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1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> 1<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.4 2005/09/11 16:27:55 cam Exp $ --> 2<!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml,v 1.24 2007/04/04 14:22:45 nightmorph Exp $ -->
3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd"> 3<!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
4 4
5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml"> 5<guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-freebsd.xml">
6<title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title> 6<title>A short guide to Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
7 7
10</author> 10</author>
11<author title="Author"> 11<author title="Author">
12 <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail> 12 <mail link="citizen428@gentoo.org">Michael Kohl</mail>
13</author> 13</author>
14<author title="Author"> 14<author title="Author">
15 Otavio R. Piske 15 <mail link="angusyoung@gentoo.org">Otavio R. Piske</mail>
16</author> 16</author>
17<author title="Author"> 17<author title="Author">
18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail> 18 <mail link="ka0ttic@gentoo.org">Aaron Walker</mail>
19</author>
20<author title="Author">
21 <mail link="chriswhite@gentoo.org">Chris White</mail>
22</author>
23<author title="Contributor">
24 <mail link="flameeyes@gentoo.org">Diego Pettenò</mail>
25</author>
26<author title="Editor">
27 <mail link="nightmorph@gentoo.org">Joshua Saddler</mail>
19</author> 28</author>
20 29
21<abstract> 30<abstract>
22This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as 31This document gives some general information on FreeBSD, as well as
23installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference 32installation instructions for Gentoo/FreeBSD. It also includes some reference
26 35
27<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license --> 36<!-- The content of this document is licensed under the CC-BY-SA license -->
28<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 --> 37<!-- See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/2.5 -->
29<license/> 38<license/>
30 39
31<version>1.2</version> 40<version>2.7</version>
32<date>2005-09-10</date> 41<date>2007-01-02</date>
33 42
34<chapter> 43<chapter>
35<title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title> 44<title>Introduction to FreeBSD</title>
36<section> 45<section>
37<title>What is FreeBSD?</title> 46<title>What is FreeBSD?</title>
41<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri 50<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/">FreeBSD</uri> is a free (<uri
42link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>) 51link="http://www.freebsd.org/copyright/freebsd-license.html">license</uri>)
43Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri 52Unix-like operating system. Back in 1993 when development of <uri
44link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born: 53link="http://www.386bsd.org/">386BSD</uri> stopped, two projects were born:
45<uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a 54<uri link="http://www.netbsd.org/">NetBSD</uri>, commonly known to run on a
46huge number of architetures, and FreeBSD which focuses mainly on the x86 55huge number of architectures, and FreeBSD which supports the x86, amd64, ia64,
47platform. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance and security, thus 56sparc64 and alpha platforms. FreeBSD is renowned for its stability, performance
48being used from small to huge companies all over the world. FreeBSD's current 57and security, thus being used from small to huge companies all over the world.
49production release version is 5.4, which is also used as the foundation for the 58</p>
50Gentoo/FreeBSD project. 59
60<p>
61FreeBSD's current production release is version 6.1, although the release of 6.2
62is very near at the time of writing (Release Candidate 2 was released recently).
63Gentoo/FreeBSD development is ongoing on this latter version, while older
64versions are discontinued and no longer supported.
51</p> 65</p>
52 66
53</body> 67</body>
54</section> 68</section>
55<section> 69<section>
56<title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title> 70<title>What is Gentoo/FreeBSD?</title>
57<body> 71<body>
58 72
59<p> 73<p>
60Gentoo/FreeBSD is an effort to provide a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system 74<uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">Gentoo/FreeBSD</uri> is a subproject
61with Gentoo's design sensibilities. The long-term goal of the Gentoo/BSD project 75of the <uri link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/">Gentoo/Alt project</uri>, with the
62is to allow users to choose any combination of *BSD or Linux kernels, *BSD or 76goal of providing a fully-capable FreeBSD operating system featuring design
63GNU libc, and *BSD or GNU userland tools. 77sensibilities taken from Gentoo Linux, such as the init system and the Portage
78package management system.
64</p> 79</p>
65 80
66</body> 81</body>
67</section> 82</section>
68<section> 83<section>
120</chapter> 135</chapter>
121 136
122<chapter> 137<chapter>
123<title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title> 138<title>Installing Gentoo/FreeBSD</title>
124<section> 139<section>
125<title>Installation instructions</title> 140<title>Booting the CD</title>
126<body> 141<body>
127 142
128<p> 143<p>
129After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install 144After this short introduction, it's about time to finally install
130Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so 145Gentoo/FreeBSD. Unfortunately, we currently lack our own installation media, so
131you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first 146you have to choose between two alternative installation methods. The first
132would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive 147would be to use an existing FreeBSD installation to partition your hard drive
133and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. Alternatively, you can also 148and use it as a base for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD. This guide will describe how
134use the excellent <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as 149to use the <uri link="http://www.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE LiveCD</uri> as
135an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD. 150an installation medium for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
136</p> 151</p>
137 152
138<p> 153<note>
139Before you can begin with the installation, you have to setup a hard disk for 154If you are intending to use FreeSBIE for installing Gentoo/FreeBSD, please make
140use with Gentoo/FreeBSD. This can either be done via <c>sysinstall</c> 155sure to use a version based on FreeBSD 6.x, such as FreeSBIE 2.0 (or one of its
141(available from a current FreeBSD installation as well as from within FreeSBIE) 156release candidates). You can download it from <uri
142or by manually using the commands <c>fdisk</c>, <c>disklabel</c> and 157link="http://torrent.freesbie.org/">FreeSBIE's Bittorrent tracker</uri>.
