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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 cam 1.12 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.11 2004/08/01 14:25:52 cam Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11     <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
18     </author>
19 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
21     </author>
22 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
24     </author>
25 swift 1.1
26     <abstract>
27 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
28 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
29     </abstract>
30    
31 swift 1.6 <license/>
32    
33 cam 1.11 <version>0.7</version>
34 cam 1.12 <date>August 1, 2004</date>
35 swift 1.1
36     <chapter>
37     <title>Introduction</title>
38     <section>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
43     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
44     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
45     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
46     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
47     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
48     sources we make available to you.
49     </p>
50    
51     </body>
52     </section>
53     </chapter>
54    
55     <chapter>
56     <title>The Choices, Part I</title>
57     <section>
58 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
63     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
64     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
65     </p>
66    
67 cam 1.11 <p>
68     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
69     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
70     </p>
71    
72 bennyc 1.9 </body>
73     </section>
74     <section>
75 swift 1.1 <title>gentoo-sources</title>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79     For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
80 neysx 1.10 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
81     kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
82     areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
83     <uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
84     security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
85     vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
86     (including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
87     <e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
88 swift 1.1 </p>
89    
90     <p>
91 neysx 1.10 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
92     most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
93     group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
94     kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
95     USB and PCI subsystems of the official linux kernel.
96 swift 1.1 </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
106 neysx 1.10 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
107     kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
108     (contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
109     Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
110 swift 1.5 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch
111 swift 1.1 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
112     Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
113     Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is
114     what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
115     been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
116     counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
117     support.
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     <c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
122     since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
123     on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
124     then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </section>
129     <section>
130 bennyc 1.9 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134     The <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c> ebuild includes the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
135     with Gentoo's optimized performance patches.
136     </p>
137    
138     </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141 swift 1.5 <title>development-sources</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145 bennyc 1.9 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
146 neysx 1.10 opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
147 bennyc 1.9 and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
148     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
149 swift 1.5 </p>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     <section>
154 swift 1.1 <title>gs-sources</title>
155     <body>
156    
157     <p>
158     For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
159     priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
160     <c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
161     This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
162     latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
163     up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
164     aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
165     but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
166     vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
167     compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
172     (required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
173     and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
174     amongst other patches.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
179     High-Availability systems.
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
184     </p>
185    
186     <table>
187     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
188     <tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
189     </table>
190    
191     </body>
192     </section>
193     <section>
194     <title>hardened-sources</title>
195     <body>
196    
197     <p>
198     <c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of
199 swift 1.5 Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together
200     with stability/security-enhancements. Check
201 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
202     </p>
203    
204     <p>
205     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
206     </p>
207    
208     <table>
209     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
210     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
211     </table>
212    
213     </body>
214     </section>
215     <section>
216 bennyc 1.9 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
217     <body>
218    
219     <p>
220     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> use the 2.6 kernel with the patches provided by the
221     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened.
222     </p>
223    
224     </body>
225     </section>
226     <section>
227 swift 1.1 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
232     <c>ia64-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c>,
233 neysx 1.10 <c>ppc-dev-sources</c>, <c>ppc64-sources</c>,
234 bennyc 1.9 <c>pegasos-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
235     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
236 swift 1.5 specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
237 bennyc 1.9 features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. Kernel
238     sources that contains a "-dev-" means that the sources use the 2.6 kernel
239     instead of the 2.4 kernel.
240 swift 1.1 </p>
241    
242     <p>
243     The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
244     maintained by Compaq.
245     </p>
246    
247     </body>
248     </section>
249     </chapter>
250    
251     <chapter>
252     <title>The Choices, Part II</title>
253     <section>
254     <body>
255    
256     <p>
257     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
258     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
259     <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order.
260     </p>
261    
262     </body>
263     </section>
264     <section>
265     <title>aa-sources</title>
266     <body>
267    
268     <p>
269     First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
270     Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
271     kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
272 neysx 1.10 Memory) patches known to mankind.
273 swift 1.1 </p>
274    
275     <p>
276     It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
277     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
278     the latest TUX Webserver (an in-kernel webserver).
279     </p>
280    
281     <p>
282     If you have Memory Management troubles with other kernels,
283     <c>aa-sources</c> can be your solution. If you want to optimize Linux's
284     Memory Management for your system, <c>aa-sources</c> is <e>definitely</e>
285     what you need.
286     </p>
287    
288     <p>
289     Visit
290 neysx 1.10 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
291 swift 1.1 for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
292     </p>
293    
294     </body>
295     </section>
296     <section>
297     <title>ck-sources</title>
298     <body>
299    
300     <p>
301     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
302     <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
303     throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
304     applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
305     combination of features for desktop use. See
306     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
307     patches.
308     </p>
309    
310     </body>
311     </section>
312     <section>
313 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
314 swift 1.1 <body>
315    
316     <p>
317 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
318 neysx 1.10 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
319 swift 1.5 security-related patches, support for PaX.
320 swift 1.1 </p>
321    
322     </body>
323     </section>
324     <section>
325     <title>mm-sources</title>
326     <body>
327    
328     <p>
329 neysx 1.10 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
330     Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
331     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
332     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
333     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
334     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
335 swift 1.1 </p>
336    
337     <p>
338     If you really want to live on the edge and you think
339     <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
340     <c>mm-sources</c>.
341     </p>
342    
343     </body>
344     </section>
345     <section>
346     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
347     <body>
348    
349     <p>
350     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
351     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
352     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
353     </p>
354    
355     </body>
356     </section>
357     <section>
358 swift 1.5 <title>pac-sources</title>
359 swift 1.1 <body>
360    
361     <p>
362 swift 1.5 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
363     (bero) patches.
364 swift 1.1 </p>
365    
366     </body>
367     </section>
368     <section>
369 swift 1.5 <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
370 swift 1.1 <body>
371    
372     <p>
373 swift 1.5 This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
374     Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
375     </p>
376    
377     <p>
378     More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
379 swift 1.1 </p>
380    
381     </body>
382     </section>
383     <section>
384     <title>selinux-sources</title>
385     <body>
386    
387     <p>
388     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
389     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
390     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
391     </p>
392    
393     </body>
394     </section>
395     <section>
396     <title>usermode-sources</title>
397     <body>
398    
399     <p>
400     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
401     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
402     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
403     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
404     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
405     </p>
406    
407     <p>
408     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
409     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
410     </p>
411    
412     </body>
413     </section>
414     <section>
415     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
416     <body>
417    
418     <p>
419     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
420     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
421     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
422     information.
423     </p>
424    
425     </body>
426     </section>
427     <section>
428     <title>wolk-sources</title>
429     <body>
430    
431     <p>
432     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
433     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
434     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
435     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
436     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
437     combination of the patches.
438     </p>
439    
440     <p>
441     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
442     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
443     </p>
444    
445     </body>
446     </section>
447     </chapter>
448     </guide>

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