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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 plasmaroo 1.13 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.12 2004/08/01 15:01:17 cam Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8     <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9     </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11     <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12     </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14     <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
15     </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
18     </author>
19 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
21     </author>
22 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
24     </author>
25 swift 1.1
26     <abstract>
27 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
28 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
29     </abstract>
30    
31 swift 1.6 <license/>
32    
33 plasmaroo 1.13 <version>0.7.1</version>
34     <date>August 2, 2004</date>
35 swift 1.1
36     <chapter>
37     <title>Introduction</title>
38     <section>
39     <body>
40    
41     <p>
42     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
43     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
44     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
45     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
46     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
47     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
48     sources we make available to you.
49     </p>
50    
51     </body>
52     </section>
53     </chapter>
54    
55     <chapter>
56     <title>The Choices, Part I</title>
57     <section>
58 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
59     <body>
60    
61     <p>
62     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
63     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
64     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
65     </p>
66    
67 cam 1.11 <p>
68     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
69     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
70     </p>
71    
72 bennyc 1.9 </body>
73     </section>
74     <section>
75 swift 1.1 <title>gentoo-sources</title>
76     <body>
77    
78     <p>
79     For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
80 neysx 1.10 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
81     kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
82     areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
83     <uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
84     security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
85     vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
86     (including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
87     <e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
88 swift 1.1 </p>
89    
90     <p>
91 neysx 1.10 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
92     most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
93     group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
94     kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
95     USB and PCI subsystems of the official linux kernel.
96 swift 1.1 </p>
97    
98     </body>
99     </section>
100     <section>
101     <title>vanilla-sources</title>
102     <body>
103    
104     <p>
105     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
106 neysx 1.10 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
107     kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
108     (contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
109     Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
110 swift 1.5 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable 2.4 kernel branch
111 swift 1.1 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
112     Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
113     Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This is
114     what all the other patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
115     been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
116     counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
117     support.
118     </p>
119    
120     <p>
121     <c>vanilla-sources</c> are probably the most stable sources available
122     since they are the most tested and all possible kernel sources are based
123     on them. If you don't need any of the extras that the other kernels supply
124     then the <c>vanilla-sources</c> are your thing.
125     </p>
126    
127     </body>
128     </section>
129     <section>
130 bennyc 1.9 <title>gentoo-dev-sources</title>
131     <body>
132    
133     <p>
134     The <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c> ebuild includes the most up-to-date 2.6 kernel
135     with Gentoo's optimized performance patches.
136     </p>
137    
138     </body>
139     </section>
140     <section>
141 swift 1.5 <title>development-sources</title>
142     <body>
143    
144     <p>
145 bennyc 1.9 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
146 neysx 1.10 opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
147 bennyc 1.9 and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
148     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
149 swift 1.5 </p>
150    
151     </body>
152     </section>
153     <section>
154 swift 1.1 <title>gs-sources</title>
155     <body>
156    
157     <p>
158     For users to whom desktop interactive performance comes as a secondary
159     priority to reliability and hardware support, we have the
160     <c>gs-sources</c>. GS stands for Gentoo Stable (creative, aren't we?).
161     This patch set is tuned and tested to provide the best support for the
162     latest hardware and ensures that your mission critical servers will be
163     up when you need them. This kernel doesn't have some of the most
164     aggressive performance tuning patches from the <c>gentoo-sources</c>,
165     but rest assured, the great performance that you know and love from the
166     vanilla kernels are alive and well. Where possible and without
167     compromising stability we add server related performance patches.
168     </p>
169    
170     <p>
171     This kernel provides support for the latest ACPI subsystem, EVMS, ECC
172     (required for HA Linux systems), Encrypted Loopback devices, NTFS, Win4Lin
173     and XFS. It also contains updates for IDE, ext3 and several network cards
174     amongst other patches.
175     </p>
176    
177     <p>
178     In other words, these sources are perfect for servers and
179     High-Availability systems.
180     </p>
181    
182     <p>
183     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
184     </p>
185    
186     <table>
187     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
188     <tr><ti>crypt</ti><ti>Apply cryptographic patches</ti></tr>
189     </table>
190    
191     </body>
192     </section>
193     <section>
194     <title>hardened-sources</title>
195     <body>
196    
197     <p>
198     <c>hardened-sources</c> provides patches for the various subprojects of
199 swift 1.5 Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and GRSecurity), together
200     with stability/security-enhancements. Check
201 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
202     </p>
203    
204     <p>
205     The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
206     </p>
207    
208     <table>
209     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
210     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
211     </table>
212    
213     </body>
214     </section>
215     <section>
216 bennyc 1.9 <title>hardened-dev-sources</title>
217     <body>
218    
219     <p>
220     <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> use the 2.6 kernel with the patches provided by the
221     various subprojects of Gentoo Hardened.