143<c>newfs</c>. If you have never set up a FreeBSD system before, 158</note>
144<c>sysinstall</c> may be the better option for you. If you face difficulties 159
145while partitioning or formatting your hard disks, have a look at the great
146<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/">FreeBSD
147Handbook</uri> or hop onto <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on the Freenode IRC server.
148</p> 160<p>
149 161First, boot the CD in order to begin the installation process. You'll be
162presented with a login screen. The username is <c>freesbie</c>, and there is
163no password. Next, run <c>sudo su</c> to become root, and optionally setup a
164password. If you want to pass time during the installation process, you can run
165<c>startx</c> to enter into an Xfce environment, suitable for web browsing,
166AIM, and other things. Unlike Linux, FreeBSD bases the name of your interface
167on the driver for the interface. For example, the Intel EtherExpress driver
168(fxp) appears as fxp0 (driver fxp, first network card). To see what your
169interface is, use <c>ifconfig</c>:
150<p> 170</p>
151Once you're done setting up your disks, you have to create a mount point for 171
152your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation and mount all the necessary partitions. 172<pre caption="Finding out the network interface name using ifconfig">
173# <i>ifconfig</i>
174fxp0: flags=8843&lt;UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SIMPLEX,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 1500
175 options=8&lt;VLAN_MTU&gt;
176 inet6 fe80::2d0::b7ff:febc:4fe3%fxp0 prefixlen 64 scopeid 0x1
177 inet 192.168.0.106 netmask 0xffffff00 broadcast 192.168.0.255
178 ether 00:d0:b7:bc:4f:e3
179 media: Ethernet autoselect (100baseTX &lt;full-duplex&gt;)
180 status: active
181lo0: flags=8007&lt;LOOPBACK,MULTICAST&gt; mtu 16384
182</pre>
183
153</p> 184<p>
154 185If the original DHCP request during the CD bootup failed, you can use the
155<pre caption="Creating a mount point and mounting partitions"> 186<c>dhclient</c> command to obtain an IP:
156# <i>mkdir /mnt/gfbsd</i>
157<comment>(Replace X with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
158# <i>mount /dev/adXsXa /mnt/gfbsd</i>
159</pre>
160
161<p> 187</p>
188
189<pre caption="Obtaining a DHCP address using dhclient">
190# <i>dhclient fxp0</i>
191DHCPDISCOVER on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67 interval 9
192DHCPOFFER from 192.168.0.1
193DHCPREQUEST on fxp0 to 255.255.255.255 port 67
194DHCPACK from 192.168.0.1
195bound to 192.168.0.106 -- renewal in 302400 seconds
196</pre>
197
198<note>
199The output presented here will differ based on your network.
200</note>
201
202<p>
203Next, create the chroot for your installation:
204</p>
205
206<pre caption="Making the chroot directory">
207# <i>mkdir /mnt/gentoo</i>
208</pre>
209
210<note>
211There is a bug in the <uri
212link="http://dev.gentoo.org/~flameeyes/minimal-freesbie-drizzt.iso.bz2">
213minimal Freesbie CD</uri> that prevents the creation of the
214<path>/mnt/gentoo</path> mount point. To avoid this, use <path>/mnt</path>
215instead of <path>/mnt/gentoo</path> in the following sections.
216</note>
217
218</body>
219</section>
220<section>
221<title>Partitioning the Drive</title>
222<body>
223
224<p>
225Now that we have a mount point, it's time to partition the drive. This is done
226with the <c>sysinstall</c> command:
227</p>
228
229<pre caption="Running the sysinstall command to fdisk the drive">
230# <i>sysinstall diskPartitionEditor diskPartitionWrite</i>
231</pre>
232
233<p>
234We recommend that you use the default layout. Press enter at the dialog, then
235press <b>a</b> followed by <b>q</b> to accept the default layout. The next
236screen will present you with the option of a bootloader. For this option,
237choose "None" as we'll be installing the bootloader later on. Next comes the
238actual partition sizing and mount points.
