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1 swift 1.1 <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
2 swift 1.20 <!-- $Header: /var/cvsroot/gentoo/xml/htdocs/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml,v 1.19 2004/11/06 15:39:58 swift Exp $ -->
3 swift 1.1
4     <!DOCTYPE guide SYSTEM "/dtd/guide.dtd">
5     <guide link="/doc/en/gentoo-kernel.xml">
6     <title>Gentoo Linux Kernel Guide</title>
7     <author title="Author">
8 swift 1.17 <mail link="swift@gentoo.org">Sven Vermeulen</mail>
9 swift 1.1 </author>
10     <author title="Contributor">
11 swift 1.17 <mail link="lostlogic@gentoo.org">Brandon Low</mail>
12 swift 1.1 </author>
13     <author title="Editor">
14 swift 1.17 <mail link="dsd@gentoo.org">Daniel Drake</mail>
15 swift 1.1 </author>
16     <author title="Editor">
17 swift 1.17 <mail link="carl@gentoo.org">Carl Anderson</mail>
18     </author>
19     <author title="Editor">
20     <mail link="peesh@gentoo.org">Jorge Paulo</mail>
21 swift 1.1 </author>
22 bennyc 1.9 <author title="Editor">
23     <mail link="bennyc@gentoo.org">Benny Chuang</mail>
24     </author>
25 neysx 1.10 <author title="Editor">
26     <mail link="g.guidi@sns.it">Gregorio Guidi</mail>
27     </author>
28 swift 1.1
29     <abstract>
30 bennyc 1.9 This document gives you an overview on all kernel sources that Gentoo
31 swift 1.1 provides through Portage.
32     </abstract>
33    
34 swift 1.6 <license/>
35    
36 swift 1.20 <version>0.7.6</version>
37     <date>November 14, 2004</date>
38 swift 1.1
39     <chapter>
40     <title>Introduction</title>
41     <section>
42     <body>
43    
44     <p>
45     As with everything else in Gentoo Linux, the philosophy of the Gentoo
46     Kernel team is to give you, the user, as much freedom of choice as
47     possible. If you take a look at the output of <c>emerge -s sources</c>
48     you see a large variety of kernels to choose from. In this document,
49     I will attempt to give you a brief rundown of the goals of each of the
50     patch sets, which we at Gentoo design, and also explain the other kernel
51     sources we make available to you.
52     </p>
53    
54     </body>
55     </section>
56     </chapter>
57    
58     <chapter>
59 swift 1.17 <title>Supported kernel packages</title>
60 swift 1.1 <section>
61 bennyc 1.9 <title>genkernel</title>
62     <body>
63    
64     <p>
65     <c>Genkernel</c> is a kernel toolset that can be used to autodetect your
66     hardware and configure your kernel automatically. This is usually recommended
67     for users who do not feel comfortable about compiling a kernel manually.
68     </p>
69    
70 cam 1.11 <p>
71     For more information, please read the <uri link="/doc/en/genkernel.xml">Gentoo
72     Linux Genkernel Guide</uri>.
73     </p>
74    
75 bennyc 1.9 </body>
76     </section>
77     <section>
78 swift 1.17 <title>General purpose: gentoo-sources and gentoo-dev-sources</title>
79 swift 1.1 <body>
80    
81     <p>
82     For most users, the recommended kernel sources are the
83 neysx 1.10 <c>gentoo-sources</c>. The <c>gentoo-sources</c> package contains various
84     kernel patches, designed to improve user experience with respect to different
85     areas. Speaking of <e>security</e>: you can find support for
86     <uri link="http://www.grsecurity.net">grsecurity</uri>, together with other
87     security enhancements and, naturally, all the recent fixes for known
88     vulnerabilities. The included patches deal also with <e>performance</e>
89     (including tweaks for desktop usage and support for recent hardware) and
90     <e>features</e> (supermount, bootsplash, the latest NTFS drivers, and more).
91 swift 1.1 </p>
92    
93     <p>
94 swift 1.17 For users looking to take advantage of the new features, stability, and
95     performance of Linux 2.6, we provide <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>. This package
96     consists of a minimal patchset providing fixes and enhancement for stability
97     and security. This kernel will become our recommended default at some point
98     in the near future.
99     </p>
100    
101     <p>
102 neysx 1.10 The <c>gentoo-sources</c> (together with <c>gentoo-dev-sources</c>) absorb
103     most of the resources of the Gentoo kernel team. They are brought to you by a
104     group of talented developers, which can count on the expertise of popular
105     kernel hacker Greg Kroah-Hartman, maintainer of udev and responsible for the
106 swift 1.19 USB and PCI subsystems of the official Linux kernel.
