/[gentoo]/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml
Gentoo

Contents of /xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml

Parent Directory Parent Directory | Revision Log Revision Log


Revision 1.13 - (hide annotations) (download) (as text)
Tue Jan 10 21:15:20 2006 UTC (8 years, 9 months ago) by vanquirius
Branch: MAIN
Changes since 1.12: +12 -4 lines
File MIME type: application/xml
Add network adapter to runlevel. Fixes bug 118573. Thanks to Michael Kohl <citizen428 at gentoo dot org>.

1 cam 1.4 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 vanquirius 1.13 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.12 2005/12/20 19:12:53 cam Exp $ -->
3 neysx 1.1 <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4    
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6     <title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7    
8     <author title="Author">
9     <mail link="ignacio.arquelatour@gmail.com">Ignacio Arque-Latour</mail>
10     </author>
11     <author title="Author">
12     <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13     </author>
14     <author title="Author">
15 rane 1.8 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16 neysx 1.1 </author>
17     <author title="Author">
18     <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19     </author>
20    
21     <abstract>
22     This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23     installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24     for people interested in helping out with development.
25     </abstract>
26    
27     <!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28     <!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29     <license/>
30    
31 vanquirius 1.13 <version>2.0</version>
32     <date>2006-01-10</date>
33 neysx 1.1
34     <chapter>
35     <title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36     <section>
37     <title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
38     <body>
39    
40     <p>
41     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42     link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43     Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44     link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45     <uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46     huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86
47     platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus
48     being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current
49     production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the
50     Gentoo/FreeBSD project.
51     </p>
52    
53     </body>
54     </section>
55     <section>
56     <title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57     <body>
58    
59     <p>
60 cam 1.4 Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system
61     with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project
62     is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or
63     GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools.
64 neysx 1.1 </p>
65    
66     </body>
67     </section>
68     <section>
69     <title>FreeBSD and Linux</title>
70     <body>
71    
72     <p>
73     Users migrating from Linux to FreeBSD commonly consider the two operating
74     systems "almost the same". In fact, FreeBSD really shares a lot of similarities
75     with Linux distributions in general. Nevertheless, it has some key differences
76     that are worth noting:
77     </p>
78    
79     <ul>
80     <li>
81     Contrary to Linux, which actually only refers to the kernel, FreeBSD is a
82     complete operating system, consisting of a C library, userland tools and
83     much more. This development approach makes the overall system very
84 cam 1.4 consistent.
85 neysx 1.1 </li>
86     <li>
87     Contrary to the Linux kernel, FreeBSD development is not led by one person,
88     but instead managed by a small group of people called the <uri
89     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/articles/contributors/staff-core.html">Core
90     Team</uri>.
91     </li>
92     </ul>
93    
94     <p>
95     Besides, FreeBSD also has some technical differences which set it apart
96     from Linux. Some of them are very important to know, even if you don't plan on
97     joining the Gentoo/FreeBSD development effort:
98     </p>
99    
100     <ul>
101     <li>
102 cam 1.4 To get run-time dynamic linking functions like <c>dlopen()</c>, programs do
103 neysx 1.1 not need to be linked against libdl like on GNU/Linux. Instead they are
104 cam 1.4 linked against libc.
105 neysx 1.1 </li>
106     <li>
107     FreeBSD doesn't have an official tool for kernel compilation, thus you'll
108 cam 1.4 have to resolve feature dependencies on your own.
109 neysx 1.1 </li>
110     <li>
111     FreeBSD uses UFS/UFS-2 as its filesystems and has no official support for
112     e.g. ReiserFS or XFS. However, there are projects for adding read-only
113 cam 1.4 support for these filesystems. Accessing ext2/ext3 partitions is already
114     possible, but you cannot install your system on them.
115 neysx 1.1 </li>
116     </ul>
117    
118     </body>
119     </section>
120     </chapter>
121    
122     <chapter>
123     <title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124     <section>
125     <title>Installation instructions</title>
126     <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130     Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131     you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132     would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133     and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also
134     use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135     an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136     </p>
137    
138     <p>
139     Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for
140     use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
141     (available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
142     or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and
143     <c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before,
144     <c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties
145     while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146     <uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147     Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148     </p>
149    
150     <p>
151     Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
152     your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
153     </p>
154    
155     <pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
156 rane 1.8 # <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
157 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158 rane 1.8 # <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
159 neysx 1.1 </pre>
160    
161     <p>
162     Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack
163     a stage3 tarball.
164     </p>
165    
166     <pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
167 rane 1.8 # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
168 neysx 1.1 <comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
169 neysx 1.10 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