239</p>
240
241<p>
242This next step also uses <c>sysinstall</c>, but with different arguments:
243</p>
244
245<pre caption="Running sysinstall to setup partition sizing and mount points">
246# <i>sysinstall diskLabelEditor diskLabelCommit</i>
247</pre>
248
249<p>
250Here, we'll refrain from using the automatic layout, and create one giant root
251partition, followed by a swap partition. Hit <b>c</b> to create a new
252partition. A dialog prompts you to enter a size. Go ahead and do so, using
253MB/GB for setting different sizes, or C for cylinders. For root, choose FS as
254the partition type, and set the mount point as <path>/mnt/gentoo</path>. <e>If
255you do not adjust the mount point, it will overwrite the FreeSBIE
256environment!</e> As <path>/boot</path> is not a separate partition, you'll
257need to disable soft-updates, or your system will not boot! To do so, use the
258arrow keys to navigate to your newly created partition, then hit the <b>s</b>
259key, until "Newfs" contains no <b>+S</b>. Now navigate the arrow keys until
260the "Disk" line is highlighted, and hit <b>c</b> again to create a swap
261partition. Generally, we recommend a swap space that is twice the size of your
262RAM. Choose SWAP as the partition type, and don't worry about soft-updates, as
263it does not apply to swap. Now we're finished, so hit <b>q</b> to finish the
264process.
265</p>
266
267<p>
268When choosing a different mountpoint than <path>/</path> for your partition,
269<c>sysinstall</c> will actually create a 'd' slice, which the bootloader won't
270boot from. To fix this, run the following:
271</p>
272
273<pre caption="Fixing the root partition letter">
274# <i>disklabel ad0s1 | sed 's/^ d:/ a:/g' | disklabel -w ad0s1</i>
275</pre>
276
277<p>
278This will finalize the partitioning process, and format the drive in UFS for
279FreeBSD to utilize. This will also mount the drive for you at the mount point
280specified earlier (<path>/mnt/gentoo</path>). You can verify this worked by
281running <c>mount</c>:
282</p>
283
284<pre caption="Verifying the new disk layout was mounted with mount">
285# <i>mount</i>
286...
287/dev/ad0s1a on /mnt/gentoo (ufs, local)
288</pre>
289
290<p>
162Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to fetch and unpack 291Now that you have mounted the target partition, it is time to start on the Gentoo
163a stage3 tarball. 292setup.
293</p>
294
295</body>
296</section>
297<section>
298<title>Gentoo Setup</title>
299<body>
300
301<p>
302First, we need to download a stage3 tarball and unpack it into the chroot.
303Point your browser to
304<uri>http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/</uri>, grab the
305latest snapshot, and unpack it into the mountpoint:
164</p> 306</p>
165 307
166<pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball"> 308<pre caption="Obtaining and unpacking a stage3 tarball">
309# <i>cd /mnt/gentoo/</i>
167<comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment> 310<comment>(Any other Gentoo mirror which includes the experimental/ directory will also work.)</comment>
168# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stage3-x86-fbsd-20050811.tar.bz2</i> 311# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/experimental/x86/freebsd/stages/stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
169# <i>cp stage3-x86-fbsd-20050811.tar.bz2 /mnt/gfbsd/</i>
170# <i>cd /mnt/gfbsd/</i>
171# <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-fbsd-20050811.tar.bz2</i> 312# <i>tar -jxvpf stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
172<comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment> 313<comment>(You can delete the tarball with the following command if you want to.)</comment>
173# <i>rm stage3-x86-fbsd-20050811.tar.bz2</i> 314# <i>rm stage3-x86-freebsd-6.2_rc2.tar.bz2</i>
174<comment>(Create a home directory for root.)</comment>
175# <i>mkdir /mnt/gfbsd/root</i>
176</pre>
177
178<p>
179Before chrooting into the newly-extracted stage, you first must obtain a copy of
180the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay. If you are not a Gentoo developer, you can get it
181from the mirror provided by <mail link="carpaski@gentoo.org">Nick Jones</mail>.
182Theoretically, you could put this overlay in any directory you like, but from
183now on we will just assume that you have downloaded it to
184<path>/usr/local/portage/gentoo-freebsd</path>.
185</p> 315</pre>
186 316
187<pre caption="Getting the Gentoo/FreeBSD portage overlay"> 317<note>
188# <i>cvs -d:pserver:anonymous@zarquon.twobit.net:/var/cvsroot -q -z9 co -R gentoo-projects/bsd/fbsd/</i> 318If you want you can use the transition overlay that contains semi-experimental
189</pre> 319ebuilds with patches not yet in the main Portage tree, but does allow a wider
320range of supported packages, please refer to the <uri
321link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/contribute/index.xml?part=1&amp;chap=3">Gentoo/ALT
322overlay documentation</uri>. Please note that the overlay is not critical and
323you can easily install and use Gentoo/FreeBSD without it.
