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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.17 2006/05/03 01:01:04 rane Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.24 2007/04/04 14:22:45 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6<title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title> 6<title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7 7
15 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail> 15 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16</author> 16</author>
17<author title="Author"> 17<author title="Author">
18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail> 18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19</author> 19</author>
20<author title="Author">
21 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
22</author>
23<author title="Contributor">
24 <mail link="flameeyes@gentoo.org">Diego Pettenò</mail>
25</author>
26<author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
28</author>
20 29
21<abstract> 30<abstract>
22This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as 31This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference 32installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
24for people interested in helping out with development. 33for people interested in helping out with development.
26 35
27<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 36<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 37<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29<license/> 38<license/>
30 39
31<version>2.4</version> 40<version>2.7</version>
32<date>2006-05-03</date> 41<date>2007-01-02</date>
33 42
34<chapter> 43<chapter>
35<title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title> 44<title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36<section> 45<section>
37<title>What is FreeBSD?</title> 46<title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
41<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri 50<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>) 51link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri 52Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born: 53link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45<uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a 54<uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46huge number of architectures, and FreeBSD which supports the x86, amd64, ia64, 55huge number of architectures, and FreeBSD which supports the x86, amd64, ia64,
47sparc64 and alpha platforms.FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance 56sparc64 and alpha platforms. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance
48and security, thus being used from small to huge companies all over the world. 57and security, thus being used from small to huge companies all over the world.
49FreeBSD's current production release version is 6.0, which is also used as the 58</p>
50foundation for the Gentoo/FreeBSD project. The previous 5.x branch is being 59
51continued by the FreeBSD project as a service release, but is no more worked on by 60<p>
52the Gentoo/FreeBSD developers. 61FreeBSD's current production release is version 6.1, although the release of 6.2
62is very near at the time of writing (Release Candidate 2 was released recently).
63Gentoo/FreeBSD development is ongoing on this latter version, while older
64versions are discontinued and no longer supported.
53</p> 65</p>
54 66
55</body> 67</body>
56</section> 68</section>
57<section> 69<section>
58<title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title> 70<title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
59<body> 71<body>
60 72
61<p> 73<p>
62<uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">Gentoo/FreeBSD</uri> is a subproject of the 74<uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">Gentoo/FreeBSD</uri> is a subproject
63<uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/">Gentoo/Alt project</uri>, with the goal of providing 75of the <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/">Gentoo/Alt project</uri>, with the
64a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system featuring the design sensibilities known from 76goal of providing a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system featuring design
65Gentoo Linux, like the init system and the portage package management system. 77sensibilities taken from Gentoo Linux, such as the init system and the Portage
78package management system.
66</p> 79</p>
67 80
68</body> 81</body>
69</section> 82</section>
70<section> 83<section>
122</chapter> 135</chapter>
123 136
124<chapter> 137<chapter>
125<title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title> 138<title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
126<section> 139<section>
127<title>Installation instructions</title> 140<title>Booting the CD</title>
128<body> 141<body>
129 142
130<p> 143<p>
131After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install 144After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
132Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so 145Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
133you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first 146you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
134would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive 147would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
135and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also 148and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. This guide will describe how
136use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as 149to use the <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
137an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD. 150an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
138</p> 151</p>
139 152
140<note> 153<note>
141If you are intending to use FreeSBIE for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD, please make 154If you are intending to use FreeSBIE for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD, please make
142sure to use a version based on FreeBSD 6.0! Experimental versions can be downloaded 155sure to use a version based on FreeBSD 6.x, such as FreeSBIE 2.0 (or one of its
156release candidates). You can download it from <uri
143from <uri link="http://torrent.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE's Bittorrent tracker</uri> and 157link="http://torrent.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE's Bittorrent tracker</uri>.
144version 20060118 has been tested to work for the purposes described in this document.
