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#114574, another update from citizen428

1 cam 1.4 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 jkt 1.11 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.10 2005/10/21 10:45:18 neysx Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6     <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13     </author>
14     <author title="Author">
15 rane 1.8 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16 neysx 1.1 </author>
17     <author title="Author">
18     <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19     </author>
20    
21     <abstract>
22     This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23     installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24     for people interested in helping out with development.
25     </abstract>
26    
27     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29     <license/>
30    
31 jkt 1.11 <version>1.9</version>
32     <date>2005-12-06</date>
33 neysx 1.1
34     <chapter>
35     <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36     <section>
37     <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42     link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43     Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44     link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45     <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46     huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47     platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48     being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49     production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50     Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51     </p>
52    
53     </body>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57     <body>
58    
59     <p>
60 cam 1.4 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61     with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62     is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63     GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 neysx 1.1 </p>
65    
66     </body>
67     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>
73     Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74     systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75     with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76     that are worth noting:
77     </p>
78    
79     <ul>
80     <li>
81     Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82     complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83     much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 cam 1.4 consistent.
85 neysx 1.1 </li>
86     <li>
87     Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88     but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90     Team</uri>.
91     </li>
92     </ul>
93    
94     <p>
95     Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96     from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97     joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98     </p>
99    
100     <ul>
101     <li>
102 cam 1.4 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 neysx 1.1 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 cam 1.4 linked against libc.
105 neysx 1.1 </li>
106     <li>
107     FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 cam 1.4 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 neysx 1.1 </li>
110     <li>
111     FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112     e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 cam 1.4 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114     possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 neysx 1.1 </li>
116     </ul>
117    
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     </chapter>
121    
122     <chapter>
123     <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124     <section>
125     <title>Installation instructions</title>
126     <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130     Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131     you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132     would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133     and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134     use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135     an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136     </p>
137    
138     <p>
139     Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140     use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141     (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142     or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143     <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144     <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145     while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147     Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152     your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156 rane 1.8 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
157 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158 rane 1.8 # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
159 neysx 1.1 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163     a stage3 tarball.
164     </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167 rane 1.8 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
168 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
169 neysx 1.10 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
170     # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
171 neysx 1.1 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
172 neysx 1.10 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
173 rane 1.3 </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 jkt 1.7 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an up-to-date
177     copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this is to to get our latest
178 jkt 1.11 snapshot which you then extract to <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>
179 rane 1.3 </p>
180    
181 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay">
182     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
183 jkt 1.7 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
184     # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
185 jkt 1.11 <comment>(You now can safely delete the snapshot with the following command.)</comment>
186     # <i>rm portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
187 neysx 1.1 </pre>
188    
189     <p>
190 rane 1.8 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
191     the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
192     <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
193 jkt 1.7 documentation</uri>.
194     </p>
195    
196     <p>
197 neysx 1.1 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
198     filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
199     point before proceeding with the chroot.
200     </p>
201    
202     <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
203 rane 1.8 # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
204     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
205     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
206 jkt 1.7 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
207 neysx 1.1 </pre>
208    
209     <p>
210     After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
211     <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
212     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
213     </p>
214    
215     <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
216 jkt 1.7 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
217 neysx 1.1 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
218     # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
219     <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
220 cam 1.4 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
221     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
222 neysx 1.1 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
223 jkt 1.7 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
224 neysx 1.1 </pre>
225    
226     <p>
227 jkt 1.11 In order to boot correctly, you will need to create the <path>/proc</path> directory.
228     </p>
229    
230     <pre caption="Creating the /proc directory">
231     # <i>mkdir /proc</i>
232     </pre>
233    
234     <p>
235 neysx 1.1 Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
236     on your connection might take quite a while.
237     </p>
238    
239 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
240 neysx 1.1 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
241 rane 1.8 <comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
242     # <i>cd /</i>
243     # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
244     # <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
245     # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
246 neysx 1.1 </pre>
247    
248     <p>
249 jkt 1.11 If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages.
250 neysx 1.1 </p>
251    
252 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (Optional)">
253 neysx 1.1 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
254     </pre>
255    
256 jkt 1.11 <p>
257     When you did <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
258     installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get
259     them in the following way:
260     </p>
261    
262     <pre caption="Geting the FreeBSD kernel sources">
263     # <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i>
264     </pre>
265    
266     <p>
267     Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is really different from compiling Linux,
268     so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a look at
269     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
270     chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
271     </p>
272    
273     <p>
274     Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
275     supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
276     ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
277     found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
278     and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
279     </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     Now is the time to do some basic system configuration and settings. First, we are
283     going to setup the filesystem mounting points in <path>/etc/fstab</path>
284     </p>
285    
286     <pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab">
287     # <i>ee /etc/fstab</i>
288     <comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
289     #Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
290     /dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
291     /dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
292     /dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
293     /dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
294     /dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
295     </pre>
296    
297     <p>
298     Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final
299     reboot.