324</note>
190 325
191<p> 326<p>
192In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path> 327In order for your install to work, you need to mount the <path>/dev</path>
193filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount 328filesystem from the currently running system into the Gentoo/FreeBSD mount
194point before proceeding with the chroot. 329point before proceeding with the chroot.
195</p> 330</p>
196 331
197<pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting"> 332<pre caption="Mounting the /dev filesystem and chrooting">
198# <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gfbsd/dev/</i> 333# <i>mount -t devfs none /mnt/gentoo/dev/</i>
334# <i>cp /etc/resolv.conf /mnt/gentoo/etc</i>
199# <i>chroot /mnt/gfbsd/ /bin/bash</i> 335# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo/ /bin/bash</i>
336# <i>env-update &amp;&amp; source /etc/profile</i>
200</pre> 337</pre>
201 338
202<p> 339<p>
203After you got hold of the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link 340After you obtain the Gentoo/FreeBSD overlay, it's time to link
204<path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and add get your 341<path>/etc/make.profile</path> to the correct profile and get your
205<path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD. 342<path>/etc/make.conf</path> ready for Gentoo/FreeBSD.
206</p> 343</p>
207
208<pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
209# <i>ln -sf /usr/local/portage/gentoo-freebsd/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/5.4/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
210<comment>(FreeBSD's standard editor is ee, which is used to edit /etc/make.conf)</comment>
211# <i>ee /etc/make.conf</i>
212<comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
213CHOST="i686-gentoo-freebsd5.4"
214ACCEPT_KEYWORDS="~x86-fbsd ~x86"
215FEATURES="-sandbox collision-protect"
216PORTDIR_OVERLAY="/usr/local/portage/gentoo-freebsd"
217</pre>
218 344
219<p> 345<p>
220Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending 346Now, you have to obtain a copy of the main Gentoo Portage tree, which depending
221on your connection might take quite a while. 347on your connection might take quite a while.
222</p> 348</p>
223 349
224<pre caption="Obtaining the portage tree"> 350<pre caption="Obtaining the Portage tree">
225# <i>emerge --sync</i> 351# <i>emerge --sync</i>
226</pre> 352<comment>(It's also possible to retrieve the Portage tree in another way:)</comment>
227 353# <i>cd /</i>
228<p> 354# <i>wget http://gentoo.osuosl.org/snapshots/portage-latest.tar.bz2</i>
229After you have synchronised your Portage tree, you only have to take a few last 355# <i>tar -xjf portage-latest.tar.bz2 -C /usr/</i>
230steps before your Gentoo/FreeBSD system is ready to use. 356# <i>emerge --metadata</i>
231</p> 357</pre>
232 358
233<pre caption="Final configuration"> 359<pre caption="Setting up the profile and editing /etc/make.conf">
234<comment>(Prevent crt1.o from getting removed by emerging gcc.)</comment> 360# <i>ln -sf /usr/portage/profiles/default-bsd/fbsd/6.2/x86/ /etc/make.profile</i>
235# <i>chflags schg /usr/lib/crt1.o</i> 361# <i>nano /etc/make.conf</i>
236<comment>(Update the binutils installed by the stage3 tarball.)</comment> 362<comment>(Please make sure you add at least the following entries:)</comment>
237# <i>emerge -u binutils</i> 363CHOST="i486-gentoo-freebsd6.2"
238<comment>(Select the correct gcc.)</comment> 364FEATURES="collision-protect"
239# <i>gcc-config 1</i>
240# <i>source /etc/profile</i>
241<comment>(Start the following script to fix a current bug in the stage3.)</comment>
242# <i>/usr/local/portage/gentoo-freebsd/scripts/domove.sh</i>
243<comment>(Re-emerge python, portage and py-freebsd.)</comment>
244# <i>emerge --nodeps python portage py-freebsd</i>
245</pre> 365</pre>
246 366
247<note> 367<note>
248After gcc-config you will notice a message about GCC-SPECS which you can safely 368The <c>~x86-fbsd</c> keyword does not yet fully cover the same tree as
249ignore. 369<c>~x86</c>, but please <e>do not</e> put <c>~x86</c> in ACCEPT_KEYWORDS. Rather
370use <path>/etc/portage/package.keywords</path> to test packages, and report
371working packages on <uri
372link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/enter_bug.cgi?product=Gentoo%2FAlt">Bugzilla</uri>.
250</note> 373</note>
251 374
252<p> 375<p>
253Congratulations, by the time you have reached this step you should have a 376If you want, you can now rebuild the system's core packages.
254running Gentoo/FreeBSD system! If you want, you can now rebuild the system's
255core packages.