107 swift 1.1 </p>
108    
109     </body>
110     </section>
111     <section>
112 swift 1.17 <title>Plain kernels: vanilla-sources and development-sources</title>
113 swift 1.1 <body>
114    
115     <p>
116     The next kernel sources that many of you will probably be familiar with
117 neysx 1.10 as Linux users are the <c>vanilla-sources</c>. These are the official 2.4
118     kernel sources released on <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>, maintained
119     (contrary to popular belief) not by Linus Torvalds himself, but by Marcelo
120     Tosatti. Linus is the leader of active kernel development, but as he is
121 swift 1.19 only one man, he passes off the maintenance of the stable kernel branch
122 swift 1.1 to someone he can trust to handle it once it has stabilized. Thus, Alan
123     Cox became the maintainer of the Linux-2.2 kernel series and Marcelo
124 swift 1.19 Tosatti became the maintainer of the Linux-2.4 kernel series. This last kernel
125     is what all the patch sets in the 2.4 series are based on. Marcelo has
126 swift 1.1 been doing an outstanding job with its maintenance and it can be
127     counted on for stability and up-to-date (if not bleeding edge) hardware
128     support.
129     </p>
130    
131     <p>
132 bennyc 1.9 The <c>development-sources</c> ebuild provides the stable 2.6 Linux kernel. As
133 neysx 1.10 opposed to what the name might suggest, this kernel source is completely stable
134 bennyc 1.9 and production-ready. This is the official 2.6 kernel released on
135     <uri>http://www.kernel.org/</uri>.
136 swift 1.5 </p>
137    
138     </body>
139     </section>
140 swift 1.17
141 swift 1.5 <section>
142 swift 1.17 <title>For servers: hardened-sources and hardened-dev-sources</title>
143 swift 1.1 <body>
144    
145     <p>
146 swift 1.17 <c>hardened-sources</c> is based on Linux 2.4 and is targetted at our users
147     running Gentoo on server systems. It provides patches for the various
148     subprojects of Gentoo Hardened (such as support for LSM/SELinux and
149     GRSecurity), together with stability/security-enhancements. Check
150 swift 1.1 <uri>http://www.gentoo.org/proj/en/hardened/</uri> for more information.
151     </p>
152    
153     <p>
154 swift 1.17 <c>hardened-dev-sources</c> serves the same purpose as <c>hardened-sources</c>
155     but is based on the newer Linux 2.6 kernel base.
156     </p>
157    
158     <p>
159 swift 1.1 The following USE-flags can be set to select optional patches:
160     </p>
161    
162     <table>
163     <tr><th>Flags</th><th>Description</th></tr>
164     <tr><ti>selinux</ti><ti>Substitute grSecurity with SELinux support</ti></tr>
165     </table>
166    
167     </body>
168     </section>
169     <section>
170     <title>Architecture dependent kernels</title>
171     <body>
172    
173     <p>
174 bennyc 1.9 <c>alpha-sources</c>, <c>hppa-sources</c>, <c>hppa-dev-sources</c>,
175 swift 1.18 <c>mips-sources</c>, <c>pegasos-dev-sources</c>, <c>sparc-sources</c>
176     and <c>xbox-sources</c> are, as their names suggest,
177 swift 1.19 patched to run best on specific architectures. They also contain some of
178 swift 1.17 the patches for hardware and features support from the other patch sets
179 swift 1.19 mentioned above and below. A "-dev-" in the name of a kernel package means that
180 swift 1.17 the sources use the 2.6 kernel instead of the 2.4 kernel.
181 swift 1.1 </p>
182    
183     </body>
184     </section>
185     </chapter>
186    
187     <chapter>
188 swift 1.17 <title>Unsupported kernel packages</title>
189 swift 1.1 <section>
190     <body>
191    
192     <p>
193     Now I'm going to try to briefly describe some of the other
194     <path>sys-kernel/*-sources</path> which you saw scroll by when you ran
195 swift 1.17 <c>emerge -s sources</c>. Lets take them in alphabetical order. These
196     kernels are provided as a courtesy only and the various patch sets are not
197 swift 1.19 supported by the Gentoo team.
