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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 neysx 1.10 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.9 2004/07/03 12:07:11 bennyc Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11     <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
18     </author>
19 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
21     </author>
22 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
24     </author>
25 swift 1.1
26     <abstract>
27 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
28 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
29     </abstract>
30    
31 swift 1.6 <license/>
32    
33 neysx 1.10 <version>0.6</version>
34     <date>July 13, 2004</date>
35 swift 1.1
36     <chapter>
37     <title>Introduction</title>
38     <section>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
43     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
44     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
45     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
46     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
47     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
48     sources we make available to you.
49     </p>
50    
51     </body>
52     </section>
53     </chapter>
54    
55     <chapter>
56     <title>The Choices, Part I</title>
57     <section>
58 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
63     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
64     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
65     </p>
66    
67     </body>
68     </section>
69     <section>
70 swift 1.1 <title>gentoo-sources</title>
71     <body>
72    
73     <p>
74     For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
75 neysx 1.10 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
76     kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
77     areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
78     <uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
79     security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
80     vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
81     (including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
82     <e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
83 swift 1.1 </p>
84    
85     <p>
86 neysx 1.10 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
87     most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
88     group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
89     kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
90     USB and PCI subsystems of the official linux kernel.
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     </body>
94     </section>
95     <section>
96     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
97     <body>
98    
99     <p>
100     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
101 neysx 1.10 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
102     kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
103     (contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
104     Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
105 swift 1.5 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch
106 swift 1.1 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
107     Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
108     Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is
109     what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
110     been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
111     counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
112     support.
113     </p>
114    
115     <p>
116     <c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
117     since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
118     on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
119     then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
120     </p>
121    
122     </body>
123     </section>
124     <section>
125 bennyc 1.9 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
126     <body>
127    
128     <p>
129     The <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c> ebuild includes the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
130     with Gentoo's optimized performance patches.
131     </p>
132    
133     </body>
134     </section>
135     <section>
136 swift 1.5 <title>development-sources</title>
137     <body>
138    
139     <p>
140 bennyc 1.9 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
141 neysx 1.10 opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
142 bennyc 1.9 and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
143     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
144 swift 1.5 </p>
145    
146     </body>
147     </section>
148     <section>
149 swift 1.1 <title>gs-sources</title>
150     <body>
151    
152     <p>
153     For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
154     priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
155     <c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
156     This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
157     latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
158     up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
159     aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
160     but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
161     vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
162     compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
163     </p>
164    
165     <p>
166     This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
167     (required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
168     and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
169     amongst other patches.
170     </p>
171    
172     <p>
173     In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
174     High-Availability systems.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
179     </p>
180    
181     <table>
182     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
183     <tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
184     </table>
185    
186     </body>
187     </section>
188     <section>
189     <title>hardened-sources</title>
190     <body>
191    
192     <p>
193     <c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of
194 swift 1.5 Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together
195     with stability/security-enhancements. Check
196 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
197     </p>
198    
199     <p>
200     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
201     </p>
202    
203     <table>
204     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
205     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
206     </table>
207    
208     </body>
209     </section>
210     <section>
211 bennyc 1.9 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
212     <body>
213    
214     <p>
215     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> use the 2.6 kernel with the patches provided by the
216     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened.
217     </p>
218    
219     </body>
220     </section>
221     <section>
222 swift 1.1 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
223     <body>
224    
225     <p>
226 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
227     <c>ia64-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c>,
228 neysx 1.10 <c>ppc-dev-sources</c>, <c>ppc64-sources</c>,
229 bennyc 1.9 <c>pegasos-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
230     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
231 swift 1.5 specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
232 bennyc 1.9 features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. Kernel
233     sources that contains a "-dev-" means that the sources use the 2.6 kernel
234     instead of the 2.4 kernel.
235 swift 1.1 </p>
236    
237     <p>
238     The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
239     maintained by Compaq.
240     </p>
241    
242     </body>
243     </section>
244     </chapter>
245    
246     <chapter>
247     <title>The Choices, Part II</title>
248     <section>
249     <body>
250    
251     <p>
252     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
253     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
254     <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order.
255     </p>
256    
257     </body>
258     </section>
259     <section>
260     <title>aa-sources</title>
261     <body>
262    
263     <p>
264     First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
265     Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
266     kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
267 neysx 1.10 Memory) patches known to mankind.
268 swift 1.1 </p>
269    
270     <p>
271     It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
272     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
273     the latest TUX Webserver (an in-kernel webserver).
274     </p>
275    
276     <p>
277     If you have Memory Management troubles with other kernels,
278     <c>aa-sources</c> can be your solution. If you want to optimize Linux's
279     Memory Management for your system, <c>aa-sources</c> is <e>definitely</e>
280     what you need.
281     </p>
282    
283     <p>
284     Visit
285 neysx 1.10 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
286 swift 1.1 for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
287     </p>
288    
289     </body>
290     </section>
291     <section>
292     <title>ck-sources</title>
293     <body>
294    
295     <p>
296     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
297     <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
298     throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
299     applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
300     combination of features for desktop use. See
301     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
302     patches.
303     </p>
304    
305     </body>
306     </section>
307     <section>
308 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
309 swift 1.1 <body>
310    
311     <p>
312 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
313 neysx 1.10 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
314 swift 1.5 security-related patches, support for PaX.
315 swift 1.1 </p>
316    
317     </body>
318     </section>
319     <section>
320     <title>mm-sources</title>
321     <body>
322    
323     <p>
324 neysx 1.10 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
325     Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
326     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
327     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
328     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
329     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
330 swift 1.1 </p>
331    
332     <p>
333     If you really want to live on the edge and you think
334     <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
335     <c>mm-sources</c>.
336     </p>
337    
338     </body>
339     </section>
340     <section>
341     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
342     <body>
343    
344     <p>
345     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
346     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
347     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
348     </p>
349    
350     </body>
351     </section>
352     <section>
353 swift 1.5 <title>pac-sources</title>
354 swift 1.1 <body>
355    
356     <p>
357 swift 1.5 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
358     (bero) patches.
359 swift 1.1 </p>
360    
361     </body>
362     </section>
363     <section>
364 swift 1.5 <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
365 swift 1.1 <body>
366    
367     <p>
368 swift 1.5 This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
369     Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
370     </p>
371    
372     <p>
373     More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
374 swift 1.1 </p>
375    
376     </body>
377     </section>
378     <section>
379     <title>selinux-sources</title>
380     <body>
381    
382     <p>
383     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
384     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
385     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
386     </p>
387    
388     </body>
389     </section>
390     <section>
391     <title>usermode-sources</title>
392     <body>
393    
394     <p>
395     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
396     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
397     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
398     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
399     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
400     </p>
401    
402     <p>
403     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
404     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     </body>
408     </section>
409     <section>
410     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
411     <body>
412    
413     <p>
414     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
415     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
416     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
417     information.
418     </p>
419    
420     </body>
421     </section>
422     <section>
423     <title>wolk-sources</title>
424     <body>
425    
426     <p>
427     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
428     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
429     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
430     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
431     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
432     combination of the patches.
433     </p>
434    
435     <p>
436     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
437     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
438     </p>
439    
440     </body>
441     </section>
442     </chapter>
443     </guide>

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