256</p> 377</p>
257 378
258<pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages"> 379<pre caption="Rebuilding the FreeBSD core packages (optional)">
259# <i>emerge -e system</i> 380# <i>emerge -e system</i>
260</pre> 381</pre>
261 382
383</body>
384</section>
385</chapter>
386<chapter>
387<title>Setting up for Booting</title>
388<section>
389<title>Kernel Installation</title>
390<body>
391
392<p>
393If you ran <c>emerge -e system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel were
394installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. If you skipped this step, you can get
395them in the following way:
396</p>
397
398<pre caption="Getting the FreeBSD kernel sources">
399# <i>emerge freebsd-sources</i>
400</pre>
401
402<p>
403Configuring and compiling a custom kernel is quite different from compiling
404Linux, so if you are not familiar with the process we encourage you to have a
405look at <uri
406link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
407chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. For now, you can do an installation of
408the GENERIC kernel, which works on most systems. To begin, enter the source
409directory for the kernel:
410</p>
411
262<impo> 412<impo>
263Please make absolutely sure you add your new Gentoo/FreeBSD installation to the 413Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is
264configuration of your bootloader, otherwise you won't be able to boot your newly 414supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD!
265installed system! If you don't have another bootloader installed, you should use 415</impo>
266<c>boot0</c>, as it is currently the only one supported by FreeBSD. 416
417<pre caption="Entering the kernel source directory">
418# <i>cd /usr/src/sys/</i>
419</pre>
420
421<p>
422Looking over the layout, you'll see various architectures and subdirectories
423for various parts of the kernel. To begin the installation, we head into the
424<path>i386/conf/</path> directory:
425</p>
426
427<pre caption="The kernel configuration directory">
428# <i>cd i386/conf/</i>
429# <i>ls</i>
430.cvsignore GENERIC Makefile PAE
431DEFAULTS GENERIC.hints NOTES SMP
432</pre>
433
434<p>
435The main files to note are <path>GENERIC</path> and <path>GENERIC.hints</path>.
436As it will be needed by the installation of the kernel, go ahead and copy
437<path>GENERIC.hints</path> file to <path>/boot/device.hints</path>:
438</p>
439
440<pre caption="Copying over the GENERIC.hints file">
441# <i>cp GENERIC.hints /boot/device.hints</i>
442</pre>
443
444<p>
445This file is used by the kernel drivers for basic configuration information
446such as IRQ settings. Now it's time to configure the kernel. FreeBSD uses the
447<c>config</c> command to do this. <c>config</c> uses the given file (in this
448instance GENERIC) to copy over the required build files to a
449<path>compile</path> directory in the parent directory. <path>GENERIC</path> is
450similiar to the <path>.config</path> file for the Linux kernel. Run
451<c>config</c> to produce the build directory:
452</p>
453
454<pre caption="Configuring the kernel build">
455# <i>config GENERIC</i>
456Kernel build directory is ../compile/GENERIC
457Don't forget to ''make cleandepend; make depend''
458</pre>
459
460<p>
461<c>config</c> has created a GENERIC build directory for us in the parent
462directory. <c>cd</c> into it, then run the following to do a complete build:
463</p>
464
465<pre caption="Building and installing the kernel">
466# <i>cd ../compile/GENERIC</i>
467# <i>make cleandepend &amp;&amp; make depend &amp;&amp; make &amp;&amp; make install</i>
468</pre>
469
470<p>
471This will give us a complete kernel to work with. Now we'll need to setup the
472bootloader for the kernel to boot. The next chapter will discuss two methods of
473setting up the bootloader: <c>boot0</c> and <c>grub</c>.
474</p>
475
476</body>
477</section>
478<section>
479<title>Setting up the bootloader (boot0)</title>
480<body>
481
482<impo>
483<c>boot0</c> is the FreeBSD bootloader. Previously, it was the only supported
484bootloader until <c>grub</c> was introduced into ports with UFS slice support.
485To install and configure <c>boot0</c>, run the following. Remember to replace
486<c>adXsY</c> with the actual number and slice of your disk.
267</impo> 487</impo>
268 488
269<pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0"> 489<pre caption="Installing and setting up boot0">
270# <i>emerge boot0</i> 490# <i>emerge boot0</i>
271<comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment> 491<comment>(Leave the chroot environment)</comment>
272# <i>exit</i> 492# <i>exit</i>
273<comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment> 493<comment>(Issued from outside the chroot)</comment>
274# <i>fdisk -b -B /mnt/gfbsd/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i> 494# <i>fdisk -B -b /mnt/gentoo/boot/boot0 /dev/adX</i>
275# <i>chroot /mnt/gfbsd /bin/bash</i> 495# <i>chroot /mnt/gentoo /bin/bash</i>
276# <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i> 496# <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
277</pre> 497</pre>
278 498
279<p> 499<p>
280If you need additonal information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult 500If you need additional information on setting up <c>boot0</c>, please consult
501<uri
281<uri link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html"> 502link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/boot.html">chapter
282chapter 12</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. 50312</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook. Now it's time to do some basic system
283</p> 504configuration and settings.