198 swift 1.1 </p>
199    
200     </body>
201     </section>
202     <section>
203     <title>aa-sources</title>
204     <body>
205    
206     <p>
207     First we have <c>aa-sources</c>. This is Andrea Arcangeli's patch set.
208     Andrea is known as an amazing coder by many other kernel hackers. His
209     kernel patch set has some of the most aggressively tuned VM (Virtual
210 neysx 1.10 Memory) patches known to mankind.
211 swift 1.1 </p>
212    
213     <p>
214     It also provides User Mode Linux support (check out our
215     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">UML Guide</uri> for more information) and
216     the latest TUX Webserver (an in-kernel webserver).
217     </p>
218    
219     <p>
220     If you have Memory Management troubles with other kernels,
221     <c>aa-sources</c> can be your solution. If you want to optimize Linux's
222     Memory Management for your system, <c>aa-sources</c> is <e>definitely</e>
223     what you need.
224     </p>
225    
226     <p>
227     Visit
228 neysx 1.10 <uri>http://www.kernel.org/pub/linux/kernel/people/andrea/kernels/v2.6</uri>
229 swift 1.1 for more information about all the patches in these kernel sources.
230     </p>
231    
232 swift 1.17 <p>
233     Andrea has not been maintaining his patchsets recently, and as a result of
234 swift 1.19 this, this kernel is a bit out of date and may be removed from Portage soon.
235 swift 1.17 </p>
236    
237 swift 1.1 </body>
238     </section>
239     <section>
240     <title>ck-sources</title>
241     <body>
242    
243     <p>
244     <c>ck-sources</c> is Con Kolivas's kernel patch set. This kernel is
245     <e>HIGHLY</e> tuned for desktop performance at the expense of
246     throughput and some of the scheduler's ability to prioritize
247     applications. Con Kolivas benchmarks kernels to find the best
248     combination of features for desktop use. See
249     <uri>http://kernel.kolivas.org</uri> for more information on Con and his
250     patches.
251     </p>
252    
253     </body>
254     </section>
255     <section>
256 swift 1.5 <title>grsec-sources</title>
257 swift 1.1 <body>
258    
259     <p>
260 swift 1.5 The <c>grsec-sources</c> kernel source is patched with the latest GRSecurity
261 neysx 1.10 updates (GRSecurity version 2.0 and up) which includes, amongst other
262 swift 1.5 security-related patches, support for PaX.
263 swift 1.1 </p>
264    
265     </body>
266     </section>
267     <section>
268     <title>mm-sources</title>
269     <body>
270    
271     <p>
272 neysx 1.10 The <c>mm-sources</c> are based on the <c>development-sources</c> and contain
273     Andrew Morton's patch set. They include the experimental and bleeding-edge
274     features that are going to be included in the official kernel (or that are
275     going to be rejected because they set your box on fire). They are known to be
276     always moving at a fast pace and can change radically from one week to the
277     other; kernel hackers use them as a testing ground for new stuff.
278 swift 1.1 </p>
279    
280     <p>
281 swift 1.17 If you really want to live on the edge and you think
282 swift 1.1 <c>development-sources</c> are for wussies, then try out
283 swift 1.17 <c>mm-sources</c>. Be warned that this kernel is highly experimental and
284     doesn't always work as expected.
285 swift 1.1 </p>
286    
287     </body>
288     </section>
289     <section>
290     <title>openmosix-sources</title>
291     <body>
292    
293     <p>
294     The <c>openmosix-sources</c> are patched to support the openMosix system
295     (like MOSIX but Open Source). For more information see
296     <uri>http://www.openmosix.org</uri>.
297     </p>
298    
299     </body>
300     </section>
301     <section>
302 swift 1.5 <title>pac-sources</title>
303 swift 1.1 <body>
304    
305     <p>
306 swift 1.5 The <c>pac-sources</c> kernel tree is patched with Bernhard Rosenkraenzer's
307 swift 1.17 (bero) patches. Be warned that this kernel is quite out of date and may be
308 swift 1.19 removed from Portage soon.
309 swift 1.1 </p>
310    
311     </body>
312     </section>
313     <section>
314     <title>selinux-sources</title>
315     <body>
316    
317     <p>
318     <c>selinux-sources</c> from <uri>http://www.nsa.gov/selinux</uri> are
319     patches for the security conscious to support the LSM (Linux Security
320     Modules) and the Flask Security Architecture.
321     </p>
322    
323     </body>
324     </section>
325     <section>
326     <title>usermode-sources</title>
327     <body>
328    
329     <p>
330     <c>usermode-sources</c> are the User Mode Linux kernel patches. This
331     kernel is designed to allow Linux to run within Linux to run within Linux
332     to ... User Mode Linux is intended for testing and virtual server support.