145</note> 158</note>
146 159
160<p>
161First, boot the CD in order to begin the installation process. You'll be
162presented with a login screen. The username is <c>freesbie</c>, and there is
163no password. Next, run <c>sudo su</c> to become root, and optionally setup a
164password. If you want to pass time during the installation process, you can run
165<c>startx</c> to enter into an Xfce environment, suitable for web browsing,
166AIM, and other things. Unlike Linux, FreeBSD bases the name of your interface
167on the driver for the interface. For example, the Intel EtherExpress driver
168(fxp) appears as fxp0 (driver fxp, first network card). To see what your
169interface is, use <c>ifconfig</c>:
170</p>
171
172<pre caption="Finding out the network interface name using ifconfig">
173# <i>ifconfig</i>
174fxp0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
175 options=8&lt;VLAN_MTU&gt;
176 inet6 fe80::2d0::b7ff:febc:4fe3%fxp0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
177 inet 192.168.0.106 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
178 ether 00:d0:b7:bc:4f:e3
179 media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX &lt;full-duplex&gt;)
180 status: active
181lo0: flags=8007&lt;LOOPBACK,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
182</pre>
183
184<p>
185If the original DHCP request during the CD bootup failed, you can use the
186<c>dhclient</c> command to obtain an IP:
187</p>
188
189<pre caption="Obtaining a DHCP address using dhclient">
190# <i>dhclient fxp0</i>
191DHCPDISCOVER on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 9
192DHCPOFFER from 192.168.0.1
193DHCPREQUEST on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
194DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
195bound to 192.168.0.106 -- renewal in 302400 seconds
196</pre>
197
147<note> 198<note>
148We use <c>ee</c> as a default editor in this guide but you can choose 199The output presented here will differ based on your network.
149<c>vim</c>, <c>nano</c> or any other editor you like to configure your system.
150</note> 200</note>
151 201
152<p> 202<p>
153Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for 203Next, create the chroot for your installation:
154use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c>
155(available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE)
156or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and <c>newfs</c>.
157If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before, <c>sysinstall</c> may be the
158better option for you. In that case make sure that you don't use the sysinstall
159launched by FreeBSD's or FreeSBIE's installers, but use the following command instead:
160</p>
161
162<pre caption="Partitioning with sysinstall">
163# <i>sysinstall diskPartitionEditor diskPartitionWrite diskLabelEditor diskLabelCommit</i>
164</pre>
165
166<p> 204</p>
167If you face difficulties
168while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
169<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
170Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
171</p>
172 205
173<p> 206<pre caption="Making the chroot directory">
174Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for
175your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions.
176</p>
177
178<pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions">
179# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i> 207# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
180<comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
181# <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gentoo</i>
182</pre> 208</pre>
183 209
184<p> 210<note>
185If you're using the FreeSBIE LiveCD and you already had an UFS partition on 211There is a bug in the <uri
186your hard disk, it has already been mounted read-only to <path>/mnt/ufs.1</path>. 212link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~flameeyes/minimal-freesbie-drizzt.iso.bz2">
187If you want to use that location for your installation, you'll have to remount it 213minimal Freesbie CD</uri> that prevents the creation of the
188in read-write mode: 214<path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mount point. To avoid this, use <path>/mnt</path>
215instead of <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> in the following sections.
216</note>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>Partitioning the Drive</title>
222<body>
223
189</p> 224<p>
190 225Now that we have a mount point, it's time to partition the drive. This is done
191<pre caption="Remounting a partition in read-write mode"> 226with the <c>sysinstall</c> command:
192# <i>mount -u -o rw /mnt/ufs.1</i>
193</pre>
194
195<p> 227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Running the sysinstall command to fdisk the drive">
230# <i>sysinstall diskPartitionEditor diskPartitionWrite</i>
231</pre>
232
233<p>
234We recommend that you use the default layout. Press enter at the dialog, then
235press <b>a</b> followed by <b>q</b> to accept the default layout. The next
236screen will present you with the option of a bootloader. For this option,
237choose "None" as we'll be installing the bootloader later on. Next comes the
238actual partition sizing and mount points.