284
285<p> 505</p>
286When you did <c>emerge system</c>, the sources for the FreeBSD kernel got 506
287installed to <path>/usr/src/sys</path>. Configuring and compiling a custom
288kernel is really different from compiling Linux, so if you are not familiar with
289the process we encourage you to have a look at <uri
290link="http://www.freebsd.org/doc/en_US.ISO8859-1/books/handbook/kernelconfig.html">
291chapter 8</uri> of the FreeBSD handbook.
292</p> 507<p>
293 508The next section will look at using the alternative bootloader, <c>grub</c>.
294<p> 509</p>
295Please note that currently only the "Traditional" way of building the kernel is 510
296supported on Gentoo/FreeBSD! Also note that <c>make install</c> will probably 511</body>
297ask you for a <path>/boot/device.hints</path> file. A default version can be 512</section>
298found in the <path>conf</path> subdirectory of the <c>GENERIC</c> configuration 513<section>
299and is called <path>GENERIC.hints</path> 514<title>Setting up the bootloader (grub)</title>
515<body>
516
300</p> 517<p>
518As of grub 0.97-r1, UFS slices are readable to <c>grub</c>. This lets us use
519<c>grub</c> as a bootloader, the prefered method for those coming from a Linux
520background. To begin, emerge <c>grub</c> and setup the label as bootable.
521Remember to replace <c>adXsY</c> with the actual number and slice of your disk.
522</p>
523
524<pre caption="Emerge grub">
525# <i>emerge grub</i>
526# <i>disklabel -B adXsY</i>
527</pre>
528
529<p>
530Now run <c>grub</c> to bring up the command prompt, and set up the partition as
531shown:
532</p>
533
534<pre caption="Setting up grub">
535<comment>(This is done to prevent disk error 29)</comment>
536# <i>sysctl kern.geom.debugflags=16</i>
537# <i>grub</i>
538<comment>(Example using ad0s1d)</comment>
539grub&gt; <i>root (hd0,0,d)</i>
540 Filesystem type is ufs2, partition type 0xa5
541
542grub&gt; <i>setup (hd0)</i>
543 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage1" exists... yes
544 Checking if "/boot/grub/stage2" exists... yes
545 Checking if "/boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5" exists... yes
546 Running "embed /boot/grub/ufs2_stage1_5 (hd0)"... 14 sectors are embedded.
547succeeded
548 Running "install /boot/grub/stage1 (hd0) (hd0)1+14 p (hd0,0,d)/boot/grub/stage
5492 /boot/grub/menu.lst"... succeeded
550Done.
551
552grub&gt; quit
553</pre>
554
555<p>
556When you first boot, you may not receive a grub menu. If so, run this at the
557prompt:
558</p>
559
560<pre caption="Booting the kernel with no menu">
561grub&gt; <i>find /boot/grub/stage1</i>
562<comment>(The output here is what you'll use in the next command)</comment>
563 (hd0,0,d)
564
565grub&gt; <i>kernel (hd0,0,d)/boot/loader</i>
566 [FreeBSD-a.out, loadaddr=0x200000, text=0x1000, data=0x3a000, bss=0x0, entry=0x200000]
567
568grub&gt; <i>boot</i>
569</pre>
570
571<note>
572For more information on configuring grub, please refer to the <uri
573link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=10#doc_chap2">Gentoo
574Linux Handbook</uri>.
575</note>
576
577</body>
578</section>
579<section>
580<title>System configuration</title>
581<body>
582
583<p>
584First, we are going to setup the filesystem mounting points in
585<path>/etc/fstab</path>.
586</p>
587
588<pre caption="Editing the filesystem in /etc/fstab">
589# <i>nano /etc/fstab</i>
590<comment>(This is an example, replace X and Y with the correct numbers for your hard disk.)</comment>
591#Device Mountpoint Fstype Options Dump Pass
592/dev/adXsYb none swap sw 0 0
593/dev/adXsYa / ufs rw 1 1
594/dev/adXsYe /usr/home ufs rw 2 2
595/dev/adXsYd /tmp ufs rw 2 2
596/dev/acdX /cdrom cd9660 ro,noauto 0 0
597</pre>
598
599<p>
600Now would also be a good time to set up your network connection before the final
601reboot. You can find all the information necessary to configure your network in
602the <uri link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=4&amp;chap=1">Gentoo
603Handbook</uri>. To have your network interface activated at boot time, you have
604to add it to the default runlevel:
605</p>
606
607<pre caption="Adding your network adapter to the default runlevel">
608# <i>rc-update add net.fxp0 default</i>
609</pre>
610
611<p>
612Your system's hostname can be changed in <path>/etc/conf.d/hostname</path>.