170     # <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
171 neysx 1.1 <comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
172 neysx 1.10 # <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20051020.tar.bz2</i>
173 rane 1.3 </pre>
174    
175     <p>
176 cam 1.12 Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an
177     up-to-date copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this
178     is to to get our latest snapshot which you then extract to
179     <path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>.
180 rane 1.3 </p>
181    
182 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay">
183     # <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i>
184 jkt 1.7 # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
185     # <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
186 jkt 1.11 <comment>(You now can safely delete the snapshot with the following command.)</comment>
187     # <i>rm portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
188 neysx 1.1 </pre>
189    
190     <p>
191 rane 1.8 Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
192     the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
193     <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/overlay.xml">Gentoo/ALT overlay
194 jkt 1.7 documentation</uri>.
195     </p>
196    
197     <p>
198 neysx 1.1 In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
199     filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
200     point before proceeding with the chroot.
201     </p>
202    
203     <pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
204 rane 1.8 # <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
205     # <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
206     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
207 jkt 1.7 # <i>source /etc/profile</i>
208 neysx 1.1 </pre>
209    
210     <p>
211     After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
212     <path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your
213     <path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
214     </p>
215    
216     <pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
217 jkt 1.7 # <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
218 neysx 1.1 <comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
219     # <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
220     <comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
221 cam 1.4 CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
222     ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
223 neysx 1.1 FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
224 jkt 1.7 PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
225 neysx 1.1 </pre>
226    
227     <p>
228 cam 1.12 In order to boot correctly, you will need to create the <path>/proc</path>
229     directory.
230 jkt 1.11 </p>
231    
232     <pre caption="Creating the /proc directory">
233     # <i>mkdir /proc</i>
234     </pre>
235    
236     <p>
237 neysx 1.1 Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
238     on your connection might take quite a while.
239     </p>
240    
241 rane 1.8 <pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
242 neysx 1.1 # <i>emerge --sync</i>
243 rane 1.8 <comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
244     # <i>cd /</i>
245     # <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
246     # <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
247     # <i>emerge --metadata</i>
248 neysx 1.1 </pre>
249    
250     <p>
251 jkt 1.11 If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages.
252 neysx 1.1 </p>
253    
254 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (Optional)">
255 neysx 1.1 # <i>emerge -e system</i>
256     </pre>
257    
258 jkt 1.11 <p>
259 cam 1.12 When you did <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got
260     installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get
261 jkt 1.11 them in the following way:
262     </p>
263    
264     <pre caption="Geting the FreeBSD kernel sources">
265     # <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i>
266     </pre>
267    
268     <p>
269 cam 1.12 Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is really different from compiling
270     Linux, so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a
271     look at <uri
272     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
273 jkt 1.11 chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
274     </p>
275    
276     <p>
277 cam 1.12 Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
278 jkt 1.11 supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably
279     ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be
280     found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration
281     and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>
282     </p>
283    
284     <p>
285 cam 1.12 Now is the time to do some basic system configuration and settings. First, we
286     are going to setup the filesystem mounting points in <path>/etc/fstab</path>.
287 jkt 1.11 </p>
288    
289     <pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab">
290     # <i>ee /etc/fstab</i>
291     <comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
292     #Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
293     /dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
294     /dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
295     /dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
296     /dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
297     /dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
298     </pre>
299    
300     <p>
301     Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final
302     reboot.
303     </p>
304    
305     <pre caption="Setting up your network">
306     # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/net</i>
307     <comment>(This is just an example which you have to adjust for your network.)</comment>
308     ifconfig_rl0=("192.168.0.10 netmask 255.255.255.0 broadcast 192.168.0.255")
309     routes_rl0=("-net 0.0.0.0 -host 192.168.0.1")
310     </pre>
311    
312     <p>
313 vanquirius 1.13 To have your network interface activated at boot time, you have to add it to the default runlevel.
314     </p>
315    
316     <pre caption="Adding your network adapter to the default runlevel">
317     # <i>rc-update add net.rl0 default</i>
318     </pre>
319    
320     <p>
321     Your system's hostname can be changed in <path>/etc/hostname</path>.
322 jkt 1.11 </p>
323    
324     <pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname">
325     # <i>echo "YOUR_HOSTNAME_HERE" > /etc/hostname</i>
326     </pre>
327    
328     <p>
329 cam 1.12 In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to
330     set the correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example
331     uses the Spanish layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to
332     use another one.
333 jkt 1.11 </p>
334    
335     <pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
336     # <i>ee /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
337     KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
338     <comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
339     </pre>
340    
341 neysx 1.1 <impo>