239</p>
240
241<p>
242This next step also uses <c>sysinstall</c>, but with different arguments:
243</p>
244
245<pre caption="Running sysinstall to setup partition sizing and mount points">
246# <i>sysinstall diskLabelEditor diskLabelCommit</i>
247</pre>
248
249<p>
250Here, we'll refrain from using the automatic layout, and create one giant root
251partition, followed by a swap partition. Hit <b>c</b> to create a new
252partition. A dialog prompts you to enter a size. Go ahead and do so, using
253MB/GB for setting different sizes, or C for cylinders. For root, choose FS as
254the partition type, and set the mount point as <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. <e>If
255you do not adjust the mount point, it will overwrite the FreeSBIE
256environment!</e> As <path>/boot</path> is not a separate partition, you'll
257need to disable soft-updates, or your system will not boot! To do so, use the
258arrow keys to navigate to your newly created partition, then hit the <b>s</b>
259key, until "Newfs" contains no <b>+S</b>. Now navigate the arrow keys until
260the "Disk" line is highlighted, and hit <b>c</b> again to create a swap
261partition. Generally, we recommend a swap space that is twice the size of your
262RAM. Choose SWAP as the partition type, and don't worry about soft-updates, as
263it does not apply to swap. Now we're finished, so hit <b>q</b> to finish the
264process.
265</p>
266
267<p>
268When choosing a different mountpoint than <path>/</path> for your partition,
269<c>sysinstall</c> will actually create a 'd' slice, which the bootloader won't
270boot from. To fix this, run the following:
271</p>
272
273<pre caption="Fixing the root partition letter">
274# <i>disklabel ad0s1 | sed 's/^ d:/ a:/g' | disklabel -w ad0s1</i>
275</pre>
276
277<p>
278This will finalize the partitioning process, and format the drive in UFS for
279FreeBSD to utilize. This will also mount the drive for you at the mount point
280specified earlier (<path>/mnt/gentoo</path>). You can verify this worked by
281running <c>mount</c>:
282</p>
283
284<pre caption="Verifying the new disk layout was mounted with mount">
285# <i>mount</i>
286...
287/dev/ad0s1a on /mnt/gentoo (ufs, local)
288</pre>
289
290<p>
196Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack 291Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to start on the Gentoo
197a stage3 tarball. 292setup.
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Gentoo Setup</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302First, we need to download a stage3 tarball and unpack it into the chroot.
303Point your browser to
304<uri>http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/</uri>, grab the
305latest snapshot, and unpack it into the mountpoint:
198</p> 306</p>
199 307
200<pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball"> 308<pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
201# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i> 309# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
202<comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment> 310<comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
203# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/gentoo-freebsd-6.0-stage-20060221.tar.bz2</i> 311# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
204# <i>tar -jxvpf gentoo-freebsd-6.0-stage-20060221</i> 312# <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
205<comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment> 313<comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
206# <i>rm gentoo-freebsd-6.0-stage-20060221</i> 314# <i>rm stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
207</pre>
208
209<p>
210Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain an
211up-to-date copy of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. The easiest way to achieve this
212is to to get our latest snapshot which you then extract to
213<path>/mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</path>.
214</p> 315</pre>
215 316
216<pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD Portage overlay"> 317<note>
217# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/usr/local/portage</i> 318If you want you can use the transition overlay that contains semi-experimental
218# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/snapshots/portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i> 319ebuilds with patches not yet in the main Portage tree, but does allow a wider
219# <i>tar -xjf portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i> 320range of supported packages, please refer to the <uri
220<comment>(You now can safely delete the snapshot with the following command.)</comment>
221# <i>rm portage-alt-overlay-latest.tar.bz2</i>
222</pre>
223
224<p>
225Alternatively, you can also use Subversion to check out the current version of
226the overlay. If you are interested in this possibility, please refer to the
227<uri
228link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/contribute/index.xml?part=1&amp;chap=3">Gentoo/ALT 321link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/contribute/index.xml?part=1&amp;chap=3">Gentoo/ALT
229overlay documentation</uri>. 322overlay documentation</uri>. Please note that the overlay is not critical and
230</p> 323you can easily install and use Gentoo/FreeBSD without it.