613</p>
614
615<pre caption="Setting up the machine's hostname">
616# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/hostname</i>
617<comment>(Set the HOSTNAME variable to your hostname)</comment>
618HOSTNAME="tux"
619</pre>
620
621<p>
622You should also configure your domain name, which is done in the
623<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
624</p>
625
626<pre caption="Setting the domainname">
627# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
628<comment>(Set the dns_domain variable to your domain name, and lo to your local
629network interface)</comment>
630dns_domain_lo="homenetwork"
631</pre>
632
633<p>
634If you have a NIS domain, you need to define it in the
635<path>/etc/conf.d/domainname</path> file:
636</p>
637
638<pre caption="Setting the NIS domainname">
639# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/domainname</i>
640<comment>(Set the nis_domain variable to your NIS domain name, and lo to your local network interface)</comment>
641nis_domain_lo="my-nisdomain"
642</pre>
643
644<note>
645For more information on domainnames and networking, please refer to the <uri
646link="/doc/en/handbook/handbook-x86.xml?part=1&amp;chap=8#doc_chap2">Gentoo
647Linux Handbook</uri>, and please read the documentation in
648<path>/etc/conf.d/net.example</path>.
649</note>
650
651<p>
652In case you need to use another keyboard layout for your language, you have to
653set the correct value in <path>/etc/conf.d/syscons</path>. The following example
654uses the Spanish layout, so you'll have to adjust it to your need if you want to
655use another one.
656</p>
657
658<pre caption="Changing your keyboard layout (Optional)">
659# <i>nano /etc/conf.d/syscons</i>
660KEYMAP="spanish.iso.acc"
661<comment>(Possible layouts can be found in /usr/share/syscons/keymaps).</comment>
662</pre>
663
664<p>
665Now would be a good time to set a password for the <c>root</c> user and to add
666another user account for your day-to-day work.
667</p>
668
669<pre caption="Changing the root password and adding a new user">
670# <i>passwd</i>
671# <i>adduser</i>
672Username: <i>fred</i>
673Full Name: <i>Fred Smith</i>
674<comment>(Accepting the default here, just hit Enter.)</comment>
675Uid (Leave empty for default):
676<comment>(OK to accept the default here as well; hit Enter.)</comment>
677Login group [fred]:
678<comment>(Enter your groups here, space separated. They must exist.)</comment>
679Login group is fred. Invite fred into other groups? []: wheel portage
680<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter)</comment>
681Login class [default]:
682<comment>(Somewhat of a personal preference. Make sure the shell exists in /etc/shells)</comment>
683Shell (sh bash tcsh csh esh ksh zsh sash nologin) [sh] <i>bash</i>
684<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter for all these)</comment>
685User password-based authentication [yes]
686Use an empty password (yes/no) [no]:
687Use a random password? (yes/no) [no]:
688Enter password: <i>password goes here</i>
689Enter password again: <i>retype it</i>
690<comment>(OK to accept the default here, hit Enter)</comment>
691Lock out the account after creation? [no]:
692Username : fred
693Password : *****
694Full Name : Fred Smith
695<comment>(This will vary)</comment>
696Uid : 1002
697Class :
698Groups : fred wheel portage
699Home : /home/fred
700Shell : /bin/bash
701Locked : no
702<comment>(Confirm the information is correct)</comment>
703OK? (yes/no): <i>yes</i>
704adduser: INFO: Sucessfully added (fred) to the user database
705Add another user? (yes/no): <i>no</i>
706Goodbye!
707#
708</pre>
709
710<p>
711Congratulations, you have just finished your Gentoo/FreeBSD installation which
712you can start exploring after the final reboot. Have fun!
713</p>
714
715<pre caption="Rebooting the system">
716# <i>exit</i>
717# <i>reboot</i>
718</pre>
301 719
302</body> 720</body>
303</section> 721</section>
304</chapter> 722</chapter>
305 723
314spare time: 732spare time:
315</p> 733</p>
316 734
317<ul> 735<ul>
318 <li> 736 <li>
319 We need GCC and binutils hackers who are able to port FreeBSD's patches to
320 the original versions of these tools provided by our main Portage tree.
321 </li>
322 <li>
323 Working with userland ebuilds: this means working closely with other 737 Working on current ebuilds: this means working closely with ebuild
324 developers in order to have our changes/patches accepted into the main tree. 738 maintainers in order to create patches or modify ebuilds in a way that can
739 be accepted into the main tree.
325 </li> 740 </li>
326 <li> 741 <li>
327 Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security 742 Security: if you are into security, we need you! Although security
328 advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always 743 advisories from the FreeBSD project are tracked and fixed, we can always
329 use help in this area. 744 use help in this area.
339 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If 754 will be discovered, which helps us improving the quality of the port. If
340 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear 755 you are good at describing bugs or problems, we definitely want to hear
341 from you. 756 from you.