300     </p>
301    
302     <pre caption="Setting up your network">
303     # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/net</i>
304     <comment>(This is just an example which you have to adjust for your network.)</comment>
305     ifconfig_rl0=("192.168.0.10 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255")
306     routes_rl0=("-net 0.0.0.0 -host 192.168.0.1")
307     </pre>
308    
309     <p>
310     To change your hostname you have to edit <path>/etc/hostname</path>.
311     </p>
312    
313     <pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname">
314     # <i>echo "YOUR_HOSTNAME_HERE" > /etc/hostname</i>
315     </pre>
316    
317     <p>
318     In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to set the
319     correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example uses the Spanish
320     layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to use another one.
321     </p>
322    
323     <pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
324     # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
325     KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
326     <comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
327     </pre>
328    
329 neysx 1.1 <impo>
330     Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
331 fox2mike 1.2 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
332     installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
333 jkt 1.11 <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD. In this case
334     please don't forget to use your other operating systems to <c>boot0</c>'s
335     configuration.
336 neysx 1.1 </impo>
337    
338 fox2mike 1.2 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
339     # <i>emerge boot0</i>
340     <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
341     # <i>exit</i>
342     <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
343 rane 1.8 # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
344     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
345 fox2mike 1.2 # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
346     </pre>
347    
348     <p>
349     If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
350     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">
351     chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
352     </p>
353    
354     <p>
355 jkt 1.11 Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add
356     another user account for your day-to-day work.
357 fox2mike 1.2 </p>
358    
359 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user">
360     # <i>passwd</i>
361     <comment>(If you need help in adding a user please consult the FreeBSD handbook).</comment>
362     # <i>adduser</i>
363     </pre>
364    
365 fox2mike 1.2 <p>
366 jkt 1.11 Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which you
367     can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun!
368 fox2mike 1.2 </p>
369    
370 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Rebooting the system">
371     # <i>exit</i>
372     # <i>reboot</i>
373     </pre>
374    
375 neysx 1.1 </body>
376     </section>
377     </chapter>
378    
379     <chapter>
380     <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
381     <section>
382 cam 1.4 <title>How to help</title>
383 neysx 1.1 <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
387     spare time:
388     </p>
389    
390     <ul>
391     <li>
392     We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
393 cam 1.4 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
394 neysx 1.1 </li>
395     <li>
396 jkt 1.5 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild maintainers
397     in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can be accepted
398     into the main tree.
399 neysx 1.1 </li>
400     <li>
401     Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
402     advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
403 cam 1.4 use help in this area.
404 neysx 1.1 </li>
405     <li>
406     Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
407     maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
408     and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
409 cam 1.4 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
410 neysx 1.1 </li>
411     <li>
412     Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
413     will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
414     you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
415 cam 1.4 from you.
416 neysx 1.1 </li>
417     <li>
418     Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
419     creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
420     </li>
421     </ul>
422    
423     </body>
424     </section>
425     <section>
426     <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
427     <body>
428    
429     <p>
430     Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
431     important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
432     development effort:
433     </p>
434    
435     <ul>
436     <li>
437     FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
438     Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
439     configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
440     included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
441 cam 1.4 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
442 neysx 1.1 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
443     this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
444     file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
445     not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
446 cam 1.4 stopped).
447 neysx 1.1 </li>
448     <li>
449     Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
450     won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
451     The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
452     for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
453     problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
454     generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
455     or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
456     is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
457     following procedures helps:
458     <ul>
459     <li>
460     If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
461     <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
462     </li>
463     <li>
464     If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
465     system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
466     <c>$WORKDIR</c>
467     </li>
468     </ul>
469     </li>
470     <li>
471     In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
472     are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
473     found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
474     usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
475     <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
476     <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
477     </li>
478     </ul>
479    
480     </body>
481     </section>
482     <section>
483     <title>Known issues</title>
484     <body>
485    
486     <p>
487     At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
488     really worth noting:
489     </p>
490    
491     <ul>
492     <li>
493     Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
494     now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
495     that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
496 cam 1.4 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
497 neysx 1.1 </li>
498     <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
499     </ul>
500    
501     </body>
502     </section>
503     </chapter>
504    
505     <chapter>
506     <title>Contact</title>
507     <section>
508     <body>
509    
510     <p>
511 cam 1.4 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
512 neysx 1.1 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
513     Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
514 jkt 1.6 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
515     list</uri>.
516 neysx 1.1 </p>
517    
518     </body>
519     </section>
520     </chapter>
521     </guide>

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