine for you, please let us know and file a bug on <uri
333 link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">Gentoo's Bugzilla</uri>, so that the AMD64 team
334 can keyword the package and other users can benefit from your test.
335 </p>
336
337 <warn>
338 Do not try commands like <c>ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86" emerge packagename</c>. It
339 will most certainly break your tree.
340 </warn>
341
342 </body>
343 </section>
344 </chapter>
345
346 <chapter>
347 <title>How can I help the Gentoo/AMD64 project?</title>
348 <section id="project">
349 <title>How can I help?</title>
350 <body>
351
352 <p>
353 With a growing popularity of the amd64 architecture, we also increasingly need
354 more help. There's still much work to be done to improve the quality of
355 Gentoo/AMD64. An average user can help us by:
356 </p>
357
358 <ul>
359 <li>Filing general bug reports</li>
360 <li>Testing software that does not yet have the <c>~amd64</c> keyword</li>
361 <li>
362 Participating in the <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/at/">Arch Testers
363 project</uri>
364 </li>
365 <li>
366 Help answering questions on the mailing lists, forums and IRC channels
367 </li>
368 <li>Sending patches</li>
369 </ul>
370
371 </body>
372 </section>
373 </chapter>
374
375 <chapter>
376 <title>Other Resources</title>
377 <section id="other">
378 <title>Where can I get more help or information about Gentoo/AMD64?</title>
379 <body>
380
381 <p>
382 If any of your questions wasn't answered here, you can try other resources
383 listed on <uri link="/proj/en/base/amd64/">our project homepage</uri>. You can
384 also ask us at <c>#gentoo-amd64</c> on <c>irc.freenode.net</c>, <uri
385 link="http://forums.gentoo.org/viewforum-f-46.html">Gentoo/AMD64 Forums</uri>,
386 or on the <c>gentoo-amd64@lists.gentoo.org</c> mailing list.
387 </p>
388
389 </body>
390 </section>
391 </chapter>
392
393 </guide>

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