342     Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the
343 fox2mike 1.2 configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly
344 cam 1.12 installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use
345 jkt 1.11 <c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD. In this case
346 cam 1.12 please don't forget to use your other operating systems to <c>boot0</c>'s
347 jkt 1.11 configuration.
348 neysx 1.1 </impo>
349    
350 fox2mike 1.2 <pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
351     # <i>emerge boot0</i>
352     <comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
353     # <i>exit</i>
354     <comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
355 rane 1.8 # <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
356     # <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
357 fox2mike 1.2 # <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
358     </pre>
359    
360     <p>
361 cam 1.12 If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
362     <uri
363     link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">chapter
364     12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
365 fox2mike 1.2 </p>
366    
367     <p>
368 cam 1.12 Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add
369 jkt 1.11 another user account for your day-to-day work.
370 fox2mike 1.2 </p>
371    
372 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user">
373     # <i>passwd</i>
374     <comment>(If you need help in adding a user please consult the FreeBSD handbook).</comment>
375     # <i>adduser</i>
376     </pre>
377    
378 fox2mike 1.2 <p>
379 cam 1.12 Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which
380     you can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun!
381 fox2mike 1.2 </p>
382    
383 jkt 1.11 <pre caption="Rebooting the system">
384     # <i>exit</i>
385     # <i>reboot</i>
386     </pre>
387    
388 neysx 1.1 </body>
389     </section>
390     </chapter>
391    
392     <chapter>
393     <title>Developing for Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
394     <section>
395 cam 1.4 <title>How to help</title>
396 neysx 1.1 <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     There are many things you could help with, depending on your skill level and
400     spare time:
401     </p>
402    
403     <ul>
404     <li>
405     We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
406 cam 1.4 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
407 neysx 1.1 </li>
408     <li>
409 cam 1.12 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild
410     maintainers in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can
411     be accepted into the main tree.
412 neysx 1.1 </li>
413     <li>
414     Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
415     advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
416 cam 1.4 use help in this area.
417 neysx 1.1 </li>
418     <li>
419     Contacts: we need people who can get in touch with FreeBSD developers to
420     maintain contacts between us and the original project to exchange patches
421     and discuss various problems and their solutions. Note that this should
422 cam 1.4 never involve any kind of spamming of mailing lists or IRC channels.
423 neysx 1.1 </li>
424     <li>
425     Testing: the more people are actively using Gentoo/FreeBSD, the more bugs
426     will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
427     you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
428 cam 1.4 from you.
429 neysx 1.1 </li>
430     <li>
431     Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout,
432     creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
433     </li>
434     </ul>
435    
436     </body>
437     </section>
438     <section>
439     <title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
440     <body>
441    
442     <p>
443     Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
444     important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
445     development effort:
446     </p>
447    
448     <ul>
449     <li>
450     FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
451     Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
452     configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
453     included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
454 cam 1.4 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
455 neysx 1.1 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
456     this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
457     file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
458     not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
459 cam 1.4 stopped).
460 neysx 1.1 </li>
461     <li>
462     Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
463     won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
464     The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
465     for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
466     problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
467     generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
468     or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
469     is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
470     following procedures helps:
471     <ul>
472     <li>
473     If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
474     <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
475     </li>
476     <li>
477     If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
478     system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
479     <c>$WORKDIR</c>
480     </li>
481     </ul>
482     </li>
483     <li>
484     In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
485     are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
486     found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
487     usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
488     <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
489     <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
490     </li>
491     </ul>
492    
493     </body>
494     </section>
495     <section>
496     <title>Known issues</title>
497     <body>
498    
499     <p>
500     At the moment, there are still quite a lot of known issues. Here are the ones
501     really worth noting:
502     </p>
503    
504     <ul>
505     <li>
506     Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
507     now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
508     that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please
509 cam 1.4 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission.
510 neysx 1.1 </li>
511     <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
512     </ul>
513    
514     </body>
515     </section>
516     </chapter>
517    
518     <chapter>
519     <title>Contact</title>
520     <section>
521     <body>
522    
523     <p>
524 cam 1.4 A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
525 neysx 1.1 link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
526     Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
527 jkt 1.6 Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
528     list</uri>.
529 neysx 1.1 </p>
530    
531     </body>
532     </section>
533     </chapter>
534     </guide>

  ViewVC Help
Powered by ViewVC 1.1.20