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1 cam 1.4 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.10 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.9 2005/10/16 15:31:50 neysx Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6     <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13     </author>
14     <author title="Author">
15 rane 1.8 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16 neysx 1.1 </author>
17     <author title="Author">
18     <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19     </author>
20    
21     <abstract>
22     This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23     installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24     for people interested in helping out with development.
25     </abstract>
26    
27     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29     <license/>
30    
31 neysx 1.10 <version>1.8</version>
32     <date>2005-10-21</date>
33 neysx 1.1
34     <chapter>
35     <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36     <section>
37     <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42     link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43     Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44     link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45     <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46     huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47     platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48     being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49     production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50     Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51     </p>
52    
53     </body>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57     <body>
58    
59     <p>
60 cam 1.4 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61     with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62     is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63     GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 neysx 1.1 </p>
65    
66     </body>
67     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>
73     Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74     systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75     with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76     that are worth noting:
77     </p>
78    
79     <ul>
80     <li>
81     Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82     complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83     much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 cam 1.4 consistent.
85 neysx 1.1 </li>
86     <li>
87     Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88     but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90     Team</uri>.
91     </li>
92     </ul>
93    
94     <p>
95     Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96     from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97     joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98     </p>
99    
100     <ul>
101     <li>
102 cam 1.4 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 neysx 1.1 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 cam 1.4 linked against libc.
105 neysx 1.1 </li>
106     <li>
107     FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 cam 1.4 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 neysx 1.1 </li>
110     <li>
111     FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112     e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 cam 1.4 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114     possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 neysx 1.1 </li>
116     </ul>
117    
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     </chapter>
121    
122     <chapter>
123     <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124     <section>
125     <title>Installation instructions</title>
126     <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130     Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131     you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132     would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133     and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134     use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135     an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136     </p>
137    
138     <p>
139     Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140     use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141     (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142     or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143     <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144     <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145     while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147     Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152     your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156 rane 1.8 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
157 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158 rane 1.8 # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
159 neysx 1.1 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163     a stage3 tarball.
164     </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167 rane 1.8 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
168 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
169 neysx 1.10 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
170     # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
171 neysx 1.1 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
172 neysx 1.10 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
173 rane 1.3 </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 jkt 1.7 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an up-to-date
177     copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this is to to get our latest
178 rane 1.8 snapshot which you than extract to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>
179 rane 1.3 </p>
180    
181 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay">
182     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
183 jkt 1.7 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
184     # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
185 neysx 1.1 </pre>
186    
187     <p>
188 rane 1.8 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
189     the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
190     <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
191 jkt 1.7 documentation</uri>.
192     </p>
193    
194     <p>
195 neysx 1.1 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
196     filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
197     point before proceeding with the chroot.
198     </p>
199    
200     <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
201 rane 1.8 # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
202     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
203     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
204 jkt 1.7 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
205 neysx 1.1 </pre>
206    
207     <p>
208     After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
209     <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
210     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
211     </p>
212    
213     <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
214 jkt 1.7 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
215 neysx 1.1 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
216     # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
217     <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
218 cam 1.4 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
219     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
220 neysx 1.1 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
221 jkt 1.7 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
222 neysx 1.1 </pre>
223    
224     <p>
225     Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
226     on your connection might take quite a while.
227     </p>
228    
229 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
230 neysx 1.1 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
231 rane 1.8 <comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
232     # <i>cd /</i>
233     # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
234     # <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
235     # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
236 neysx 1.1 </pre>
237    
238     <p>
239     Congratulations, by the time you have reached this step you should have a
240     running Gentoo/FreeBSD system! If you want, you can now rebuild the system's
241     core packages.
242     </p>
243    
244     <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages">
245     # <i>emerge -e system</i>
246     </pre>
247    
248     <impo>
249     Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
250 fox2mike 1.2 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
251     installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
252     <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD.
253 neysx 1.1 </impo>
254    
255 fox2mike 1.2 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
256     # <i>emerge boot0</i>
257     <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
258     # <i>exit</i>
259     <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
260 rane 1.8 # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
261     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
262 fox2mike 1.2 # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
263     </pre>
264    
265     <p>
266     If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
267     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">
268     chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
269     </p>
270    
271     <p>
272     When you did <c>emerge system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
273     installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. Configuring and compiling a custom
274     kernel is really different from compiling Linux, so if you are not familiar with
275     the process we encourage you to have a look at <uri
276     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
277     chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
278     </p>
279    
280     <p>
281     Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
282     supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
283     ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
284     found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
285     and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
286     </p>
287    
288 neysx 1.1 </body>
289     </section>
290     </chapter>
291    
292     <chapter>
293     <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
294     <section>
295 cam 1.4 <title>How to help</title>
296 neysx 1.1 <body>
297    
298     <p>
299     There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
300     spare time:
301     </p>
302    
303     <ul>
304     <li>
305     We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
306 cam 1.4 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
307 neysx 1.1 </li>
308     <li>
309 jkt 1.5 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild maintainers
310     in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can be accepted
311     into the main tree.
312 neysx 1.1 </li>
313     <li>
314     Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
315     advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
316 cam 1.4 use help in this area.
317 neysx 1.1 </li>
318     <li>
319     Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
320     maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
321     and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
322 cam 1.4 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
323 neysx 1.1 </li>
324     <li>
325     Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
326     will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
327     you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
328 cam 1.4 from you.
329 neysx 1.1 </li>
330     <li>
331     Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
332     creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
333     </li>
334     </ul>
335    
336     </body>
337     </section>
338     <section>
339     <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
340     <body>
341    
342     <p>
343     Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
344     important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
345     development effort:
346     </p>
347    
348     <ul>
349     <li>
350     FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
351     Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
352     configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
353     included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
354 cam 1.4 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
355 neysx 1.1 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
356     this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
357     file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
358     not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
359 cam 1.4 stopped).
360 neysx 1.1 </li>
361     <li>
362     Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
363     won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
364     The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
365     for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
366     problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
367     generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
368     or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
369     is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
370     following procedures helps:
371     <ul>
372     <li>
373     If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
374     <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
375     </li>
376     <li>
377     If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
378     system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
379     <c>$WORKDIR</c>
380     </li>
381     </ul>
382     </li>
383     <li>
384     In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
385     are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
386     found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
387     usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
388     <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
389     <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
390     </li>
391     </ul>
392    
393     </body>
394     </section>
395     <section>
396     <title>Known issues</title>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>
400     At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
401     really worth noting:
402     </p>
403    
404     <ul>
405     <li>
406     Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
407     now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
408     that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
409 cam 1.4 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
410 neysx 1.1 </li>
411     <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
412     </ul>
413    
414     </body>
415     </section>
416     </chapter>
417    
418     <chapter>
419     <title>Contact</title>
420     <section>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424 cam 1.4 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
425 neysx 1.1 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
426     Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
427 jkt 1.6 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
428     list</uri>.
429 neysx 1.1 </p>
430    
431     </body>
432     </section>
433     </chapter>
434     </guide>

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