342 </li> 757 </li>
343 <li> 758 <li>
344 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, baselayout, 759 Other areas where we need help include: system ebuilds, creation of
345 creation of installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking. 760 installation CDs, documentation, kernel hacking.
346 </li> 761 </li>
347</ul> 762</ul>
348 763
349</body> 764</body>
350</section> 765</section>
351<section>
352<title>Building the system and dealing with issues</title>
353<body>
354 766
355<p>
356Although Linux and FreeBSD both are Unix-like operating systems, there are some
357important differences you have to know about if you want to contribute to our
358development effort:
359</p>
360
361<ul>
362 <li>
363 FreeBSD doesn't use the GNU autotools (autoconf, automake, autoheader).
364 Instead, it uses its own implementation of <c>make</c>, putting
365 configuration options in external files and some .mk files that are
366 included with each Makefile. Although a lot of work has been put into
367 those .mk files, it is not hard to find some installations failing due to
368 a missing <c>${INSTALL}&nbsp;-d</c> somewhere. The easy way to deal with
369 this kind of problem is to read the Makefile to find the accompanying .mk
370 file, then open that file and try to figure out which part failed (this is
371 not really hard once you figure out where in the installation process it
372 stopped).
373 </li>
374 <li>
375 Besides, due to the fact that FreeBSD is a complete operating system, you
376 won't find things like a FreeBSD kernel tarball for download on a web site.
377 The system is meant to be concise, thus whenever you start making an ebuild
378 for something that uses system sources, you are very likely to run into
379 problems when it tries to access non-existent files or directories. This
380 generally occurs when a Makefile points to <path>${.CURDIR}/../sys</path>,
381 or when a Makefile has a source dependency on another system package. There
382 is no default rule on dealing with such issues, but generally one of the
383 following procedures helps:
384 <ul>
385 <li>
386 If the ebuild is trying to access kernel sources, patch it to point to
387 <path>/usr/src/sys</path>
388 </li>
389 <li>
390 If it's trying to access some other source that is provided by the
391 system, it's easier to add it to <c>$SRC_URI</c> and unpack it to
392 <c>$WORKDIR</c>
393 </li>
394 </ul>
395 </li>
396 <li>
397 In order to maintain a concise buildsystem, we have several tarballs which
398 are grouped by their functionality. This means that system libraries can be
399 found in the freebsd-lib tarball, which contains the sources you would
400 usually find in /usr/src/lib. On the other hand, freebsd-usrsbin contains
401 <path>/usr/sbin/*</path> tools and consists of sources from
402 <path>/usr/src/usr.sbin</path>.
403 </li>
404</ul>
405
406</body>
407</section>
408<section> 767<section>
409<title>Known issues</title> 768<title>Known issues</title>
410<body> 769<body>
411 770
412<p> 771<p>
416 775
417<ul> 776<ul>
418 <li> 777 <li>
419 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right 778 Some init scripts depend on the clock service which we don't provide right
420 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report 779 now. You can just remove it from the dependencies of the script and report
421 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">bugzilla</uri>. Please 780 that on our <uri link="http://bugs.gentoo.org/">Bugzilla</uri>. Please
422 remember to use the "Gentoo BSD" product for your submission. 781 remember to use the "Gentoo/Alt" product for your submission.
423 </li>
424 <li> 782 </li>
425 Some ebuilds have hardcoded -ldl flags to link against libdl to get
426 <c>dlopen()</c>. This needs to be fixed.
427 </li>
428 <li>
429 xorg-x11 6.8.99.14 and .15 won't build. Until this has been fixed, you can
430 revert to xorg-x11-6.8.99.13. An ebuild can be obtained via <uri
431 link="http://viewcvs.gentoo.org">ViewCVS</uri>.
432 </li>
433 <li>glib and gnome in general need a lot of fixes to be backported.</li>
434</ul> 783</ul>
435 784
436</body> 785</body>
437</section> 786</section>
438</chapter> 787</chapter>
444 793
445<p> 794<p>
446A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri 795A list of Gentoo/FreeBSD developers can be found at the <uri
447link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact 796link="/proj/en/gentoo-alt/bsd/fbsd/">project page</uri>. Other ways to contact
448Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on 797Gentoo/FreeBSD developers include our IRC Channel <c>#gentoo-bsd</c> on
449Freenode, as well as the mailing list <mail>gentoo-bsd@gentoo.org</mail>. To 798Freenode, as well as the <uri link="/main/en/lists.xml">gentoo-bsd mailing
450subscribe just send an empty email to 799list</uri>.
451<mail>gentoo-bsd-subscribe@gentoo.org</mail> and follow the instructions
452included in the reply.
453</p> 800</p>
454 801
455</body> 802</body>
456</section> 803</section>
457</chapter> 804</chapter>

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