333     For more information about this amazing tribute to the stability and
334     scalability of Linux, see <uri>http://user-mode-linux.sourceforge.net</uri>.
335     </p>
336    
337     <p>
338     For more information on UML and Gentoo, read the
339     <uri link="/doc/en/uml.xml">Gentoo UML Guide</uri>.
340     </p>
341    
342     </body>
343     </section>
344     <section>
345     <title>win4lin-sources</title>
346     <body>
347    
348     <p>
349     <c>win4lin-sources</c> are patched to support the userland win4lin tools
350     that allow Linux users to run many Microsoft Windows (TM) applications
351     at almost native speeds. See <uri>http://www.netraverse.com/</uri> for more
352     information.
353     </p>
354    
355     </body>
356     </section>
357     <section>
358     <title>wolk-sources</title>
359     <body>
360    
361     <p>
362     <c>wolk-sources</c> contains the <e>Working Overloaded Linux Kernel</e> from
363     <uri>http://sourceforge.net/projects/wolk</uri>. This kernel contains
364     many patches of a wide variety, all combined into the kernel with
365     extreme care. This allows you to configure nearly every one into and out
366     of the kernel at compile time -- so the kernel will work with nearly any
367     combination of the patches.
368     </p>
369    
370     <p>
371     If you need a certain combination of patches that you cannot find in other
372     kernel sources, WOLK is definitely worth a shot.
373     </p>
374    
375     </body>
376     </section>
377     </chapter>
378 swift 1.17
379     <chapter>
380     <title>Previously provided kernel packages</title>
381     <section>
382 swift 1.20 <title>aa-sources</title>
383     <body>
384    
385     <p>
386     <c>aa-sources</c> was a heavily modified kernel with all kinds of patches.
387     The upstream maintainer has stopped releasing kernel patchsets, this package
388     was removed as it went out of date.
389     </p>
390    
391     </body>
392     </section>
393     <section>
394     <title>alpha-sources</title>
395     <body>
396    
397     <p>
398     <c>alpha-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with patches applied to improve hardware
399     compatibility for the Alpha architecture. These patches have been developed
400     and included in the mainline kernel. Alpha users can now run any recent kernel
401     with no need for extra patches.
402     </p>
403    
404     </body>
405     </section>
406     <section>
407 swift 1.17 <title>gaming-sources</title>
408     <body>
409    
410     <p>
411     <c>gaming-sources</c> was a 2.4 kernel with a broken scheduler patch applied
412 swift 1.19 which enhanced performance in games. It was removed from Portage because some
413 swift 1.17 problems accumulated, and the scheduler work being done in Linux 2.6 at the
414     same time offered the same or even better performance.
415     </p>
416    
417     </body>
418     </section>
419     <section>
420     <title>gs-sources</title>
421     <body>
422    
423     <p>
424     <c>gs-sources</c>, once advertised as our server-style patch set, became a
425     testing ground for prerelease 2.4 kernels. Unfortunately, the maintainer
426     became inactive and this kernel detoriated with new system updates and
427     became out of date.
428     </p>
429    
430     </body>
431     </section>
432 swift 1.18 <section>
433     <title>ia64-sources</title>
434     <body>
435    
436     <p>
437 swift 1.20 <c>ia64-sources</c> was a 2.6 kernel with some fixes applied to provide
438     improved hardware compatibility for the IA-64 architecture. These fixes are
439     now included in the mainline 2.6 kernel tree, so this package was no longer
440     useful.
441     </p>
442    
443     </body>
444     </section>
445     <section>
446     <title>pac-sources</title>
447     <body>
448    
449     <p>
450     <c>pac-sources</c>, a kernel designed to enhance multimedia performance, has
451     been superseded by development work in the 2.6 development branch.
452     </p>
453    
454     </body>
455     </section>
456     <section>
457     <title>planet-ccrma-sources</title>
458     <body>
459    
460     <p>
461     <c>planet-ccrma-sources</c>, a kernel designed to enhance audio performance,
462     has been superseded by development work in the 2.6 development branch.
463     </p>
464    
465     </body>
466     </section>
467     <section>
468     <title>selinux-sources</title>
469     <body>
470    
471     <p>
472     <c>selinux-sources</c>, a 2.4 kernel including lots of security enhancements,
473     has been obseleted by security development in the 2.6 tree.
474 swift 1.18 </p>
475    
476     </body>
477     </section>
478 swift 1.17 </chapter>
479    
480 swift 1.1 </guide>

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