324</note>
231 325
232<p> 326<p>
233In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path> 327In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
234filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount 328filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
235point before proceeding with the chroot. 329point before proceeding with the chroot.
237 331
238<pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting"> 332<pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
239# <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i> 333# <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
240# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i> 334# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
241# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i> 335# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
242# <i>source /etc/profile</i> 336# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
243</pre> 337</pre>
244 338
245<p> 339<p>
246After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link 340After you obtain the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
247<path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your 341<path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and get your
248<path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD. 342<path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
249</p> 343</p>
250 344
251<p> 345<p>
252Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending 346Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
261# <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i> 355# <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
262# <i>emerge --metadata</i> 356# <i>emerge --metadata</i>
263</pre> 357</pre>
264 358
265<pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf"> 359<pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
266# <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/6.0/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i> 360# <i>ln -sf /usr/portage/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/6.2/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
267<comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
268# <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i> 361# <i>nano /etc/make.conf</i>
269<comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment> 362<comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
270CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd6.0" 363CHOST="i486-gentoo-freebsd6.2"
271ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd"
272FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect" 364FEATURES="collision-protect"
273PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/portage-alt-overlay"
274</pre> 365</pre>
275 366
276<note> 367<note>
277You can have a very limited system by using ~x86-fbsd keyword alone; you might 368The <c>~x86-fbsd</c> keyword does not yet fully cover the same tree as
278want to put ~x86 in your ACCEPT_KEYWORDS if you want access to more packages 369<c>~x86</c>, but please <e>do not</e> put <c>~x86</c> in ACCEPT_KEYWORDS. Rather
279but you might find broken dependencies and non-working packages; please rather 370use <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> to test packages, and report
280use package.keywords when testing packages and report working ones on <uri 371working packages on <uri
281link="http://bugs.gentoo.org">Bugzilla</uri> for the product Gentoo/Alt. 372link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/enter_bug.cgi?product=Gentoo%2FAlt">Bugzilla</uri>.
282</note> 373</note>
283 374
284<p> 375<p>
285In order to boot correctly, you will need to create the <path>/proc</path>
286directory.
287</p>
288
289<pre caption="Creating the /proc directory">
290# <i>mkdir /proc</i>
291</pre>
292
293<p>
294If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages. 376If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages.
295</p> 377</p>
296 378
297<pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (Optional)"> 379<pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (optional)">
298# <i>emerge -e system</i> 380# <i>emerge -e system</i>
299</pre> 381</pre>
300 382
383</body>
384</section>
385</chapter>
386<chapter>
387<title>Setting up for Booting</title>
388<section>
389<title>Kernel Installation</title>
390<body>
391
301<p> 392<p>
302When you did <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got 393If you ran <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel were
303installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get 394installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get
304them in the following way: 395them in the following way:
305</p> 396</p>
306 397
307<pre caption="Geting the FreeBSD kernel sources"> 398<pre caption="Getting the FreeBSD kernel sources">
308# <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i> 399# <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i>
309</pre> 400</pre>
310 401
311<p> 402<p>
312Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is really different from compiling 403Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is quite different from compiling
313Linux, so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a 404Linux, so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a
314look at <uri 405look at <uri
315link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html"> 406link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
316chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. 407chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. For now, you can do an installation of
317</p> 408the GENERIC kernel, which works on most systems. To begin, enter the source
318 409directory for the kernel:
319<p> 410</p>
411
412<impo>
320Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is 413Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
321supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably 414supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD!
322ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be 415</impo>
323found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration 416
324and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path>. 417<pre caption="Entering the kernel source directory">
418# <i>cd /usr/src/sys/</i>
419</pre>
420
325</p> 421<p>
326 422Looking over the layout, you'll see various architectures and subdirectories
423for various parts of the kernel. To begin the installation, we head into the
424<path>i386/conf/</path> directory:
327<p> 425</p>
328Now is the time to do some basic system configuration and settings. First, we 426
329are going to setup the filesystem mounting points in <path>/etc/fstab</path>. 427<pre caption="The kernel configuration directory">
428# <i>cd i386/conf/</i>
429# <i>ls</i>
430.cvsignore GENERIC Makefile PAE
431DEFAULTS GENERIC.hints NOTES SMP
432</pre>
433
330</p> 434<p>
331 435The main files to note are <path>GENERIC</path> and <path>GENERIC.hints</path>.
332<pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab"> 436As it will be needed by the installation of the kernel, go ahead and copy
333# <i>ee /etc/fstab</i> 437<path>GENERIC.hints</path> file to <path>/boot/device.hints</path>:
334<comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
335#Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
336/dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
337/dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
338/dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
339/dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
340/dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
341</pre>
342
343<p> 438</p>
344Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final 439
345reboot. 440<pre caption="Copying over the GENERIC.hints file">
441# <i>cp GENERIC.hints /boot/device.hints</i>
442</pre>
443
346</p> 444<p>
347 445This file is used by the kernel drivers for basic configuration information
446such as IRQ settings. Now it's time to configure the kernel. FreeBSD uses the
447<c>config</c> command to do this. <c>config</c> uses the given file (in this
448instance GENERIC) to copy over the required build files to a
449<path>compile</path> directory in the parent directory. <path>GENERIC</path> is
450similiar to the <path>.config</path> file for the Linux kernel. Run
451<c>config</c> to produce the build directory:
348<p> 452</p>
349You can find all the information necessary to configure your network in the 453
350<uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=4&amp;chap=1">Gentoo 454<pre caption="Configuring the kernel build">
351Handbook</uri>. 455# <i>config GENERIC</i>
456Kernel build directory is ../compile/GENERIC
457Don't forget to ''make cleandepend; make depend''
458</pre>
459
352</p> 460<p>
353 461<c>config</c> has created a GENERIC build directory for us in the parent
462directory. <c>cd</c> into it, then run the following to do a complete build:
354<p> 463</p>
355To have your network interface activated at boot time, you have to add it to 464
356the default runlevel. 465<pre caption="Building and installing the kernel">
466# <i>cd ../compile/GENERIC</i>
467# <i>make cleandepend &amp;&amp; make depend &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
468</pre>
469
357</p> 470<p>
358 471This will give us a complete kernel to work with. Now we'll need to setup the
359<pre caption="Adding your network adapter to the default runlevel"> 472bootloader for the kernel to boot. The next chapter will discuss two methods of
360# <i>rc-update add net.rl0 default</i> 473setting up the bootloader: <c>boot0</c> and <c>grub</c>.
361</pre>
362
363<p> 474</p>
364Your system's hostname can be changed in <path>/etc/conf.dhostname</path>.
365</p>
366 475
367<pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname"> 476</body>
368# <i>ee /etc/conf.d/hostname</i> 477</section>
369<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment> 478<section>
370HOSTNAME="tux" 479<title>Setting up the bootloader (boot0)</title>
371</pre> 480<body>
372
373<p>
374You should also configure your domain name, which is done in the
375<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
376</p>
377
378<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
379# <i>ee /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
380<comment>(Set the DNSDOMAIN variable to your domain name)</comment>
381DNSDOMAIN="homenetwork"
382</pre>
383
384<p>
385If you have a NIS domain, you need to define it in the
386<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
387</p>
388
389<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
390# <i>ee /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
391<comment>(Set the NISDOMAIN variable to your NIS domain name)</comment>
392NISDOMAIN="my-nisdomain"
393</pre>
394
395<p>
396In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to
397set the correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example
398uses the Spanish layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to
399use another one.