222     </p>
223    
224     </body>
225     </section>
226     <section>
227 swift 1.1 <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
228     <body>
229    
230     <p>
231 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
232     <c>ia64-sources</c>, <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>ppc-sources</c>,
233     <c>pegasos-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
234     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest, patched to run best on
235 swift 1.5 specific architectures. They also contain some of the patches for hardware and
236 bennyc 1.9 features support from the other patch sets mentioned above and below. Kernel
237     sources that contains a "-dev-" means that the sources use the 2.6 kernel
238     instead of the 2.4 kernel.
239 swift 1.1 </p>
240    
241     <p>
242     The <c>compaq-sources</c> provide RedHat's kernel sources for Alpha,
243     maintained by Compaq.
244     </p>
245    
246     </body>
247     </section>
248     </chapter>
249    
250     <chapter>
251     <title>The Choices, Part II</title>
252     <section>
253     <body>
254    
255     <p>
256     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
257     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
258     <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order.
259     </p>
260    
261     </body>
262     </section>
263     <section>
264     <title>aa-sources</title>
265     <body>
266    
267     <p>
268     First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
269     Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
270     kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
271 neysx 1.10 Memory) patches known to mankind.
272 swift 1.1 </p>
273    
274     <p>
275     It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
276     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
277     the latest TUX Webserver (an in-kernel webserver).
278     </p>
279    
280     <p>
281     If you have Memory Management troubles with other kernels,
282     <c>aa-sources</c> can be your solution. If you want to optimize Linux's
283     Memory Management for your system, <c>aa-sources</c> is <e>definitely</e>
284     what you need.
285     </p>
286    
287     <p>
288     Visit
289 neysx 1.10 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
290 swift 1.1 for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
291     </p>
292    
293     </body>
294     </section>
295     <section>
296     <title>ck-sources</title>
297     <body>
298    
299     <p>
300     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
301     <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
302     throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
303     applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
304     combination of features for desktop use. See
305     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
306     patches.
307     </p>
308    
309     </body>
310     </section>
311     <section>
312 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
313 swift 1.1 <body>
314    
315     <p>
316 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
317 neysx 1.10 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
318 swift 1.5 security-related patches, support for PaX.
319 swift 1.1 </p>
320    
321     </body>
322     </section>
323     <section>
324     <title>mm-sources</title>
325     <body>
326    
327     <p>
328 neysx 1.10 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
329     Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
330     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
331     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
332     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
333     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
334 swift 1.1 </p>
335    
336     <p>
337     If you really want to live on the edge and you think
338     <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
339     <c>mm-sources</c>.
340     </p>
341    
342     </body>
343     </section>
344     <section>
345     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
350     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
351     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
352     </p>
353    
354     </body>
355     </section>
356     <section>
357 swift 1.5 <title>pac-sources</title>
358 swift 1.1 <body>
359    
360     <p>
361 swift 1.5 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
362     (bero) patches.
363 swift 1.1 </p>
364    
365     </body>
366     </section>
367     <section>
368 swift 1.5 <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
369 swift 1.1 <body>
370    
371     <p>
372 swift 1.5 This kernel source contains the Linux Kernel source for the version of the
373     Redhat Linux Kernel modified by the Planet CCRMA (custom audio upgrade) project.
374     </p>
375    
376     <p>
377     More information can be found at <uri>http://ccrma-www.stanford.edu/</uri>.
378 swift 1.1 </p>
379    
380     </body>
381     </section>
382     <section>
383     <title>selinux-sources</title>
384     <body>
385    
386     <p>
387     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
388     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
389     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
390     </p>
391    
392     </body>
393     </section>
394     <section>
395     <title>usermode-sources</title>
396     <body>
397    
398     <p>
399     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
400     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
401     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
402     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
403     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
404     </p>
405    
406     <p>
407     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
408     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
409     </p>
410    
411     </body>
412     </section>
413     <section>
414     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
415     <body>
416    
417     <p>
418     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
419     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
420     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
421     information.
422     </p>
423    
424     </body>
425     </section>
426     <section>
427     <title>wolk-sources</title>
428     <body>
429    
430     <p>
431     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
432     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
433     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
434     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
435     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
436     combination of the patches.
437     </p>
438    
439     <p>
440     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
441     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
442     </p>
443    
444     </body>
445     </section>
446     </chapter>
447     </guide>

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