400</p>
401
402<pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
403# <i>ee /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
404KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
405<comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
406</pre>
407 481
408<impo> 482<impo>
409Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the 483<c>boot0</c> is the FreeBSD bootloader. Previously, it was the only supported
410configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly 484bootloader until <c>grub</c> was introduced into ports with UFS slice support.
411installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use 485To install and configure <c>boot0</c>, run the following. Remember to replace
412<c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD. In this case 486<c>adXsY</c> with the actual number and slice of your disk.
413please don't forget to use your other operating systems to <c>boot0</c>'s
414configuration.
415</impo> 487</impo>
416 488
417<pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0"> 489<pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
418# <i>emerge boot0</i> 490# <i>emerge boot0</i>
419<comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment> 491<comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
426 498
427<p> 499<p>
428If you need additional information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult 500If you need additional information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
429<uri 501<uri
430link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">chapter 502link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">chapter
43112</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. 50312</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. Now it's time to do some basic system
504configuration and settings.
505</p>
506
432</p> 507<p>
508The next section will look at using the alternative bootloader, <c>grub</c>.
509</p>
510
511</body>
512</section>
513<section>
514<title>Setting up the bootloader (grub)</title>
515<body>
516
517<p>
518As of grub 0.97-r1, UFS slices are readable to <c>grub</c>. This lets us use
519<c>grub</c> as a bootloader, the prefered method for those coming from a Linux
520background. To begin, emerge <c>grub</c> and setup the label as bootable.
521Remember to replace <c>adXsY</c> with the actual number and slice of your disk.
522</p>
523
524<pre caption="Emerge grub">
525# <i>emerge grub</i>
526# <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
527</pre>
528
529<p>
530Now run <c>grub</c> to bring up the command prompt, and set up the partition as
531shown:
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Setting up grub">
535<comment>(This is done to prevent disk error 29)</comment>
536# <i>sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16</i>
537# <i>grub</i>
538<comment>(Example using ad0s1d)</comment>
539grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0,d)</i>
540 Filesystem type is ufs2, partition type 0xa5
541
542grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i>
543 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
544 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
545 Checking if "/boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5" exists... yes
546 Running "embed /boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 14 sectors are embedded.
547succeeded
548 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,d)/boot/grub/stage
5492 /boot/grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
550Done.
551
552grub&gt; quit
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556When you first boot, you may not receive a grub menu. If so, run this at the
557prompt:
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Booting the kernel with no menu">
561grub&gt; <i>find /boot/grub/stage1</i>
562<comment>(The output here is what you'll use in the next command)</comment>
563 (hd0,0,d)
564
565grub&gt; <i>kernel (hd0,0,d)/boot/loader</i>
566 [FreeBSD-a.out, loadaddr=0x200000, text=0x1000, data=0x3a000, bss=0x0, entry=0x200000]
567
568grub&gt; <i>boot</i>
569</pre>
570
571<note>
572For more information on configuring grub, please refer to the <uri
573link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=10#doc_chap2">Gentoo
574Linux Handbook</uri>.
575</note>
576
577</body>
578</section>
579<section>
580<title>System configuration</title>
581<body>
582
583<p>
584First, we are going to setup the filesystem mounting points in
585<path>/etc/fstab</path>.
586</p>
587
588<pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab">
589# <i>nano /etc/fstab</i>
590<comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
591#Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
592/dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
593/dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
594/dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
595/dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
596/dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
597</pre>
598
599<p>
600Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final
601reboot. You can find all the information necessary to configure your network in
602the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=4&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
603Handbook</uri>. To have your network interface activated at boot time, you have
604to add it to the default runlevel:
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Adding your network adapter to the default runlevel">
608# <i>rc-update add net.fxp0 default</i>
609</pre>
610
611<p>
612Your system's hostname can be changed in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path>.
613</p>
614
615<pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname">
616# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
617<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
618HOSTNAME="tux"
619</pre>
620
621<p>
622You should also configure your domain name, which is done in the
623<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
624</p>
625
626<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
627# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
628<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name, and lo to your local
629network interface)</comment>
630dns_domain_lo="homenetwork"
631</pre>
632
633<p>
634If you have a NIS domain, you need to define it in the
635<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
639# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
640<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name, and lo to your local network interface)</comment>
641nis_domain_lo="my-nisdomain"
642</pre>
643
644<note>
645For more information on domainnames and networking, please refer to the <uri
646link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2">Gentoo
647Linux Handbook</uri>, and please read the documentation in
648<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
649</note>
650
651<p>
652In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to
653set the correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example
654uses the Spanish layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to
655use another one.
656</p>
657
658<pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
659# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
660KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
661<comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
662</pre>
433 663
434<p> 664<p>
435Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add 665Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add
436another user account for your day-to-day work. 666another user account for your day-to-day work.
437</p> 667</p>
438 668
439<pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user"> 669<pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user">
440# <i>passwd</i> 670# <i>passwd</i>
441<comment>(If you need help in adding a user please consult the FreeBSD handbook).</comment>
442# <i>adduser</i> 671# <i>adduser</i>
672Username: <i>fred</i>
673Full Name: <i>Fred Smith</i>
674<comment>(Accepting the default here, just hit Enter.)</comment>
675Uid (Leave empty for default):
676<comment>(OK to accept the default here as well; hit Enter.)</comment>
677Login group [fred]:
678<comment>(Enter your groups here, space separated. They must exist.)</comment>
679Login group is fred. Invite fred into other groups? []: wheel portage
680<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter)</comment>
681Login class [default]:
682<comment>(Somewhat of a personal preference. Make sure the shell exists in /etc/shells)</comment>
683Shell (sh bash tcsh csh esh ksh zsh sash nologin) [sh] <i>bash</i>
684<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter for all these)</comment>
685User password-based authentication [yes]
686Use an empty password (yes/no) [no]:
687Use a random password? (yes/no) [no]:
688Enter password: <i>password goes here</i>
689Enter password again: <i>retype it</i>
690<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter)</comment>
691Lock out the account after creation? [no]:
692Username : fred
693Password : *****
694Full Name : Fred Smith
695<comment>(This will vary)</comment>
696Uid : 1002
697Class :
698Groups : fred wheel portage
699Home : /home/fred
700Shell : /bin/bash
701Locked : no
702<comment>(Confirm the information is correct)</comment>
703OK? (yes/no): <i>yes</i>
704adduser: INFO: Sucessfully added (fred) to the user database
705Add another user? (yes/no): <i>no</i>
706Goodbye!
707#
443</pre> 708</pre>
444 709
445<p> 710<p>
446Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which 711Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which
447you can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun! 712you can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun!
489 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If 754 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
490 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear 755 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
491 from you. 756 from you.
492 </li> 757 </li>
493 <li> 758 <li>
494 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout, 759 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, creation of
495 creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking. 760 installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
496 </li> 761 </li>
497</ul> 762</ul>
498 763
499</body> 764</body>
500</section> 765</section>
510 775
511<ul> 776<ul>
512 <li> 777 <li>
513 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right 778 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
514 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report 779 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
515 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please 780 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla</uri>. Please
516 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission. 781 remember to use the "Gentoo/Alt" product for your submission.
517 </li>
518 <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
519 <li>
520 The init system currently provided by Gentoo/FreeBSD's baselayout package is
521 not the same version used by Gentoo Linux and lacks some of its features. Work
522 on making newer versions working is underway.
523 </li> 782 </li>
524</ul> 783</ul>
525 784
526</body> 785</body>
527</section> 786</section>

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